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Cities are “built thought”; they represent the mostmaterialised form of the relation between society and environment. Thus,in a special sense, cities worldwide have become…
Cities are “built thought”; they represent the most materialised form of the relation between society and environment. Thus, in a special sense, cities worldwide have become a symbol of the environmental crisis, of the transformation of valuable natural resources into waste and pollutants. Cities, however, have also always been places of innovations. Solutions emanate from people whose living conditions are threatened. Many signs indicate that the time is ripe for basic changes in production and consumption processes, in people′s attitudes and behaviour, and also in the built‐up structures of cities. This article, therefore, introduces the concept of “ecological urban restructuring”. The concept was theoretically developed and empirically tested in an international comparative research project. The three main elements of the concept are: (1) eight points of orientation as general guidelines; (2) fields of action and building blocks as methodological aids for integrated strategies; (3) concept of ecological neighbourhood development as a concept for action on the urban neighbourhood level. Finally, an overview is given on recent initiatives by international organisations on the topic of urban ecology.
World wide, the gross national product (GNP) has been and still is the basic accounting concept and the dominant societal goal and performance indicator. As the concept is…
World wide, the gross national product (GNP) has been and still is the basic accounting concept and the dominant societal goal and performance indicator. As the concept is full of flaws and deficiencies, national and international committees are searching for alternatives. A view in retrospect may help in this search. The purpose of this paper is to present such a view in retrospect, by looking at the early attempts made to get out of the impasse and to break the deadlock of outmoded concepts.
This paper deliberately looks at the early attempts made to get out of the impasse of the flawed GNP concept, and to improve and extend traditional accounting. Several of these early attempts are presented in some detail.
Both the “Growth and Distribution Index” and the “Net National Welfare Index” were useful conceptual innovations. Over time, however, they got lost or were forgotten. The time has come to reactivate such initiatives or to start and implement similar ones.
The traditional GNP concept neglects significant distributive and environmental effects of economic growth. The time has come to either supplement or replace the concept – to go beyond GNP.
The conceptual deficiencies of the traditional GNP concept are on the agenda again. A view in retrospect – as presented in this paper – could help, so that in due course a breakthrough becomes possible in the search for new development indicators.
The inherent linkages between climate and the habitability of the Earth are increasingly well recognized, and a convention could help to ensure that conserving the environment and developing the economy in the future must go hand in hand. Due to growing environmental concern, the United Nations General Assembly has set into motion an international negotiating process for a framework convention on climate change. One of the specific tasks in these negotiations is how to share the duties in reducing climate relevant gases, particularly carbon dioxide, between the industrial and the developing countries. The respective proposals could be among the most far‐reaching ever for socio‐economic development, indeed for global security and survival itself. While the negotiations will be about climate and protection of the atmosphere, they could lead to fundamental changes in energy, forestry, transport and technology policies, and to future development pathways with low greenhouse gas emissions. Addresses some of these aspects of a climate convention and a respective CO⊂2‐agreement, the Houston Protocol.
The purpose of this paper is to present some basic conceptual aspects and empiric examples of urban mitigation and adaptation to climate change, of greening urban…
The purpose of this paper is to present some basic conceptual aspects and empiric examples of urban mitigation and adaptation to climate change, of greening urban development, as there is strong need for further research and education on these issues.
Starting with a review of the 4th IPCC report and the Stern Review, a strategy is developed on how to make cities main actors in fighting climate change. First examples of successful urban greening are presented.
Cities are main drivers of climate change, and they are driven by climate change. Therefore, there is a strong need for “greening” urban development, i.e. for both mitigation and adaptation activities.
Mitigation requires the reduction (more or less drastically) of urban energy and material flows. Adaptation requires restructure (more or less radically) of the established urban stocks.
Until recently, cities and urban areas have not been in the focus of climate change research and climate policy. The paper shows the need for change of both theory and practice.