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Book part

Bruce Muirhead

The chapter will document the Canadian reaction, as reflected in the demand of New Zealand, that Canada fundamentally alters its dairy supply management system in order to…

Abstract

The chapter will document the Canadian reaction, as reflected in the demand of New Zealand, that Canada fundamentally alters its dairy supply management system in order to participate in the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations. The Canadian government has resolutely refused to do so, supported wholeheartedly by dairy farmers throughout the country. This is in part because of the effect such an action would have on rural spaces and the debilitating result it would have on Canadian dairy production. As well, the chapter will address the issue of the cost of dairy products in New Zealand as compared with Canada. Part of this analysis will focus on the role of supermarkets in determining the price structure of milk in both Canada and New Zealand. Finally, the chapter will offer an examination of the New Zealand system as represented by Fonterra and the Canadian system as epitomized by dairy supply management.

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Article

Richard Nehring, Richard Barton and Charles Hallahan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the rise in crossbred cow numbers in the US dairy herd. Methods used look at well managed herds to see if crossbreeding provides a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the rise in crossbred cow numbers in the US dairy herd. Methods used look at well managed herds to see if crossbreeding provides a management tool that producers are using to maintain profitability.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors estimate a Translog stochastic production frontier (SPF) for US dairy farms to examine the competitiveness of crossbred and non-crossbred dairy herds by system and region.

Findings

The bottom-line conclusion is that WM or highly efficient crossbred herds solidly compete on a financial basis with larger WM Western Holstein herds, the most technically efficient managed group, based on the SPF results in the authors’ study. The study finds that net return on assets for crossbred herds are not different from Western Holstein herds and that there is no significant difference in amount of milk per cow produced annually.

Research limitations/implications

Because of a need to unmask the advantages of crossbreeding as a technology it was necessary to separate WM herds from poorly managed herds. That was done by frontier estimates that robustly ranked operation and corrected for endogeneity, tested for selectivity bias, and incorporated the NASS survey design.

Originality/value

For the first time, the 2010 Dairy Cost and Returns questionnaire version of the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (Dairy CAR) design allows researchers to expand survey observations to represent the vast majority of the US dairy farm population and to sort dairy farms into crossbred/non-crossbred herds.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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Article

Jakub Olipra

Professionals from the dairy sector commonly believe that the results of Global Dairy Trade (GDT) auctions are a good leading indicator for prices of dairy commodities…

Abstract

Purpose

Professionals from the dairy sector commonly believe that the results of Global Dairy Trade (GDT) auctions are a good leading indicator for prices of dairy commodities. The purpose of this paper is to test that hypothesis for prices of key dairy commodities (skimmed milk powder (SMP), whole milk powder (WMP), butter and cheddar) in the main dairy markets (the US, EU and Oceania).

Design/methodology/approach

The leading properties of the GDT auctions are investigated using vector error correction models (VECM).

Findings

The results show that prices at GDT auctions may be treated as a benchmark for global prices of WMP and SMP as they affect prices in all considered markets. However, in case of EU market the relationship with the GDT is bidirectional. GDT prices reveal some leading properties also in cheddar market, however price relationships in this market are much more complex. In case of butter market, GDT can be regarded as a benchmark only for Oceania.

Practical implications

The results of this paper improve knowledge on price transmission in dairy markets, show the role of the GDT auctions in the price setting process, and thus may help professionals from the dairy sector to formulate their price expectations more precisely.

Originality/value

Despite the fact that many professionals from the dairy sector treat GDT auctions as a benchmark, so far their leading properties have not been scientifically proven.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Joleen C. Hadrich, Christopher A. Wolf and Kamina K. Johnson

The structural change of the dairy industry has been a long-term process with fewer, larger dairy herds in all regions. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether…

Abstract

Purpose

The structural change of the dairy industry has been a long-term process with fewer, larger dairy herds in all regions. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether this structural change is leading to less income and wealth equality across dairy farms and how these factors differ across the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Income and wealth inequality of US dairy farms was estimated by Gini coefficients using data from the 2000 and 2010 ARMS dairy costs and returns data. A population-level quantile regression was estimated at decile increments to determine the factors that affect net farm income (NFI) and net worth (NETW) and if they changed across the time periods.

Findings

Adjusted-Gini coefficients were estimated and indicated that income inequality was greater than wealth inequality across US dairy farms. Results of the quantile regressions confirm regional differences exist with dairy farms in Mountain regions consistently having lower NFI and NETW relative to farms in the Lake States region when factors such as herd size were equal. Life cycle effects were not observed for NFI, but present within NETW estimates across the ten years.

Originality/value

This analysis estimates industry-specific-adjusted Gini coefficients to determine if income and wealth inequality exist.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 77 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article

Mary Hendrickson, William D. Heffernan, Philip H. Howard and Judith B. Heffernan

Discusses the restructuring of the food production, processing and retailing sectors in the USA. Describes different methods of vertical and horizontal integration that…

Abstract

Discusses the restructuring of the food production, processing and retailing sectors in the USA. Describes different methods of vertical and horizontal integration that have occurred. Goes on to discuss the consolidation of business in retailing in particular. Refers to the relationships that are being formed between the supermarket chains, for example Wal‐Mart and Kroger, and dominant food‐chain clusters. Considers whether or not smaller retail chains and wholesalers should feel threatened by this consolidation. Takes the dairy sector in the USA as a case study in the restructuring of the retailing and processing sectors.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 103 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Case study

Mukund R. Dixit

This case describes the challenges faced by Amul in organising dairy farmers into a co-operative and creating continuous opportunities for value addition. Participants in…

Abstract

This case describes the challenges faced by Amul in organising dairy farmers into a co-operative and creating continuous opportunities for value addition. Participants in the case discussion are required to review the developments in the organisation and recommend a strategy for the future.

Details

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

Keywords

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Expert briefing

Trump has attacked Canada’s system of supply management and imposed a 20% tariff on Canadian softwood lumber in his first major trade action. This signals the opening…

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Article

Dingqiang Sun, Jikun Huang and Jun Yang

– The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine how China's food safety standards affect agricultural trade in the case of dairy products.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine how China's food safety standards affect agricultural trade in the case of dairy products.

Design/methodology/approach

A gravity model is applied to quantitatively address the impacts of changing food safety standards in China in the case of its dairy imports. The paper considers the trade impacts of not only a specific hazard substance but also overall strictness of safety standards.

Findings

The paper shows that changes in food safety standards of dairy products have no effect on China's dairy imports. The finding is not particularly surprising considering special characteristics of China's food safety standards. Given the fact that China's safety standards are relatively lower than that in its major exporters, the trade-impeding effect may not be substantial.

Research limitations/implications

First, this study is unable to estimate the trade-enhancing and trade-impending effects separately. Second, the study does not account for a potential endogeneity issue associated with food safety standards.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the debate on how food safety standards affect trade by demonstrating that safety standards in developing countries like China can affect international trade differently from that in developed countries. Although results are specific to China's dairy imports, the explanations are applicable to food safety standards in other developing countries.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article

Oday Kamal, David Brown, Prabhu Sivabalan and Heidi Sundin

– The purpose of this research is to understand how accounting information mobilises stakeholder salience at an industry level.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to understand how accounting information mobilises stakeholder salience at an industry level.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study method using an explanation building approach was applied to gather information surrounding dairy industry stakeholder uses of accounting information to communicate their salience, in the historical context, leading to, and the events surrounding the milk price “war” in Australia. The Mitchell et al. (1997) stakeholder salience framework was used to advance our understanding of the different ways accounting can be mobilized by stakeholders with different types of salience attributes, at an industry level.

Findings

This empirical analysis produces two insights into the relation between accounting and stakeholder salience. First, there is evidence as to how accounting information impacted on stakeholder salience at an industry level by demonstrating how accounting information (in)directly communicated and justified the increase of a stakeholder’s level of salience. Second, the Mitchell et al. (1997) model is extended by attributing levels of importance to each stakeholder attribute. It was found that, in this setting, power was the most salient attribute of the three, usurping legitimacy and urgency, leading to the outcomes observed.

Research limitations/implications

This paper acknowledged the usual method limitations related to this style of qualitative research, including investigator bias and lack of statistical generalization. In addition, a second set of limitations critiques the paper’s operating framework. While the Mitchell et al. (1997) stakeholder salience model proved to be a suitable choice for this research, it is limited in the way in which stakeholder attributes are presented and used to identify stakeholders. In addition, further light may be provided on the distinctions between the different magnitudes of power, legitimacy and urgency between stakeholders after suggesting that they are not equally weighted.

Practical implications

The milk price “war” remains a high-profile discussion amongst the general public. This research contributes to a better understanding of how different players (stakeholders) have their salience claims mobilized through accounting information. Practitioners in the dairy industry might reflect on the findings to enhance their legitimacy pursuits in future negotiations with their counter-parties, and better deploy accounting to achieve the same.

Social implications

The findings speak more broadly to notions of social equity in stakeholder relations, for the production and distribution of a product that is ubiquitously used in society (dairy – milk). The findings from this study therefore have potential to assist policymakers better understand the strategies adopted by stakeholders to impose their influence and defend their claims in a public forum, using accounting information.

Originality/value

The authors contend that the article provides evidence at an industry level, that is lacking in extant management accounting research (Collier, 2000). To this extent, an original contribution is claimed. The paper is also valuable to management accounting and management researchers studying stakeholder salience, and is one of the first to investigate this issue at an industry level, as well as express how accounting mobilises this salience.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

Keywords

Abstract

Subject area

Operations and Logistics.

Study level/applicability

Senior undergraduate students and postgraduate students specialising in agricultural economics/agribusiness/supply chain management and can also be used for executive training for supply chain managers and corporate social responsibility (CSR) managers of food companies.

Case overview

This case presents an industry leading company – Nestlé’s sustainable initiative in its dairy supply chain in China. The case begins with the background of China’s dairy industry, followed by an introduction of the case company. The case then moves on to the comparison of Nestlé’s fresh milk supply chain operation before and after 2008 and different approaches to help the dairy suppliers’ transformation. The focus is on Nestlé’s innovative industry collaboration platform, the Dairy Farming Institute.

Expected learning outcomes

This case allows students to explore the following theoretical frameworks: sustainable supply chain management; supply chain leadership, supply chain learning and supply chain structure. By analysing this case, students should be able to gain an understanding of how multinational corporations (MNCs) play a supply chain leadership role in supply chain learning of sustainable supply chain initiatives.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 9: Operations and Logistics.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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