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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

C.R. Raghunath, U. Raghunath, H.S. Yeshaswini and H. Rashmi

The purpose of this paper is to detail various aspects of laminates and their current developments in order to enable the selection and development of appropriate laminate systems…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to detail various aspects of laminates and their current developments in order to enable the selection and development of appropriate laminate systems for use in high performance avionics interconnection applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Electronic packaging must provide circuit support, heat dissipation, signal distribution, manufacturability, serviceability, power distribution and data for performance simulation over the required frequency range in avionics applications. Innovations in packaging technology have made a big impact on the types of laminates that can be used in printed circuit boards destined for these applications. The “environments” in which aircraft are required to operate have changed due to global security threats and the laminates traditionally used are not designed for this role. Aircraft systems are expected to withstand disturbances due to unexpected threats. Various factors which determine the performance of laminates are evaluated.

Findings

The safety of aircraft is critically dependent on the interconnection technology in which laminates have a major role. Under global security threats, passenger safety, emergency landing and timely information to the pilot is of paramount importance. Hence, research programs need to be initiated to develop new innovative laminate systems, since traditional laminates have limitations in these applications.

Research limitations/implications

The availability of data on the performance of laminates used in interconnection technology under various security threats is limited.

Originality/value

The paper describes how new laminates for high performance interconnection technology in avionics applications can be developed.

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Cuiming Du, Yanxia Xing, Liangpeng Hao, Peng Hu and Songgang Chai

This paper aims to investigate and document the effects of copper-clad laminate (CCL) inorganic filler on the hole performance in printed circuit boards drilling process.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate and document the effects of copper-clad laminate (CCL) inorganic filler on the hole performance in printed circuit boards drilling process.

Design/methodology/approach

Drilling of brittle laminates can result in hole cracking, layer-to-layer delamination and drill-bit wear and tool breakage. Adding large amount of fillers not only shortens the life of the drilling tool but also affects the drilling properties significantly regarding hole quality. This paper introduces the influence of filler content, type, hardness, particle size and the compounding method in the manufacture of the CCL on the drilling performance.

Findings

The filler content, filler type, hardness of filler, particle size of filler and the compounding method used for the filler have a great influence on the drilling properties of CCL. The higher the filler content, the larger the particle size and the more the hardness of the filler, the worse the drilling properties. The combination of hard particles like silica with softer particles can improve the drilling performance of CCL.

Originality/value

The paper describes what affects the drilling performance of CCL and how this knowledge can be used to design CCL with good drilling performance.

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2010

Pravin Singare, Ram Lokhande, Mahadeo Andhale and Raghunath Acharya

Elemental analysis of these medicinal plants was performed by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The…

Abstract

Elemental analysis of these medicinal plants was performed by employing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced radio activity was counted by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Most of the medicinal plants were found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. The variation in elemental concentration in same medicinal plant samples collected from different regions was studied and the biological effects of these elements on human beings are discussed. The study was also extended further to estimate the level of toxic elements like Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb and Hg in medicinal plants which arises due to environmental pollution. The results were discussed with careful reference to established role of essential and rare elements to the physiology and pathology of plant and human life.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Abstract

Details

Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

Case study
Publication date: 4 July 2012

S. Manikutty

The case deals with the issues in managing the growth of a family business engaged in retail and discount stores in Chennai. It highlights one of the strengths of family…

Abstract

The case deals with the issues in managing the growth of a family business engaged in retail and discount stores in Chennai. It highlights one of the strengths of family businesses, namely leveraging family resources into the business. The case also deals with issues of succession planning in family businesses.

Details

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Jatender Pal Singh, Pulak M. Pandey and Anita Kamra Verma

Scaffolds are essentially required to have open porous structure for facilitating bone to grow. They are generally placed on those bone defective/fractured sites which are more…

Abstract

Purpose

Scaffolds are essentially required to have open porous structure for facilitating bone to grow. They are generally placed on those bone defective/fractured sites which are more prone to compressive loading. Open porous structure lacks in strength in comparison to solid. Selective laser sintering (SLS) process is prominently used for fabrication of polymer/composite scaffolds. So, this paper aims to study for fabrication of three-dimensional open porous scaffolds with enhanced strength, process parameters of SLS of a biocompatible material are required to be optimized.

Design/methodology/approach

Regular open porous structures with suitable pore size as per computer-aided design models were fabricated using SLS. Polyamide (PA-2200) was used to fabricate the specimen/scaffold. To optimize the strength of the designed structure, response surface methodology was used to design the experiments. Specimens as per ASTM D695 were fabricated using SLS and compressive testing was carried out. Analysis of variance was done for estimating contribution of individual process parameters. Optimized process parameters were obtained using a trust region algorithm and correlated with experimental results. Accuracy of the fabricated specimen/scaffold was also assessed in terms of IT grades. In vitro cell culture on the fabricated structures confirmed the biocompatibility of polyamide (PA-2200).

Findings

Optimized process parameters for open cell process structures were obtained and confirmed experimentally. Laser power, hatch spacing and layer thickness have contributed more in the porous part’s strength than scan speed. The accuracy of the order of IT16 has been found for all functional dimensions. Cell growth and proliferation confirmed biocompatibility of polyamide (PA-2200) for scaffold applications.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the biocompatibility of PA-2200 for scaffold applications. The optimized process parameters of SLS process for open cell structure having pore size 1.2 × 1.2 mm2 with strut diameter of 1 mm have been obtained. The accuracy of the order of IT16 was obtained at the optimized process factors.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Devendra Pratap, Kumaresh Halder, Rakhi Singh, Ankur Ojha, Thangalakshmi S. and Savita Rani

Although milk is considered a vital source of nutrition for the livelihood, as the beginning of civilization, its antioxidant potential is required to be improved. This paper aims…

Abstract

Purpose

Although milk is considered a vital source of nutrition for the livelihood, as the beginning of civilization, its antioxidant potential is required to be improved. This paper aims to increase antioxidant activities in milk and soy milk (Glycine max L.) has been found as a good compatible source. Hence, the present work was planned to investigate the impact of blending of different proportions of soy milk with standardized milk (i.e. 50 per cent soy milk with 50 per cent standardized milk, 60 per cent soy milk with 40 per cent standardized milk, 70 per cent soy milk with 30 per cent standardized milk and 100 per cent standardized milk as control sample) on antioxidant properties and sensory attributes of the blends.

Design/methodology/approach

Antioxidant properties of the blends were determined in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing antioxidant power and total phenol content. Sensory evaluation was carried out using a nine-point hedonic scale based on four selected quality attributes (i.e. smell, taste, color and appearance and mouthfeel) and ranked for their quality traits by fuzzy modeling.

Findings

A blend containing 70 per cent soy milk with 30 per cent standardized milk showed the highest antioxidant activities as compared to control milk sample (p <0.05). Blend of 50 per cent soy milk with 50 per cent standardized milk was found most acceptable on the basis of sensory analysis and its antioxidant activities were also appreciable as compared to control milk sample (p <0.05). Smell, taste, color and appearance and mouthfeel influenced the acceptability of formulated milk samples in decreasing order of significance (p <0.05).

Originality/value

The present attempt has been made to formulate liquid milk by mixing standardized milk and soy milk, in which enhancement in the antioxidant activities of standardized milk and masking of off-flavor of soy milk is done. It is not done before and it may improve the nutritional and commercial value of the milk. Further, fuzzy modeling used for choosing appropriate blend in terms of sensory scores is also found as a novel approach.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Raghunath Rudran and Ajith Kumar J.

The purpose of this paper is to develop measurement scales for customer contact in a technology-generated context.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop measurement scales for customer contact in a technology-generated context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adapted the scales of Froehle and Roth (2004), by following a systematic scale adaptation and development process. The adapted scales were tested for psychometric properties and refined by building measurement models using partial least squares structural equation modeling.

Findings

The authors found it necessary to revise Froehle and Roth’s (2004) original items in most of the scales. After testing, the “attitude towards the episode” scale was dropped and remaining nine scales were retained.

Research limitations/implications

The scales will be useful to future researchers on online shopping to advance their research. The scales can be tested and validated with data from multiple empirical contexts and adapted to those contexts as necessary. Future studies must examine path relationships between belief, attitude, and intention constructs.

Practical implications

The adapted scales can be useful to practitioners in the domain of online shopping to measure the beliefs, attitudes, and intentions of their customers. Potential beneficiaries include service providers, service designers, industry associations as well as regulators in the government.

Originality/value

The overarching contribution of this paper lies in developing scales pertaining to the online shopping context of technology-generated customer contact. The paper has simultaneously addressed two relatively less attended areas of research on service operations – the role of technology in customer contact and measurement of customer contact.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 September 2020

Nilanjan Raghunath and Tony Tan

Socioeconomic status (SES) has been known to be associated with many aspects of social life such as health. We argue that social stratification remains relevant in understanding…

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Abstract

Purpose

Socioeconomic status (SES) has been known to be associated with many aspects of social life such as health. We argue that social stratification remains relevant in understanding differentials in health during a pandemic, as countries globally have encouraged or enforced social distancing and remote work measures.

Design/methodology/approach

By examining data sources and news reports on the COVID-19 pandemic, we aim to highlight the relationship between SES and morbidity, through the ability to adopt social distancing measures and work remotely. Utilizing publicly available data from the Maryland Transport Institute and the US Census, we performed linear regressions on median income, social distancing index and percentage of individuals working from home.

Findings

Individuals with higher SES are more likely to have jobs that provide opportunities for remote work to be performed, which allows for social distancing. Comparatively, individuals with lower SES are more likely to be involved in jobs that cannot be performed remotely. The linear regression models suggest a positive moderate and significant correlation between median income and social distancing index (R2 = 0.4981, p-value < 0.001), and a positive weak and significant correlation between median income and remote work (R2 = 0.2460, p-value < 0.001).

Research limitations/implications

Governments need to account for SES in policymaking to reduce inequalities in health.

Originality/value

The paper aims to improve the understanding of social stratification and morbidity through examining data on the COVID-19 pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Shantanu Pramanik and Manab Kumar Das

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the flow and turbulence characteristics of a turbulent wall jet flowing over a surface inclined with the horizontal and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the flow and turbulence characteristics of a turbulent wall jet flowing over a surface inclined with the horizontal and to investigate the effect of variation of the angle of inclination of the wall on the flow structure of the wall jet.

Design/methodology/approach

The high Reynolds number two-equation κ− model with standard wall function is used as the turbulence model. The Reynolds number considered for the present study is 10,000. The Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are used for predicting the turbulent flow. A staggered differencing technique employing both contravariant and Cartesian components of velocity has been applied. Results for distribution of wall static pressure and skin friction, decay of maximum streamwise velocity, streamwise variation of integral momentum and energy flux have been compared for the cases of α=0°, 5°, and 10°.

Findings

Flow field has been represented in terms of streamwise and lateral velocity contours, static pressure contour, vorticity contour and streamwise velocity and static pressure profiles at different locations along the oblique offset plate. Distribution of Reynolds stresses in terms of spanwise, lateral and turbulent shear stresses, and turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate have been presented to describe the turbulent characteristics. Similarity of streamwise velocity and the velocity parallel to the oblique wall has been observed in the developed region of the wall jet flow. A decaying trend is observed in the variation of total integral momentum flux in the developed region of the wall jet which becomes more evident with increase in oblique angle. Developed flow region has indicated trend of similarity in profiles of streamwise velocity as well as velocity component parallel to the oblique wall. A depression in wall static pressure has been observed near the nozzle exit when the wall is inclined and the depression increases with increase in inclination. Effect of variation of oblique angles on skin friction coefficient has indicated that it decreases with increase in oblique angle. Growth of the outer and inner shear layers and spread of the jet shows linear variation with distance along the oblique wall. Decay of maximum streamwise velocity is found to be unaffected by variation in oblique angle except in the far downstream region. The streamwise variation of spanwise integral energy shows increase in oblique angle and decreases the magnitude of energy flux through the domain. In the developed flow region, streamwise variation of centreline turbulent intensities shows increased values with increase in oblique angle, while turbulence intensities along the jet centreline in the region X<12 remain unaffected by change in oblique angles. Normalized turbulent kinetic energy distribution highlights the difference in turbulence characteristics between the wall jet and reattached offset jet flow. Near wall velocity distribution shows that the inner region of boundary layer of the developed oblique wall jet follows a logarithmic profile, but it shows some difference from the standard logarithmic curve of turbulent boundary layers which can be attributed to an increase in skin friction coefficient and a decrease in thickness of the wall attached layer.

Originality/value

The study presents an in-depth investigation of the interaction between the jet and the inclined wall. It is shown that due to the Coanda effect, the jet follows the nearby wall. The findings will be useful in the study of combined flow of wall jet and offset jet and dual offset jet on oblique surfaces leading to a better design of some mechanical jet flow devices.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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