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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2017

Vincent H. Smith and Joseph W. Glauber

In the United States, successive farm bills and the 2007 Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) have largely defined domestic subsidy and conservation programs and U.S. food-aid…

Abstract

In the United States, successive farm bills and the 2007 Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) have largely defined domestic subsidy and conservation programs and U.S. food-aid initiatives over the past decade. This chapter examines the effects of the current mixture of U.S. agricultural policies and international food-aid programs on domestic and global food-insecure populations. A detailed research-based examination is carried out with respect to the impacts of U.S. subsidy programs on agricultural production, domestic and global agricultural commodity prices, and their implications for food-insecure populations. The impacts of the RFS are assessed along with the effects of current and potentially reformed U.S. international food-aid programs.

This study concludes that current U.S. agricultural subsidy programs have small or negligible impacts on the aggregate level and mixture of U.S. agricultural output, U.S. domestic prices and global prices, and domestic and global food insecurity among poor households. The RFS has increased prices for food and feed grain and oilseeds with adverse implications for the urban poor in developing countries and some poor U.S. households. The portfolios of U.S. food-aid programs are managed inefficiently because of congressional mandates designed to aid special interest groups that waste 30% of the current budget. While U.S. subsidy programs likely should be moderated for other reasons, they have few impacts on domestic and globally food-insecure households. However, in relation to global and domestic food insecurity, the RFS should be discontinued and major reforms to U.S. international food aid implemented.

Details

World Agricultural Resources and Food Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-515-3

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Agricultural Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-481-3

Book part
Publication date: 18 February 2004

A.Allan Schmid

The first Wisconsin Ph.D.s who came to MSU with an institutional bent were agricultural economists and included Henry Larzalere (Ph.D. 1938) whose major professor was…

Abstract

The first Wisconsin Ph.D.s who came to MSU with an institutional bent were agricultural economists and included Henry Larzalere (Ph.D. 1938) whose major professor was Asher Hobson. Larzalere recalls the influence of Commons who retired in 1933. Upon graduation, Larzalere worked a short time for Wisconsin Governor Phillip Fox LaFollette who won passage of the nation’s first unemployment compensation act. Commons had earlier helped LaFollette’s father, Robert, to a number of institutional innovations.4 Larzalere continued the Commons’ tradition of contributing to the development of new institutions rather than being content to provide an efficiency apologia for existing private governance structures. He helped Michigan farmers form cooperatives. He taught land economics prior to Barlowe’s arrival in 1948, but primarily taught agricultural marketing. One of his Master’s degree students was Glenn Johnson (see below). Larzalere retired in 1977.

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Wisconsin "Government and Business" and the History of Heterodox Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-090-6

Book part
Publication date: 17 November 2005

Philip McMichael

The corporate food regime is presented here as a vector of the project of global development. As such, it expresses not only the social and ecological contradictions of…

Abstract

The corporate food regime is presented here as a vector of the project of global development. As such, it expresses not only the social and ecological contradictions of capitalism, but also the world-historical conjuncture in which the deployment of price and credit relations are key mechanisms of ‘accumulation through dispossession.’ The global displacement of peasant cultures of provision by dumping, the supermarket revolution, and conversion of land for agro-exports, incubate ‘food sovereignty’ movements expressing alternative relationships to the land, farming and food.

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New Directions in the Sociology of Global Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-373-0

Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Andrew Schmitz, Frederick Rossi and Troy G. Schmitz

Following the World Trade Organization (WTO) ruling favoring Brazil over U.S. cotton growers, the debate continues over the impact of U.S. farm policy. For U.S. cotton…

Abstract

Following the World Trade Organization (WTO) ruling favoring Brazil over U.S. cotton growers, the debate continues over the impact of U.S. farm policy. For U.S. cotton policy, the price impact depends on several factors, including the extent to which it is decoupled from production. The impact on world cotton prices under decoupling (the loan rate is used in supply response analysis) is much less than under coupling (the target price is used in producer production decisions). Also, the welfare impacts are very different. Using cotton as an example, the welfare cost of U.S. cotton policy is much less under a decoupled program.

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Research in Law and Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-455-3

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Bill Winders and David Nibert

The number of animals raised and slaughtered for food in the U.S. has increased dramatically since 1945. We examine how two factors have been fundamental in this expansion…

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Abstract

The number of animals raised and slaughtered for food in the U.S. has increased dramatically since 1945. We examine how two factors have been fundamental in this expansion of “meat” consumption: the market and the state. U.S. agricultural policies that emerged form the New Deal centered on price supports and production controls. While these policies were aimed at controlling supply, they instead spurred intensive and industrial techniques that resulted in continuous overproduction, especially in corn, wheat and soybeans. As a result, farm organizations and the state promoted “meat” production and consumption as a way to alleviate the surplus. To handle this expansion, intensive and industrial methods reshaped “meat” production, resulting in more oppressive living conditions for animals raised as “meat”. We explore this connection between the market, state policy and animal oppression. We also briefly analyze how this relationship has likewise affected workers and peripheral nations in the world economy.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 24 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Content available
Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2017

Abstract

Details

World Agricultural Resources and Food Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-515-3

Book part
Publication date: 1 February 2009

Andrew G. Brown and Robert M. Stern

We first discuss what fairness may mean in the context of the dispute settlement process, noting the crucial relation between fairness in dispute settlement and the…

Abstract

We first discuss what fairness may mean in the context of the dispute settlement process, noting the crucial relation between fairness in dispute settlement and the functioning of the trading system as a whole. We explore this relation further through an analysis of three main groups of dispute settlement cases. These are cases that turn around the question of defining fair competition; cases that arise from the use of contingency measures; and cases that draw the boundaries between domestic regulatory measures and the trade-related norms and rules of the WTO. There follows an analysis of experience with compliance and with the use of countermeasures in various cases. Finally, taking together the rulings of the Dispute Settlement Body and the procedures for compliance and the use of countermeasures, we conclude that while the present dispute settlement process serves to protect the fairness of the trading system as a whole, there are some aspects of dispute settlement that remain problematic from the standpoint of fairness.

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Trade Disputes and the Dispute Settlement Understanding of the WTO: An Interdisciplinary Assessment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-206-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2004

Teresa Serra, Barry K. Goodwin and Allen M. Featherstone

Off‐farm investment decisions of farm households are analyzed. Farm‐level data for a sample of Kansas farms observed from 1994 through 2000 are utilized. A system of…

Abstract

Off‐farm investment decisions of farm households are analyzed. Farm‐level data for a sample of Kansas farms observed from 1994 through 2000 are utilized. A system of censored dependent variable models is estimated to investigate the factors that influence the composition of farm households’ portfolios. The central question underlying the analysis is whether farm income variability influences off‐farm investment decisions. Previous analyses on the determinants of non‐farm investments have failed to consider the role of income variability. Results of this study indicate that higher farm income fluctuations increase the relevance of non‐farm assets in the farm household portfolio, thus suggesting these assets are used as farm household income risk management tools.

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Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 64 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Book part
Publication date: 1 February 2009

David Epstein, Sharyn O’Halloran and Amy L. Widsten

This essay investigates the role of WTO Member States’ political institutions in their decision to comply with adverse rulings. In the end, implementation of these rulings…

Abstract

This essay investigates the role of WTO Member States’ political institutions in their decision to comply with adverse rulings. In the end, implementation of these rulings is a political act that Member States must undertake on their own. The decision to comply will thus be affected by domestic political pressures and institutions, including who wins and who loses if the decision is implemented, the locus of decision-making necessary to comply, and the overall structure of government. In this chapter, we explore the impact that domestic partisan preferences have on compliance rates among OECD countries. We construct a formal model of WTO implementation, predicting that when left-leaning parties, those who tend to favor protection for domestic labor and markets, control government, compliance rates should tend to fall. In contrast, right-leaning governments, those who weigh highly market access and returns to capital, should be more willing to comply with adverse WTO rulings. We test these hypotheses using data from WTO trade disputes involving twenty-five advanced industrialized countries and the European Union from 1970 to 2000, and find consistent support for our theory.

Details

Trade Disputes and the Dispute Settlement Understanding of the WTO: An Interdisciplinary Assessment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-206-7

Keywords

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