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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 June 2023

Abdul Aziz Abdul Rahman, Poh Ling Chong, Tze San Ong, Boon Heng Teh and Tze Chin Ong

The aim of this paper is to characterise the association between business network and the balanced scorecard used by Malaysian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as a method for…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to characterise the association between business network and the balanced scorecard used by Malaysian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as a method for assessing firm efficiency. The business network takes into account both the dimensions of stability and efficiency. The business network can help SMEs, with fewer resources to remain competitive. By having a secure business network, the performance of SMEs in Malaysia can be further improved. A business network can facilitate swift coordination amongst distant geographies to create new competitive advantages by accessing market segments, resources as well as building strategic business alliances.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 404 sets of data collected by using stratified random sampling and structured questionnaire as an instrument. The list of SMEs collected from the Malaysia Foreign Trade Growth Corporate Directory (MATRADE) directories. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was utilised to analyse the data.

Findings

The findings show that the business network plays a role in the balanced scorecard (BSC) outcomes of Malaysian SMEs.

Originality/value

This article provides the owners and managers with an awareness to rapidly achieve the company's efficiency. Finally, the new article often has some consequences for decision-makers and regulators.

Details

Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-9899

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 June 2019

Tze San Ong, Hussain Bakhsh Magsi and Thomas F. Burgess

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of organizational culture (OC) on a firm’s environmental performance (EP) via the mediating variable of environmental…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of organizational culture (OC) on a firm’s environmental performance (EP) via the mediating variable of environmental management control systems (EMCS).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 314 Pakistani manufacturing firms via the questionnaire survey, and the structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships.

Findings

The stable and flexible values of OC affect the effectiveness of formal and informal EMCS. Informal EMCS mediates the relationship between flexible values and EP, whereas formal EMCS mediates the stable values and EP. Overall, the data reveal that the integration of environmental culture within an organization’s culture and control systems leads to improve EP.

Originality/value

The study is one of the first, to the author’s knowledge, that links OC, EMCS, and EP in a developing economy, in this case Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 68 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 February 2020

Babatunji Samuel Adedeji, Tze San Ong, Md Uzir Hossain Uzir and Abu Bakar Abdul Hamid

The non-existence of the corporate governance (CG) concept for practices by non-financial medium-sized firms (MSFs) in Nigeria informed. This study aims to determine whether CG…

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Abstract

Purpose

The non-existence of the corporate governance (CG) concept for practices by non-financial medium-sized firms (MSFs) in Nigeria informed. This study aims to determine whether CG practices influence firms’ performance and whether sustainability initiative (SI) mediates the relationship between CG and MSFs’ performance in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 300 firms were selected on convenience sampling basis from South Western Nigeria using a structured questionnaire. The authors used Statistical Package for Social Sciences for exploratory data analysis and hypotheses were tested using covariance-based structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results show that CG has a significant positive effect on performance [financial performance (FNP) and non-financial performance (NFP)] and SI. SI has a mixed impact on performance, e.g. a significant positive impact on NFP but insignificant negative impact on FNP. Similarly, SI has a combined mediating effect in the relationship between CG and performance, e.g. fully mediates CG → NFP and does not mediate CG → FNP. Firms are to invest in social and environmental initiatives substantially. CG codes will complement the International Financial Reporting Standards for MSFs.

Research limitations/implications

This study supports the assumptions of theories (institutional, stakeholder and agency) as the basis for the usage of multiple approaches to determine the outcome of hypotheses, especially in developing climes.

Practical implications

The study contributes to CG and performance literature by examining the mediating effects of SI. The paper also shows the necessity to emphasise NFP aspect. Policymakers should evolve CG codes to encourage stakeholders to believe more in the corporate existence of MSFs for strengthening capital-base and quality personnel engagement.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first empirical attempts showing the evidence on the relationship between CG and NFP in Nigeria.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 June 2022

Ong Tze San, Badar Latif and Assunta Di Vaio

Congruent with the world-wide call to combat global warming concerns and advance intellectual capital (IC), organisations are being pressured to ensure that IC is managed…

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Abstract

Purpose

Congruent with the world-wide call to combat global warming concerns and advance intellectual capital (IC), organisations are being pressured to ensure that IC is managed effectively to encourage green initiatives. In this regard, green entrepreneurial orientation (GEO) is emerged as a relevant IC. GEO is recognised as a mitigating factor of environmental degradation in the literature. Although prior literature has observed the nexus between GEO and firm performance, the role of GEO in leveraging sustainable performance has been limitedly explored. This study explored the relationship between IC as a GEO and enterprises' sustainable performance through the moderating roles of environmental consciousness and green technology dynamism (GTD) in the context of two developing countries (Pakistan and Malaysia).

Design/methodology/approach

Data provided by 296 respondents from 264 manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Pakistan and Malaysia were analysed through a three-wave research design. AMOS 23 software was used to perform covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM), while hierarchical regression analysis was applied using the SPSS 25 software to examine the causal relationships in the model.

Findings

IC as a GEO significantly influences sustainable performance, akin to environmental consciousness and GTD. Besides, GTD has a significant moderating effect between GEO and financial and environmental performance in Pakistan and Malaysia but not between GEO and social performance. Environmental consciousness has a significant moderating role in the impact of GEO on financial performance in Pakistan and Malaysia, but not on social and environmental performance.

Practical implications

The study's findings are useful for managers of Pakistani and Malaysian manufacturing SMEs to identify ways to encourage GEO to improve sustainable performance in their firms. The findings suggest that managers should effectively implement GTD and environmental consciousness to strengthen the GEO and sustainable performance relationship. Managers can use GEO concretely as a reference for the companies that intend to support the United Nation SDG-2030 agenda and to find new business opportunities for the implementation of sustainable development.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to examine the link between GEO and sustainable performance in developing countries such as Pakistan and Malaysia. Although the influence of various intangible assets or IC on sustainable performance has been widely examined in the literature, the role of GEO as IC has been limitedly explored. This study extends the literature by adding to the knowledge of GEO as a form of firms' IC that enhances boundary conditions in developing countries.

Article
Publication date: 27 December 2022

Mohammad Imtiaz Hossain, Boon Heng Teh, Mosab I. Tabash, Mohammad Nurul Alam and Tze San Ong

Manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are heading towards smart manufacturing despite growing challenges caused by globalisation and rapid technological…

Abstract

Purpose

Manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are heading towards smart manufacturing despite growing challenges caused by globalisation and rapid technological advancement. These SMEs, particularly textile SMEs of Bangladesh, also face challenges in implementing sustainability and organisational ambidexterity (OA) due to resource constraints and limitations of conventional leadership styles. Adopting paradoxical leadership (PL) and entrepreneurial bricolage (EB) is important to overcome the challenges. However, these dynamics are less explored in academia, especially in the Bangladeshi textile SMEs context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the adoption of smart technologies (ASTs), PL and OA, EB on sustainable performance (SP) of textile SMEs in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional and primary quantitative survey was conducted. Data from 361 textile SMEs were collected using a structured self-administrated questionnaire and analysed by partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM).

Findings

The statistical outcome confirms that ASTs and PL significantly influence SP and OA. OA plays a significant mediating role for PL and is insignificant for ASTs, and EB significantly moderates among ASTs, PL and SP.

Research limitations/implications

As this study is cross-sectional and focussed on a single city (Dhaka, Bangladesh), conducting longitudinal studies and considering other parts of the country can provide exciting findings.

Practical implications

This research provides valuable insights for policymakers, management and textile SMEs in developing and developed countries. By adopting unique and innovative OA, PL and EB approaches, manufacturing SMEs, especially textile companies, can be more sustainable.

Originality/value

This study has a novel, pioneering contribution, as it empirically validates the role of multiple constructs such as AST, PL, OA and EB towards SP in the context of textile SMEs in a developing country like Bangladesh.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Nor Azah Abdul Aziz, Soon Y. Foong, Tze San Ong, Rosmila Senik, Hassan Attan and Yusri Arshad

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of intensity of market competition and strategic orientation on the adoption of green initiatives among public listed…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of intensity of market competition and strategic orientation on the adoption of green initiatives among public listed companies (PLCs) in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was distributed to all 921 PLCs, and 120 samples were analysed. This study used a statistical tool named partial least squares – structural equation modelling (PLS–SEM) for data analysis. Interviews were also conducted with a few selected companies to obtain in-depth information on green practices.

Findings

The findings of this paper reveal that strategic orientation significantly influences the adoption of green initiatives in Malaysian PLCs while the intensity of market competition does not. Competition on green products or services is not prevalent yet in Malaysia; hence, PLCs are reluctant to make huge investment in green activities. The extent of green initiatives adoption in Malaysian PLCs is just at a moderate level, suggesting that Malaysian PLCs are not so proactive but in the progressing stage of practicing green. PLCs still need some incentives to adopt more green initiatives.

Research limitations/implications

The present study only focussed on the green initiatives adoption in Malaysian PLCs; hence, the research findings may not be generalizable to other countries. This study only considered the contingency theory and stakeholder theory. Due to the time and cost constraints, the data were collected at only one single point of time; thus, it may inherit the usual limitations of cross-sectional data.

Practical implications

The findings of this study also give empirical evidence to the practitioners that their decisions to adopt green initiatives are significantly influenced by certain factors. Companies need to understand the key drivers of their green initiatives in order for them to meet the green challenges and to ultimately derive performance from their implementations. Regulatory authorities and financial institutions could facilitate and encourage for the effective implementation of green initiatives by providing more incentives and facilities.

Social implications

The findings of this study that provide the forces of green initiatives would arouse more environmental concerns among individuals, organizations, and society. The findings of this study also open an eye to the society that commitment of everyone, including upper and lower level of position, is needed in order to create the culture of green for the benefit of society as a whole.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the environmental management literature in the context of green and sustainable development, and to nurture green practices among industries and society for the aims to achieve the sustainability agenda. This study is conducted to explain the motivation behind the proactive decisions on sustainability practices. The current literature on green issues and sustainability provides limited evidence on what really drives companies to practice green.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 67 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2019

K-Rine Chong, Yusniyati Yusri, Aslam Izah Selamat and Tze San Ong

The purpose of this paper is to extend the slippery slope framework by exploring different dimensions of compliance quality and tax minimisation under different tax climate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the slippery slope framework by exploring different dimensions of compliance quality and tax minimisation under different tax climate manipulation by groups.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors run a random assignment of tax climate manipulations through questionnaire with 301 usable data collected from the full-time postgraduate students, employed individuals and self-employed individuals. Manipulation check and results are generated via multivariate analysis of variance.

Findings

The results confirm the biggest impact of synergistic climate on voluntary compliance, and small to medium impact of antagonistic climate on tax evasion across three groups.

Research limitations/implications

The manipulation of this research is constrained with two treatments in addition to the common pitfall of social desired responses of self-report.

Practical implications

Theoretically, this study empirically explores tax minimisation dimensions and provides new insights that only illegal tax minimisation is at maximum under the prevailing negative antagonistic climate, but not for legal tax minimisation. Second, the effect of tax climate represented by trust and power on enforced compliance is minimal, as compared to the strong effect of positive synergistic climate on voluntary compliance. As for policy implications, possible guidelines and interventions are outlined to policy makers which would lead to a better quality of compliance behaviour.

Originality/value

This study operationalises and manipulates tax climate from perceptions of trust, legitimate power and coercive power. It also further affirms the prior inconsistent findings in respect of tax behavioural intentions due to sampling group and cultural differences.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 November 2023

Abdulkader Zairbani and Senthil Kumar Jaya Prakash

The purpose of this paper is to provide an organizing lens for viewing the distinct contributions to knowledge production from those research communities addressing the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an organizing lens for viewing the distinct contributions to knowledge production from those research communities addressing the impact of competitive strategy on company performance in general, and the influence of cost leadership and differentiation strategy on organizational performance in detail.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology was based on the PRISMA review, and thematic analysis based on an iterative process of open coding was analyzed and then the sample was analyzed by illustrating the research title, objectives, method, data analysis, sample size, variables and country.

Findings

The main factor that influenced the competitive strategy is strategic growth; strategic growth has a significant influence on competitive strategy. Furthermore, competitive strategy will boost firm network, performance measurement and organization behavior. In the same way, the internal goal factor will enhance organizational effectiveness. Also, a differentiation strategy will support management practice factors, strategic positions, product price, product characteristics and company performance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by identifying a framework of competitive strategy factors, company performance factors, cost leadership strategy factors, differentiation strategy factors and competitive strategy with global market factors. This study provides a complete picture and description of the resulting body knowledge in competitive strategy and organizational performance.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2019

Zauwiyah Ahmad, Thian Song Ong, Tze Hui Liew and Mariati Norhashim

The purpose of this research is to explain the influence of information security monitoring and other social learning factors on employees’ security assurance behaviour. Security…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to explain the influence of information security monitoring and other social learning factors on employees’ security assurance behaviour. Security assurance behaviour represents employees’ intentional and effortful actions aimed towards protecting information systems. The behaviour is highly desired as it tackles the human factor within the information security framework. The authors posited that security assurance behaviour is a learned behaviour that can be enhanced by the implementation of information security monitoring.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretical framework underlying this study with six constructs, namely, subjective norm, outcome expectation, information security monitoring, information security policy, self-efficacy and perceived inconvenience, were identified as significant in determining employees’ security assurance behaviour (SAB). The influence of these constructs on SAB could be explained by social cognitive theory and is empirically supported by past studies. An online questionnaire survey as the main research instrument is adopted to elicit information on the six constructs tested in this study. Opinion from industry and academic expert panels on the relevance and face validity of the questionnaire were obtained prior to the survey administration.

Findings

Findings from this research indicate that organisations will benefit from information security monitoring by encouraging security behaviours that extend beyond the security policy. This study also demonstrates that employees tend to abandon security behaviour when the behaviour is perceived as inconvenient. Hence, organisations must find ways to reduce the perceived inconvenience using various security automation methods and specialised security training. Reducing perceived inconvenience is a challenge to information security practitioners.

Research limitations/implications

There are some limitations in the existing work that could be addressed in future studies. One of them is the possible social desirability bias due to the self-reported measure adopted in the study. Even though the authors have made every effort possible to collect representative responses via anonymous survey, it is still possible that the respondents may not reveal true behaviour as good conduct is generally desired. This may lead to a bias towards favourable behaviour.

Practical implications

In general, the present research provides a number of significant insights and valuable information related to security assurance behaviour among employees. The major findings could assist security experts and organisations to develop better strategies and policies for information security protection. Findings of this research also indicate that organisations will benefit from information security monitoring by encouraging security behaviours that extend beyond the security policy.

Social implications

In this research, the social cognitive learning theory is used to explain the influence of information security monitoring and other social learning factors on employees’ security assurance behaviour; the finding implies that monitoring emphases expected behaviours and helps to reinforce organisational norms. Monitoring may also accelerate learning when employees become strongly mindful of their behaviours. Hence, it is important for organisations to communicate the monitoring practices implemented, even more imperative whenever security monitoring employed is unobtrusive in nature. Nonetheless, care must be taken in this communication to avoid resentment and mistrust among employees.

Originality/value

This study is significant in a number of ways. First, this study highlights significant antecedents of security assurance behaviour, which helps organisations to assess their current practices, which may nurture or suppress information security. Second, using users’ perspective, this study provides recommendations pertaining to monitoring as a form of information security measure. Third, this study provides theoretical contribution to the existing information security literature via the application of the social cognitive learning theory.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2024

Arifa Tanveer, Shihong Zeng and Wei Tian

This study aims to examine whether and how corporate sustainability capability influences energy efficiency through competitive intensity and slack resource availability.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether and how corporate sustainability capability influences energy efficiency through competitive intensity and slack resource availability.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors applied a two-wave research design and administered a survey questionnaire to senior-level managers of 78 ISO-14001 and ISO-50001 certified manufacturing companies. The authors use a multi-method approach for data analysis. AMOS 23 software was applied for covariance-based structural equation modeling. In addition, SPSS 25 software was applied for hierarchical regression analysis to examine the causal relationships in the model.

Findings

The finding reveals that corporate sustainability capabilities, which include energy-saving opportunities, seizing energy-saving opportunities and resource reconfiguration, significantly improve firms’ energy efficiency. In addition, competitive intensity and slack resource availability positively moderated the relationship between corporate sustainability capability and energy efficiency.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine the link between corporate sustainability capability and energy efficiency in developing countries such as Pakistan. Although the influence of various corporate sustainability capabilities on sustainable performance has been widely examined in the literature, the role of corporate sustainability capability has been limitedly explored with energy efficiency. This study extends the literature by adding to the knowledge of corporate sustainability capability that enhances boundary conditions in developing countries.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

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