Presents a robust and unconditionally stable return‐mapping algorithm based on the discrete counterpart of the principle of maximum plastic dissipation. Develops the…
Presents a robust and unconditionally stable return‐mapping algorithm based on the discrete counterpart of the principle of maximum plastic dissipation. Develops the explicit expression for the consistent elasto‐plastic tangent modulus. All expressions are derived via tensor formulation showing the advantage over the classical matrix notation. The integration algorithm is implemented in the formulation of the four‐node isoparametric assumed‐strain finite‐rotation shell element employing the Mindlin‐Reissner‐type shell model. By applying the layered model, plastic zones can be displayed through the shell thickness. Material non‐linearity described by the von Mises yield criterion and isotropic hardening is combined with a geometrically non‐linear response assuming finite rotations. Numerical examples illustrate the efficiency of the present formulation in conjunction with the standard Newton iteration approach, in which no line search procedures are required. Demonstrates the excellent performance of the algorithm for large time respective load steps.
A bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the…
A bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the theoretical as well as practical points of view is given. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 1,726 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with the analysis of beams, columns, rods, bars, cables, discs, blades, shafts, membranes, plates and shells that were published in 1996‐1999.
The introduction of digital resources has not only had considerable impact on the role of libraries in the information society, but it has also had a remarkable effect on…
The introduction of digital resources has not only had considerable impact on the role of libraries in the information society, but it has also had a remarkable effect on back office procedures, i.e. on the way the library is organised. This article presents a case study of a reengineering process at the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (Bavarian State Library) in Munich, Germany, the central regional library of the State of Bavaria and one of the largest academic research libraries in Europe with local, regional and supraregional responsibilities. Due to the multiple roles of this library, it was particularly important not only to bridge the gap between traditional and new material, but also to create a flexible organisational platform for the various tasks at the different levels indicated.
Die Festlegung des Zeitpunktes für Kuraufenthalte, Erholungsferien und Vergnügungsreisen ist das komplexe Ergebnis verschiedenartiger Faktoren; diese sind teils…
Die Festlegung des Zeitpunktes für Kuraufenthalte, Erholungsferien und Vergnügungsreisen ist das komplexe Ergebnis verschiedenartiger Faktoren; diese sind teils individueller, teils kollektiver Natur. Zu den individuellen Einflüssen zählen persönliche Liebhabereien oder die Notwendigkeit einer Erholungskur infolge Erkrankung oder während der Rekonvaleszenz nach einer Krankheit oder einer Operation; zu den kollektiven Faktoren gehören dagegen Schul‐ oder Betriebsferien, günstige Reisegelegenheiten oder besonders geeignete Jahreszeit.
Purpose – In recent decades, some sociologists have turned to evolutionary biology, neuroscience, and cognitive science to support, modify, and reconfigure existing social…
Purpose – In recent decades, some sociologists have turned to evolutionary biology, neuroscience, and cognitive science to support, modify, and reconfigure existing social psychological theory. In this chapter, we build on this momentum by considering the relevance of current work in affective and cognitive neuroscience for understanding emotions and the self. Our principal aim is to enlarge the range of phenomena currently considered by sociologists who study emotion while showing how affective dynamics play an important role across most outcomes and processes of interest to social scientists.
Approach – We focus on the ways external social objects become essential to, and emotionally significant for, the self. To that end, we draw on ideas from phenomenology, pragmatism, classic symbolic interactionism, and dramaturgy. We show how basic affective systems graft on, build from, and extend current social psychological usages of emotions as well as the important sociological work being done on self, from both symbolic interactionist (SI) and identity theory (IT) perspectives. Finally, we turn to the promising directions in studying emotional biographies and various aspects related to embodiment.
Findings – Affective systems consist of brain networks whose connections deepen when activated, with interesting variations observable at the neural, individual, and social levels in which one or more system is more salient than others. Affective systems may come to saturate the construction and maintenance of an autobiography or collective biography, with consequences for self-projection, self-other attunement, and embodied action. In turning to embodiment, however, we consider aspects of cognitive neuroscience that can contribute to ongoing work in neurosociology building on symbolic interactionism.
Practical Implications – The focus on affective systems suggests new research agendas in leveraging emerging neurosociological methods in the laboratory, while pushing for novel, naturalistic observational strategies. The latter, in particular, may be key to deepening sociology's contributions to neuroscience, better positioned to bring the full disciplinary toolkit to bear on these questions.
Social Implications – In considering the embodied and projective aspects of the self, we show how work examining convergence and divergence between embodied and linguistic pathways opens up new insights into how the self develops or acquires behavioral repertoires. As such, this chapter points to the need for holistic approach to understanding the social actor and, thereby, how political, economic, historical, and cultural factors shape self as much as biogenetic and psychological.
Originality of the Chapter – Sociologists think of emotions as either dependent or intervening variables: (1) signaling identity or situational incongruence, (2) states to be managed, and (3) structural dimensions of superordinate–subordinate relationships. Our integration of the theory of affective systems emphasizes the causal primacy emotions have over other behavioral and cognitive functions, clarifying how they play into the construction and maintenance of self and social experience.
Empathy, or the process of feeling or knowing how another feels, is a critical component of social interactions, and may be of particular importance to organizational…
Empathy, or the process of feeling or knowing how another feels, is a critical component of social interactions, and may be of particular importance to organizational functioning. This chapter addresses a literature gap on empathy in organizational contexts by providing a review of empathy research in a management setting.
We integrate the developing field of empathy research and provide a conceptual framework built on Ashkanasy’s (2003) five levels of analysis in emotions research, emphasizing within-person, between-person, interpersonal, group-level, and organization-level processes.
Our model addresses the complaint that empathy definitions are not consistent by illustrating how the level of analysis alters the view of empathy’s role in organizations.
This multi-level model of empathy provides a framework to identify gaps in the empathy literature and make recommendations for future research.
This new model of empathy will help practitioners use and understand empathy by providing a structure of how empathy is manifested in organizational settings.
The field of empathy research has been limited by inconsistent definitions and a lack of a model that outlines how empathy is used in organizations. This multi-level model of empathy provides the necessary framework for researchers and practitioners to advance the research and practice of empathy in organizations.