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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2019

Adam Hehr and Mark Norfolk

This paper aims to comprehensively review ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) process history, technology advancements, application areas and research areas. UAM, a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to comprehensively review ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) process history, technology advancements, application areas and research areas. UAM, a hybrid 3D metal printing technology, uses ultrasonic energy to produce metallurgical bonds between layers of metal foils near room temperature. No melting occurs in the process – it is a solid-state 3D metal printing technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is formatted chronologically to help readers better distinguish advancements and changes in the UAM process through the years. Contributions and advancements are summarized by academic or research institution following this chronological format.

Findings

This paper summarizes key physics of the process, characterization methods, mechanical properties, past and active research areas, process limitations and application areas.

Originality/value

This paper reviews the UAM process for the first time.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

David Schick, Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, Daniel R. Foster, Marcelo Dapino, Matt Short and John C. Lippold

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a rapid prototyping process through which multiple thin layers of material are sequentially ultrasonically welded together to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a rapid prototyping process through which multiple thin layers of material are sequentially ultrasonically welded together to form a finished part. While previous research into the peak temperatures experienced during UAM have been documented, a thorough examination of the heating and cooling curves has not been conducted to date.

Design/methodology/approach

For this study, UAM weldments made from aluminum 3003‐H18 tapes with embedded Type‐K thermocouples were examined. Finite element modeling was used to compare the theoretical thermal diffusion rates during heating to the observed heating patterns. A model was used to calculate the effective thermal diffusivity of the UAM build on cooling based on the observed cooling curves and curve fitting analysis.

Findings

Embedded thermocouple data revealed simultaneous temperature increases throughout all interfaces of the UAM build directly beneath the sonotrode. Modeling of the heating curves revealed a delay of at least 0.5 seconds should have existed if heating of lower interfaces was a result of thermal diffusion alone. As this is not the case, it was concluded that ultrasonic energy is absorbed and converted to heat at every interface beneath the sonotrode. The calculated thermal diffusivity of the build on cooling was less than 1 percent of the reported values of bulk aluminum, suggesting that voids and oxides along interfaces throughout the build may be inhibiting thermal diffusion through thermal contact resistance across the interface.

Originality/value

This work systematically analyzed the thermal profiles that develop during the UAM process. The simultaneous heating phenomenon presented here has not been documented by other research programs. The findings presented here will enable future researchers to develop more accurate models of the UAM process, potentially leading to improved UAM bond quality.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 August 2021

Gowtham Venkatraman, Adam Hehr, Leon M. Headings and Marcelo J. Dapino

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state joining technology used for three-dimensional printing of metal foilstock. The electrical power input to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state joining technology used for three-dimensional printing of metal foilstock. The electrical power input to the ultrasonic welder is a key driver of part quality in UAM, but under the same process parameters, it can vary widely for different build geometries and material combinations because of mechanical compliance in the system. This study aims to model the relationship between UAM weld power and system compliance considering the workpiece (geometry and materials) and the fixture on which the build is fabricated.

Design/methodology/approach

Linear elastic finite element modeling and experimental modal analysis are used to characterize the system’s mechanical compliance, and linear system dynamics theory is used to understand the relationship between weld power and compliance. In-situ measurements of the weld power are presented for various build stiffnesses to compare model predictions with experiments.

Findings

Weld power in UAM is found to be largely determined by the mechanical compliance of the build and insensitive to foil material strength.

Originality/value

This is the first research paper to develop a predictive model relating UAM weld power and the mechanical compliance of the build over a range of foil combinations. This model is used to develop a tool to determine the process settings required to achieve a consistent weld power in builds with different stiffnesses.

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Ji Li, Tom Monaghan, Robert Kay, Ross James Friel and Russell Harris

This paper aims to explore the potential of ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to incorporate the direct printing of electrical materials and arrangements (conductors…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the potential of ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to incorporate the direct printing of electrical materials and arrangements (conductors and insulators) at the interlaminar interface of parts during manufacture to allow the integration of functional and optimal electrical circuitries inside dense metallic objects without detrimental effect on the overall mechanical integrity. This holds promise to release transformative device functionality and applications of smart metallic devices and products.

Design/methodology/approach

To ensure the proper electrical insulation between the printed conductors and metal matrices, an insulation layer with sufficient thickness is required to accommodate the rough interlaminar surface which is inherent to the UAM process. This in turn increases the total thickness of printed circuitries and thereby adversely affects the integrity of the UAM part. A specific solution is proposed to optimise the rough interlaminar surface through deforming the UAM substrates via sonotrode rolling or UAM processing.

Findings

The surface roughness (Sa) could be reduced from 4.5 to 4.1 µm by sonotrode rolling and from 4.5 to 0.8 µm by ultrasonic deformation. Peel testing demonstrated that sonotrode-rolled substrates could maintain their mechanical strength, while the performance of UAM-deformed substrates degraded under same welding conditions ( approximately 12 per cent reduction compared with undeformed substrates). This was attributed to the work hardening of deformation process which was identified via dual-beam focussed ion beam–scanning electron microscope investigation.

Originality/value

The sonotrode rolling was identified as a viable methodology in allowing printed electrical circuitries in UAM. It enabled a decrease in the thickness of printed electrical circuitries by ca. 25 per cent.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Adam Hehr, Paul J. Wolcott and Marcelo J. Dapino

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a fabrication technology based on ultrasonic metal welding. As a solid-state process, temperatures during UAM fabrication reach…

Abstract

Purpose

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a fabrication technology based on ultrasonic metal welding. As a solid-state process, temperatures during UAM fabrication reach a fraction of the melting temperatures of the participating metals. UAM parts can become mechanically compliant during fabrication, which negatively influences the ability of the welder to produce consistent welds. This study aims to evaluate the effect of weld power on weld quality throughout a UAM build, and develop a new power-compensation approach to achieve homogeneous weld quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes mechanical push-pin testing as a metric of delamination resistance, as well as focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the interface microstructure of UAM parts.

Findings

Weld power was found to negatively affect mechanical properties and microstructure. By keeping weld power constant, the delamination energy of UAM coupons was increased 22 per cent along with a consistent grain structure. As a result, to ensure constant properties throughout UAM component construction, maintaining weld power is preferable over the conventional strategy based on amplitude control.

Research limitations/implications

Further characterization could be conducted to evaluate the power control strategy on other material combinations, though this study strongly suggests that the proposed approach should work regardless of the metals being welded.

Practical implications

The proposed power control strategy can be implemented by monitoring and controlling the electrical power supplied to the welder. As such, no additional hardware is required, making the approach both useful and straightforward to implement.

Originality/value

This research paper is the first to recognize and address the negative effect of build compliance on weld power input in UAM. This is also the first paper to correlate measured weld power with the microstructure and mechanical properties of UAM parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Jingbin Hao, Xin Chen, Hao Liu and Shengping Ye

To remanufacture a disused part, a hybrid process needs to be taken in part production. Therefore, a reasonable machining route is necessary to be developed for the hybrid…

Abstract

Purpose

To remanufacture a disused part, a hybrid process needs to be taken in part production. Therefore, a reasonable machining route is necessary to be developed for the hybrid process. This paper aims to develop a novel process planning algorithm for additive and subtractive manufacturing (ASM) system to achieve this purpose.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a skeleton of the model is generated by using thinning algorithm. Then, the skeleton tree is constructed based on topological structure and shape feature. Further, a feature matching algorithm is developed for recognizing the different features between the initial model and the final model based on the skeleton tree. Finally, a reasonable hybrid machining route of the ASM system is generated in consideration of the machining method of each different sub-feature.

Findings

This paper proposes a hybrid process planning algorithm for the ASM system. Further, it generates new process planning insights on the hybrid process service provider market.

Practical implications

The proposed process planning algorithm enables engineers to obtain a proper hybrid machining route before product fabrication. And thereby, it extends the machining capability of the hybrid process to manufacture some parts accurately and efficiently.

Originality/value

This study addresses one gap in the hybrid process literature. It develops the first hybrid process planning strategy for remanufacturing of disused parts based on skeleton tree matching, which generates a more proper hybrid machining route than the currently available hybrid strategy studies. Also, this study provides technical support for the ASM system to repair damaged parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2007

G.D. Janaki Ram, C. Robinson, Y. Yang and B.E. Stucker

Ultrasonic consolidation (UC) is a novel additive manufacturing process developed for fabrication of metallic parts from foils. While the process has been well…

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Abstract

Purpose

Ultrasonic consolidation (UC) is a novel additive manufacturing process developed for fabrication of metallic parts from foils. While the process has been well demonstrated for part fabrication in Al alloy 3003, some of the potential strengths of the process have not been fully explored. One of them is its suitability for fabrication of parts in multi‐materials. This work aims to examine this aspect.

Design/methodology/approach

Multi‐material UC experiments were conducted using Al alloy 3003 foils as the bulk part material together with a number of engineering materials (foils of Al‐Cu alloy 2024, Ni‐base alloy Inconel 600® AISI 347 stainless steel, and others). Deposit microstructures were studied to evaluate bonding between various materials.

Findings

It was found that most of the materials investigated can be successfully bonded to alloy Al 3003 and vice versa. SiC fibers and stainless wire meshes were successfully embedded in an Al 3003 matrix. The results suggest that the UC process is quite suitable for fabrication of multi‐material structures, including fiber‐reinforced metal matrix composites.

Originality/value

This work systematically examines the multi‐material capability of the UC process. The findings of this work lay a strong foundation for a wider and more efficient commercial utilization of the process.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 August 2022

Jayaprakash Sharma Panchagnula and Suryakumar Simhambhatla

Amongst various additive manufacturing (AM) techniques for realizing the complex metallic objects, weld-deposition (arc)-based directed energy AM technique is attaining…

Abstract

Purpose

Amongst various additive manufacturing (AM) techniques for realizing the complex metallic objects, weld-deposition (arc)-based directed energy AM technique is attaining more focus over commercially available powder bed fusion techniques. This is because of the capability of high deposition rates, high power and material utilization, simpler setup and less initial investment of arc-based AM. Nevertheless, realization of sudden overhanging features through arc-based weld-deposition techniques is still a challenging task because of the necessity of support structures. This paper aims to describe a novel methodology for producing complex metallic objects with sudden overhangs without using supports.

Design/methodology/approach

The realization of complex metallic objects with sudden overhangs (without using supports) is possible by reorienting the workpiece and/or deposition head at every instance using higher order kinematics (5-axis setup) to make sure the overhanging feature is in line to the deposition direction.

Findings

In the absence of universally applicable support mechanism, deposition of overhanging features remains one of the main challenges in AM. A separate support structure is often necessary for depositing the overhanging features. Small overhang features are usually possible by a little overextension from the previous layer. Nevertheless, deposition of large gradually varying overhangs and sudden overhangs with complex features without support structures is a challenging task in any AM process. This demands higher order kinematics which calls for inclined and/or orthogonal slicing and area filling.

Originality/value

The unique aspect of this paper is the identification of sudden overhang feature from a tessellated computer-aided design (.stl) file and generates an orthogonal tool path for deposition for sudden overhangs. An in-house MATLAB routine has been developed and presented for performing the same. This methodology helps in realization of sudden overhangs without use of supports. To validate proposed technique, various illustrative case studies have been taken up for deposition.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Raelvim Gonzalez and Brent Stucker

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of different parameter configurations of oscillation amplitude, welding speed, and normal force at 478 K (400°F) on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of different parameter configurations of oscillation amplitude, welding speed, and normal force at 478 K (400°F) on the linear welding density of stainless steel 316L annealed utrasonically consolidated (UC) samples, and present an optimum parameter set based upon maximum linear welding density criteria.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes the application of analysis of variance to different experimental designs in order to compare factor effects and obtain the optimum linear welding density parameter set for the ultrasonic consolidation of stainless steel 316L annealed samples.

Findings

This work includes experimental results at assessing the explained variation due to factor effects on linear welding density, the statistical significance of these factors, and the combination of UC process parameters that maximizes linear welding density in stainless steel 316L annealed samples.

Research limitations/implications

The paper presents results obtained with a specific UC system, a standard sample configuration, and relatively constant frictional conditions.

Originality/value

This work is a first step towards a reproducible UC of stainless steel 316L foils with high linear welding density.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Yun Bai and Christopher B Williams

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of binder jetting to fabricate high-purity copper parts. The ability to fabricate geometrically complex copper shapes would…

2992

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of binder jetting to fabricate high-purity copper parts. The ability to fabricate geometrically complex copper shapes would have implications on the design and manufacture of components for thermal management systems and structural electronics.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore the feasibility of processing copper via binder jetting, the authors followed an established material development process that encompasses powder selection and tuning process parameters in printing and thermal cycles. Specifically, the authors varied powder size and sintering cycles to explore their effects on densification.

Findings

Three differently sized copper powders were successfully printed, followed by sintering in a reducing atmosphere. It was found that a 15-μm-diameter powder with a sintering cycle featuring a 1,080°C maximum temperature provides the most dense (85 per cent) and pure (97 per cent) final copper parts of the parameters tested.

Research limitations/implications

Due to powder-based additive manufacturing techniques’ inherent limitations in powder packing and particle size diameter, there are difficulties in creating fully dense copper parts. To improve thermal, electrical and mechanical properties, future work will focus on improving densification.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates the first use of binder jetting to fabricate copper artifacts. The resulting copper parts are denser than what is typically found in binder jetting of metal powders (without infiltration); significant opportunity remains to further optimize the manufacturing process by introducing novel techniques to tailor the material properties for thermal/electrical applications.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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