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The aim of this study is to examine the perceptions of consumers on Islamic banking and finance in Pakistan. Islamic finance is an emerging phenomenon, and its survival…
The aim of this study is to examine the perceptions of consumers on Islamic banking and finance in Pakistan. Islamic finance is an emerging phenomenon, and its survival depends on the availability, affordability and awareness. This paper attempts to fill the gap in the literature by exploring the perceptions of consumers and bankers in an attempt to gain insights so that the availability of products and awareness can be increased.
The study uses a regression model by using perception as a dependent variable and awareness, knowledge and religious motivation as independent variables. Primary data is collected using 150 questionnaires distributed amongst finance students in several universities and employees of Islamic banks in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province of Pakistan.
The findings reveal that overall consumers’ perception is positive about Islamic banking and finance in Pakistan. Statistical analysis shows that awareness, knowledge and religiosity level have a positive influence on the perception of consumers about Islamic financing products and services in Pakistan. To improve the awareness and understanding, Islamic banks could make better marketing strategies and could increase their presence by mosque visits and conferences. Cooperation between the industry and scholars could help in providing more innovative products to the consumers.
There has been a limited amount of work carried out on the perceptions of consumers about Islamic banking in Pakistan. The present study represents the start of a larger context for examining Islamic banking practices in Pakistan. The findings of the study can be used as a reference in future research projects in the areas of perceptions and awareness.
Little research has been conducted to study this problem from the perspectives of consumers and Islamic banking employees. Most of the research associated with Islamic banks fails to pay attention to these stakeholder groups in one study.
This paper aims to analyze the effect of cerium addition on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of Tin-Silver-Copper (SAC) alloy. The mechanical properties…
This paper aims to analyze the effect of cerium addition on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of Tin-Silver-Copper (SAC) alloy. The mechanical properties and refined microstructure of a solder joint are vital for the reliability and performance of electronics. SAC305 alloys are potential choices to use as lead-free solders because of their good properties as compared to the conventional Tin-Lead solder alloys. However, the presence of bulk intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in the microstructure of SAC305 alloys affects their overall performance. Therefore, addition of cerium restrains the growth of IMCs and refines the microstructure, hence improving the mechanical performance.
SAC305 alloy is doped with various composition of xCerium (x = 0.15, 0.35, 0.55, 0.75, 0.95) % by weight. Pure elements in powdered form were melted in the presence of argon with periodic stirring to ensure a uniform melted alloy. The molten alloy is then poured into a pre-heated die to obtain a tensile specimen. The yield strength and universal tensile strength were determined using a fixed strain rate of 10 mm per minute or 0.1667 mm s^(−1). The IMCs are identified using X-ray diffraction, whereas the elemental phase composition and microstructure evolution are, respectively, examined by using electron dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
Improvement in the microstructure and mechanical properties is observed with 0.15% of cerium additions. The tensile test also showed that SAC305-0.15% cerium exhibits more stress-bearing capacity than other compositions. The 0.75% cerium doped alloy indicated some improvement because of a decrease in fracture dislocation regions, but microstructure refinement and the arrangement of IMCs are not those of 0.15% Ce. Different phases of Cu_6 Sn_5, Ag_3 Sn and CeSn_3 and ß-Sn are identified. Therefore, the addition of cerium in lower concentrations and presence of Ce-Sn IMCs improved the grain boundary structure and resulted refinement in the microstructure of the alloy, as well as an enhancement in the mechanical properties.
Characterization of microstructure and evaluation of mechanical properties are carried out to investigate the different composition of SAC305-xCerium alloys. Finally, an optimized cerium composition is selected for solder joint in electronics.