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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2012

Holly Buckland Parker

Larger numbers of students are entering higher education with more diverse learning needs. While laws are in place to create equal access to education for all…

Abstract

Larger numbers of students are entering higher education with more diverse learning needs. While laws are in place to create equal access to education for all, government-mandated learning supports for students with documented disabilities vary significantly from K-12 education to higher education. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a course design framework based on Universal Design in architecture, neuroscience research, and the latest technology, to design learning environments and curriculums that are accessible to all students in every learning environment. This chapter reviews literature on the history of Universal Design concepts, starting with Universal Design in architecture and moving into UDL. A review of the learning preferences of Millennial students, along with the neuroscience of learning and its connection to the principles of UDL, is also included in the literature review. This chapter also includes a section on Dr. Buckland Parker's study which documents four faculty members who chose to work with a small team of faculty development specialists to redesign their large enrollment courses using the principles of Universal Design for Learning.

Details

Transforming Learning Environments: Strategies to Shape the Next Generation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-015-4

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Marcin Davies, François Carrez, Juhani Heinilä, Anna Fensel, Maribel Narganes and José Carlos dos Santos Danado

Mobile computing enables end‐users to create small services on their mobiles and share valuable and context‐aware information with others. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Mobile computing enables end‐users to create small services on their mobiles and share valuable and context‐aware information with others. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a platform for end‐user generated mobile services – so‐called microservices.

Design/methodology/approach

As a key component the authors present a microservice description language for user‐driven mobile service creation and platform‐independent service execution and rendering. The paper also gives insight into the authors' visual authoring tool. The chosen design approach is evaluated in two phases: an intermediate evaluation with a small hands‐on trial and an online survey; and a final laboratory test with 24 test users in total.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights about the methods and motivations of end‐users creating small mobile services. The main purposes of service creation would be mostly to exchange information, stay in contact, and just for fun (on the basis of non‐commercial use). The evaluations also indicate the visual drag and drop approach of putting service blocks together as being the most favored in terms of user satisfaction.

Originality/value

The concepts and findings introduced in this paper will help in designing mobile service authoring environments, which is appealing to software communities/vendors and mobile network operators. The presented platform is, to the authors' knowledge, the first designed and implemented infrastructure enabling end‐user mobile service creation.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Book part
Publication date: 3 November 2017

Jodi Louise Pilgrim and Angela Kris Ward

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework and explore ways UDL decreases potential barriers for diverse students while…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework and explore ways UDL decreases potential barriers for diverse students while increasing opportunities to learn. The sociocultural theory of Lev Vygotsky (1978) serves as a theoretical framework for UDL. Vygotsky (1978) placed much emphasis on the role of the social interaction in the development of cognition stating, “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 57). Additionally, he focused considerable attention on language and private speech. The ability to express oneself in any environment, particularly the classroom, is critical to intellectual development. Another pivotal concept is that of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), which reflects the point between what a child has previously learned and can complete independently and that which they cannot do, even with supports. Our intent was to use student examples, or case studies, of typical diversity in the classroom, to demonstrate the application of UDL principles. Specifically, we provide ways planning for representation of material, expression of material, and engagement in material, which can benefit all learners. The case study examples demonstrate ways effective planning can benefit learners in many areas. The case studies presented in this chapter reflect a small portion of the diverse population in classrooms across the nation. Yet the case studies demonstrate ways planning can incorporate students “in the margin” while at the same time benefitting all students in the classroom. Addressing diversity through the UDL lens helps teachers accommodate individual differences through intentional instructional design, while at the same time providing resources for all students in the classroom.

Details

Addressing Diversity in Literacy Instruction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-048-6

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2022

Abeer Toson Mohamed, Malak Abdrabuha Alqurashi and Sara Alshmmry

This study aims to identify the degree to which general education teachers use the principles of universal design for learning (UDL) in teaching and evaluating students…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the degree to which general education teachers use the principles of universal design for learning (UDL) in teaching and evaluating students with learning disabilities, moderated by gender, experience and qualification. Ethical approvals were requested and reported from teachers prior to their participation.

Design/methodology/approach

This study collected questionnaire data from male and female teachers from the eastern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between 2019 and 2021.

Findings

General education teachers were devoted to using UDL principles for teaching and assessing students with learning disabilities. The one used most often was “Providing multiple tools for presenting information by the teacher.” Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between participants whose experiences were 5–10 and < 5 years toward the third principle (providing learning opportunities that suit individual differences among students). Additionally, there were no statistically significant differences possibly ascribed to qualification. However, there were statistically significant differences between those who held postgraduates and diploma holders, also showed that there were no statistically significant differences at <0.05 that could be ascribed to qualification variable.

Originality/value

Teachers use UDL principles specifically. The current research is distinguished from previous studies as it targets teachers of general classes and measures how much they use UDL in teaching and evaluating students with learning disabilities. To the knowledge of the researcher, no Arab studies have examined this subject.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2010

Sarah Bryans Bongey, Gerald Cizadlo and Lynn Kalnbach

The purpose of this paper is to plan, implement, and deliver universal design for learning (UDL) benefits to a large class of undergraduate biology students.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to plan, implement, and deliver universal design for learning (UDL) benefits to a large class of undergraduate biology students.

Design/methodology/approach

This pilot project used an online course site in the course management system (CMS) to establish a universal design (UD) and maintain it throughout a semester‐long class in undergraduate biology. Although the class is traditionally taught in a face‐to‐face lecture and lab format, this intervention is used to expand the representational, strategic, and affective aspects of the course.

Findings

Survey results and follow‐up interviews as well as student usage statistics and points earned on tests are collected and analysed, with the resulting data used to generate conclusions relating to the benefits of a UDL‐compliant supplemental site versus a supplemental site that does not apply UDL principles. While the students perceived‐added value in the UDL‐enhanced site, the overall intervention does not lead to improved grades leading to the possibility that there may be a “sweet spot” or optimal blend of tools and approaches.

Research limitations/implications

Further research will be needed in order to establish a more reliable mode of using supplemental online course sites to deliver UDL. Specifically, it will be important to expand this pilot case to a wider range of courses including those that include more diverse populations of students.

Practical implications

The CMS represents a potential means of delivering UD benefits in an optimal and replicable manner. It will be important to expand this pilot effort to identify an optimal balance of supports and also to increase its generalizability by including a wider range of courses, as well as those that include more diverse populations of students.

Originality/value

This paper uses a potentially replicable strategy to deliver the benefits of UD to college students. If an optimal balance of supports can be identified, this supplemental use of an online course site in the CMS could serve to deliver academic and student satisfaction benefits to a wide range of students, including those in the K‐12 setting.

Details

Campus-Wide Information Systems, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-0741

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Sophie Brinsmead

The purpose of this paper is to consider the accessibility of Apple’s iPad. The discussion focusses on the accessibility of this technology to children and young people…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the accessibility of Apple’s iPad. The discussion focusses on the accessibility of this technology to children and young people with cerebral palsy (CP), reviewing a range of literature. Terms including “inclusion” are debated alongside the practicalities associated with implementing assistive technologies in educational settings. The benefits of technology for those with CP are explored, with examples including augmentative and alternative communication systems. The current suitability of the iPad for children and young people with CP is discussed, alongside ways in which eye-gaze technology may be employed to increase inclusivity.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a consideration of multiple methods for evaluating the inclusivity of mainstream technologies. It is contended that the universal design for learning (UDL) principles are likely to be the most appropriate, due to their applicability to educational settings. Furthermore, the UDL principles acknowledge the heterogeneity of those with CP, and this is suggested to be useful due to its ability to be integrated alongside some of the principles of assistive technology.

Findings

The discussion contends that Apple’s iPad may be redesigned in order to meet the needs of users with CP. Eye-gaze technology is suggested as one way to include this group of users, due to the altered interface interaction. Despite some challenges with the eye-gaze technology, the paper suggests that this alteration to the iPad may result in increased accessibility not only for those with CP, but also others with fine motor difficulties. It is concluded that the integration of eye-gaze technology with Apple’s iPad may be a potential avenue for future investigation.

Practical implications

By altering the interface interaction on Apple’s iPad, the device may be more accessible to users with fine motor difficulties, such as those with CP. It is suggested that the paper may inspire future research concerning the practicalities of integrating eye-gaze technology on a small, portable device.

Social implications

Those who are of lower socioeconomic status are less likely to have access to assistive technologies; the cost of Apple’s devices is relatively higher than those produced by other technology companies, confining their availability to wealthier consumers. This may also lead to a divide in inclusive technical capital (Hayhoe, 2015), whereby wealthier users may have an increased potential to access inclusive assistive technologies and thus increase their capital.

Originality/value

The paper integrates a discussion of the UDL principles with their application to both assistive technologies and educational settings. It is speculated that this paper may be valuable to those researching in the field of assistive technologies, who may build upon the present discussion with a research study. It is also anticipated that the consideration of the use of the iPad for children and young people with CP may be of use to those working in education who wish to integrate technology into the education of those with a range of special educational needs.

Details

Journal of Enabling Technologies, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6263

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2021

Nathan Whitley-Grassi, Bryan J. Whitley-Grassi, Shaun C. Hoppel and Melissa Zgliczynski

In this chapter, the authors examine the challenges presented by supporting higher education students with disabilities in an online learning environment and put forth a…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors examine the challenges presented by supporting higher education students with disabilities in an online learning environment and put forth a discussion and recommendations for delivering literacy supports to geographically disparate students in fully online courses by embracing the social model of disability and universal design principals as opposed to the typical medical model of disability that it pervasive in educational systems. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, educational institutions are required to promote auxiliary aids and services. Broadly defined, these aids are meant to enhance communication, inclusion, and participation of people with disabilities. The discussion of the resources put forth in this chapter begins with an exploration of the evolving consensus on the nature of disability and the standard (medical) model for providing accommodations and supports for students with disabilities, which was developed before the rise of online and blended learning environments. Next, the authors explore the problems inherent in the use of the medical model and highlight how the social model and universal design for learning can be utilized to empower learners and enhance their learning experiences in online and blended learning environments. The discussion returns to the importance of inclusion, participation, and engagement for students with disabilities no matter the modality of learning. This chapter concludes with a comparison of two models of support and recommended changes for implementation of best practices to enhance literacy supports in online learning environments.

Details

International Perspectives on Supporting and Engaging Online Learners
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-485-1

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Abstract

Details

Libraries and Reading
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-385-3

Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Kathleen A. King Thorius

In this chapter, I expand on ideas about assessment originally put forward by Federico Waitoller and I in recent articles about a curriculum design that cross-pollinates…

Abstract

In this chapter, I expand on ideas about assessment originally put forward by Federico Waitoller and I in recent articles about a curriculum design that cross-pollinates elements of Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy (CSP) and Universal Design for Learning (UDL). The purpose of our original work was to address the intersection of racism and ableism in education and to position disability as an identity worth sustaining at the intersection of other forms of difference such as race and national origin. I discuss problematic legacies with the ways in which assessments have functioned to stratify and sort people along racial and ability hierarchies, and place educators in powerful positions of appraisal with consequences for students' belonging and learning in schools. Finally, I articulate additional elements and features of assessment that is designed to counter these legacies while positioning Black, Indigenous, and students of color (BISOC) with disabilities as capable and knowledgeable, along with examples drawn from the literature on CSP, UDL, and research methods for data collection with students with disabilities and diverse racial memberships and communicative repertoires.

Details

Traditional and Innovative Assessment Techniques for Students with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-890-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2015

Randall Boone and Kyle Higgins

Accessibility design over the past several years has focused much of its attention on the development of a universal standard or a set of guidelines for delivering a…

Abstract

Accessibility design over the past several years has focused much of its attention on the development of a universal standard or a set of guidelines for delivering a diverse array of both content and instructional processes. Universal design for learning (UDL), for example, promotes providing multiple means of (a) representation, (b) action and expression, and (c) engagement for learners who have a wide range of disabilities as well as their typical peers. And while each instructional design element that represents a means of providing the differentiation required by the principle generally has a strong evidence-based support individually, it is difficult to assess any one of them within the larger ULD “multiple means” milieu of options. It is especially difficult to do this in regard to learners associated with any particular disability category. When it comes to targeted instruction, learner characteristics matter. It follows then that when it comes to developing an instructional design, that the learning characteristics of a targeted population be first and foremost considered as the point of departure in the design and development process. This chapter considers a wide range of instructional targets within the context of specific disability groups with a focus on learning goals, instructional design supports for those goals, and underlying cognitive processes that may help clarify the goals themselves as well as the instructional supports to achieve those goals.

Details

Accessible Instructional Design
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-288-7

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