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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Alexandra E. MacDougall, John E. Baur, Milorad M. Novicevic and M. Ronald Buckley

On many occasions, organizational science research has been referred to as fragmented and disjointed, resulting in a literature that is, in the opinion of many, difficult…

Abstract

On many occasions, organizational science research has been referred to as fragmented and disjointed, resulting in a literature that is, in the opinion of many, difficult to navigate and comprehend. One potential explanation is that scholars have failed to comprehend that organizations are complex and intricate systems. In order to move us past this morass, we recommend that researchers extend beyond traditional rational, mechanistic, and variable-centered approaches to research and integrate a more advantageous pattern-oriented approach within their research program. Pattern-oriented methods approximate real-life phenomena by adopting a holistic, integrative approach to research wherein individual- and organizational-systems are viewed as non-decomposable organized wholes. We argue that the pattern-oriented approach has the potential to overcome a number of breakdowns faced by alternate approaches, while offering a novel and more representative lens from which to view organizational- and HRM-related issues. The proposed incorporation of the pattern-oriented approach is framed within a review and evaluation of current approaches to organizational research and is supplemented with a discussion of methodological and theoretical implications as well as potential applications of the pattern-oriented approach.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-824-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2010

N. Sharon Hill and Karen Wouters

E-learning programs exist in a wide variety of formats. Without a framework for distinguishing between different e-learning programs, it is a challenge for researchers to…

Abstract

E-learning programs exist in a wide variety of formats. Without a framework for distinguishing between different e-learning programs, it is a challenge for researchers to compare their effectiveness or identify characteristics of e-learning that contribute to learning effectiveness. Based on general theories of learning, we develop a typology that compares e-learning programs in terms of the nature of the learning interactions they provide for learners in three dimensions: degree of interaction, learner control of interactions, and informational value of interactions. The typology dimensions apply to learner–instructor, learner–learner, and learner–instructional material interactions. We also discuss important theoretical implications of the typology. First, we show the utility of the typology for comparing the effectiveness of different e-learning programs. Second, we apply the typology dimensions to develop a theoretical framework for e-learning research that provides a foundation for examining factors that influence learning effectiveness in an e-learning program. The framework identifies e-learning program characteristics, learner characteristics, and contextual factors that impact learning effectiveness in different e-learning environments. It also shows how the typology dimensions align with learning goals to influence learning effectiveness.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-126-9

Article
Publication date: 28 March 2022

Christopher McLaughlin, Laura Bradley-McCauley and Simon Stephens

This paper aims to present typologies of entrepreneurs using entrepreneurs' engagement and use of social media (SM) for business purposes as a means of categorisation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present typologies of entrepreneurs using entrepreneurs' engagement and use of social media (SM) for business purposes as a means of categorisation. Based on this categorisation, four types of entrepreneurs are proposed: the hopefuls, the assureds, the opportunists and the passengers. The emergent typology should serve as the basis for further thought and empiricism.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-phase quantitative opportunistic sampling approach was employed. First, entrepreneurial experts' (n = 8) structured interviews informed the survey design. Secondly, an online survey, based on theory of planned behaviour (TPB), was completed with entrepreneurs at business incubation centres (BICs) in Ireland. Latent class analysis (LCA) identified a number of entrepreneur typologies using participants' (n = 124) business-related SM activities. Differences in entrepreneurial types were explained using the TPB, trust, security and demographic variables.

Findings

Results indicate that there are four distinct types of entrepreneurs based on their business-related SM activities. Once the typology was created, comparisons were conducted between each type based on the psychological drivers of the TPB. Trend differences were identified between the distinct typologies.

Originality/value

The value of this research is that the research proposes a typology of entrepreneurs categorised based on SM engagement and use. The typology can be used to identify and compare the differences between entrepreneurs based on perceptions regarding SM, abilities related to SM and the support entrepreneurs need in relation to this. This research is novel in that the research addresses calls to segment the increasingly diverse and complex entrepreneurial population using the pillars of social and digital technology as a focus. The research also provides a framework for examination and replication in other geographic and entrepreneurial settings.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 January 2022

Pussadee Nonthacumjane and Jan Michael Nolin

This study aims to propose the four different typologies for understanding local information.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose the four different typologies for understanding local information.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applied a conceptual approach to analyze and clarify how the concept local information can be understood in wildly different ways. Furthermore, this study employed conceptual analysis of 36 studies. For the conceptual analysis, coding was applied to formulate and abstract four typologies for understanding local information with specific focus on the Thai cultural heritage setting.

Findings

The four different typologies include local information as an array of different interpretations as diverse meanings of local, local information as cultural heritage, local information as subject of information management and situated local information.

Research limitations/implications

This study mainly focuses relevant typologies for understanding local information in the Thai context.

Originality/value

This study contributes and extends the literature in the local information field and the cultural heritage context. In addition, an eclectic strategy of using several alternative typologies for dealing with essentially contested concepts is suggested. This can be useful not only for supporting librarians working with local information but also in other practices dealing with broadly defined concepts.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2022

Guido Grunwald

The purpose of this paper is to develop a multidimensional corporate social responsibility (CSR) crisis typology from the consumers’ perspective and to provide an agenda…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a multidimensional corporate social responsibility (CSR) crisis typology from the consumers’ perspective and to provide an agenda for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

Basic content-related dimensions for characterizing CSR crises from the consumers’ perspective are derived from a review of relevant static crisis typologies. Different types of consumer responses to negative CSR information are derived from various theoretical approaches. Dynamic process models of corporate crises are reviewed to assign various types of consumer responses to different crisis phases. Linking both static and dynamic approaches leads to a comprehensive consumer-oriented typology of CSR crises that is illustrated with examples.

Findings

A CSR crises typology is developed based on three consumer-related dimensions: the extent to which the company is attributed blame by consumers; the amount of perceived damage potential; and the perceived CSR relevance of the crisis situation. The combination of these dimensions results in eight different crisis types. For each of these crisis types, different forms of consumer responses are assigned that prevail in the so-called potential, latent and manifest crisis phase.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could address the empirical review of the crisis typology presented, its refinement by considering various consumer and stakeholder segmentation approaches and the advanced dynamic analysis of CSR crises by including stakeholder characteristics that impact the diffusion of CSR-related negative publicity.

Practical implications

The results of this paper support early crisis detection and effective crisis management by identifying relevant target variables for crisis communication.

Originality/value

The typology developed enables a broad spectrum of CSR crises to be classified, including those that have been neglected in previous systematization approaches, such as CSR-related tensions, general sustainability crises and product-harm crises. Due to its theoretical foundation, this paper also contributes to a clearer demarcation of existing CSR crisis constructs.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 November 2021

Edmond Manahasa, Ahsen Özsoy and Odeta Manahasa

The proposed definitional framework can be used to define housing typologies of cities in developing countries. It aims to define housing typologies in the capital city of…

Abstract

Purpose

The proposed definitional framework can be used to define housing typologies of cities in developing countries. It aims to define housing typologies in the capital city of Albania, Tirana, using the proposed hierarchical framework within the dynamics of four political periods: Ottoman, establishment, socialist and postsocialist.

Design/methodology/approach

This study proposes a new definitional approach for the housing typologies through a hierarchical framework that defines the typologies based on their political period and legality statuses departing from the case of Tirana, which is featured by a heterogeneous context. Such context is characterized by uncontrollable urban development, making typology definition problematic. Furthermore, beyond the form, spatial and functional features, it presents their exterior distinctiveness as an innovative element. The methodology used in the study includes archival research, image documentation, spatial, functional and exterior distinctiveness analysis of housing typologies and exploration of housing form features in different political periods.

Findings

The study identifies urban formal housing typologies in Tirana detached houses, apartments, mass housing, social housing, gated communities, informal detached houses and housing with in/formal additions.

Originality/value

This definitional approach can be used to define housing typologies for cities featured by heterogeneous urban context.

Details

Open House International, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Chanchai Tangpong, Michael D. Michalisin, Rodney D Traub and Arlyn J. Melcher

The purpose of this study is to review the existing typologies of buyer-supplier relationships (BSRs) in the literature, to critically assess their dimensions and…

13823

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review the existing typologies of buyer-supplier relationships (BSRs) in the literature, to critically assess their dimensions and underlying assumptions, and to propose a more complete BSR typology and future directions for BSR typology research.

Design/methodology/approach

This study takes a conceptual approach in highlighting the limitations of existing BSR typologies and synthesizing their key typology-defining variables when proposing an alternative BSR typology.

Findings

The proposed BSR typology is based on alternative behavioral assumptions: bounded rationality and choice-determinism, and uses relationalism, supplier dependence and buyer dependence as the typology-defining variables. This BSR typology captures four prominent BSR types in the extant literature (i.e. market/discrete relationship, captive-buyer/supplier-dominant relationship, captive-supplier/buyer-dominant relationship and strategic/bilateral partnership) and four new BSR types developed in this study (i.e. supplier-led collaboration, buyer-led collaboration, competitive/win–lose partnership, and free will/voluntary collaboration).

Research limitations/implications

The performance implications of the new BSR types have yet to be empirically tested; however, empirical approaches for future research are discussed.

Originality/value

As BSR typology research has been conducted over the years, a thorough review and systematic assessment of the extant research in terms of fundamental assumptions, typology-defining variables, overall progress and limitations becomes an important reflective task in guiding future research efforts toward the collective advancement in this line of inquiry. Departing from the existing literature, this study also uses more realistic BSR assumptions and a more complete set of typology-defining variables in developing an alternative BSR typology, arguably more complete and more theoretically sound than the previous BSR typologies in the literature.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Angela Samantha Maitland Irwin, Kim‐Kwang Raymond Choo and Lin Liu

The purpose of this paper is to measure the size of the money laundering and terrorism financing problem, identify threats and trends, the techniques employed and the…

5462

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the size of the money laundering and terrorism financing problem, identify threats and trends, the techniques employed and the amount of funds involved to determine whether the information obtained about money laundering and terrorism financing in real‐world environments can be transferred to virtual environments such as Second Life and World of Warcraft.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of 184 Typologies obtained from a number of anti‐money laundering and counter‐terrorism financing (AML/CTF) bodies to: determine whether trends and/or patterns can be identified in the different phases of money laundering or terrorism financing, namely, the placement, layering and integration phases; and to establish whether trends and/or behaviours are ubiquitous to a particular money laundering or terrorism financing Type.

Findings

Money launderers and terrorism financers appeared to have slightly different preferences for the placement, layering and integration techniques. The more techniques that are used, the more cash can be successfully laundered or concealed. Although terrorism financers use similar channels to money launderers, they do not utilise as many of the placement, layering and integration techniques. Rather, they prefer to use a few techniques which maintain high levels of anonymity and appear innocuous. The sums of monies involved in money laundering and terrorism financing vary significantly. For example, the average maximum sum involved in money laundering cases was AUD 68.5M, as compared to AUD 4.8 for terrorism financing cases.

Originality/value

This paper provides some insight into the relationship between predicate offence, the predominant techniques utilised in carrying out that offence and the sums of money involved.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Som Sekhar Bhattacharyya

The purpose of this study is international business strategy (IBS) has evolved into a complex and vast domain of study. Given this fact, the author first proposed a set of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is international business strategy (IBS) has evolved into a complex and vast domain of study. Given this fact, the author first proposed a set of screens that a firm’s IBS manager was required to assess before venturing into a foreign country. Then the author developed an integrated IBS framework to secure a holistic view regarding IBS. Finally, the author proposed a typology to classify IBS archetypes.

Design/methodology/approach

The author undertook a systematic and integrated literature review of IBS literature. The literature review was carried out with a conceptual perspective in mind. Incremental and argumentative logic was applied to develop the integrated IBS framework from a wide domain of literature. Furthermore, the typology on IBS initiatives was also developed based upon a classification scheme developed in the framework.

Findings

The author developed the integrated conceptual framework based upon six building blocks which were conceptual elements. The framework consisted of the antecedent variable as internationally deployable organizational resources and capabilities (IDORC), the mediating variables as internationally implementable organizational process (IIOP), internationally executable practices and activities (IEPA) and international market product service offerings (IMPSO). The moderating variable was international initiatives management direction and control (IIMDC), while the dependent variable was international market performance assessment (IMPA). Thus, IDORC, IIOP, IEPA, IMPSA, IIMDC and IMPA were the building blocks of IBS framework. There were 12 types of IBS typologies based upon the dominant role played by the home and host countries in the six building block elements of IBS mentioned. The 12 typologies were domestic reproduction (DR), foreign country centric offerings (FCCO), international offerings perspective (IOP), foreign country-driven activities (FCDA), international-driven activities (IDA), foreign country-driven process (FCDP), international-driven process (IDP), foreign country initiatives domestically controlled (FCIDC), international initiatives domestically controlled (IIDC), international initiatives home-dominant foreign dyad controlled (IIHDFDC), international independent initiative (III) and international coordinated network approach (ICNA).

Research limitations/implications

In this study, an integrated framework on IBS was developed. In the theoretical framework, antecedent (DORC), mediating (IIOP, IEPA and IMPSA), moderating (IIMDC) and dependent variables (IMPA) have been incorporated. This was the first theoretical contribution of this paper toward IBS theorization. Second contribution of this paper was toward typology development regarding IBS initiatives archetypes. The 12 typologies were DR, FCCO, IOP, FCDA, IDA, FCDP, IDP, FCIDC, IIDC, IHDFDC, III and ICNA. The IBS typology is based upon the six constituent concepts developed from literature.

Practical implications

Managers who are responsible for the planning and execution of IBS initiatives could from the integrated IBS framework comprehend what would be the steps required to plan and execute an IBS strategy in its entirety for success in foreign markets. Furthermore, managers could understand the various mediation and moderation roles regarding the IBS factors present in any firm internationalization effort. This would help managers not only to amplify the mediating effects but also to tweak the efforts of moderation so as to arrive at better internationalization performance. The section on typology on IBS initiatives would help managers to secure a better fit for the IBS initiative of the firm. The typology would anchor managerial perspectives regarding how the home country firm organizational contributions on resources and capabilities, processes, practice activities and products and services need to be offered in foreign countries.

Originality/value

To the best of author’s knowledge, this is one of the first frameworks regarding an integrated perspective on IBS and a typology on IBS based upon a set of antecedent (resources and capabilities), mediation (process, activities and market offerings), moderation (management control) and dependent (performance) variables building on firm resource-based view perspectives.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Robert E. McDonald, Jay Weerawardena, Sreedhar Madhavaram and Gillian Sullivan Mort

The purpose of this paper is to offer a sustainability-based typology for non-profit organizations and corresponding strategies to sustain the mission and/or financial…

1964

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a sustainability-based typology for non-profit organizations and corresponding strategies to sustain the mission and/or financial objectives of non-profit organizations. The balance of mission and money, known in the non-profit literature as the double bottom line, is a challenge for professional managers who run non-profits and scholars who study them.

Design/methodology/approach

Typologies are often used to classify phenomena to improve understanding and bring about clarity. In this paper, non-profit organizations are viewed from a social and fiscal viability perspective, developed from the long standing challenge of balancing mission and money.

Findings

The typology developed in this paper identifies several normative strategies that correspond to the social and fiscal viability of non-profit organizations. In fact, the strategies offered in this paper can help non-profit managers achieve organizational sustainability, thus enabling them to continue what they are meant to do – to provide greater social value to their constituents.

Research limitations/implications

The typology presented is a classification system rather than a theoretical typology. Its purpose is to help managers of non-profits to recognize threats to their organizations’ long-term survival and offer strategies that if adopted can move the organizations to less vulnerable positions. However, the recommended strategies are by no means exhaustive. Furthermore, the focus of the paper is on non-profit organizations, not profit-driven or hybrid entities. The sustainability-based typology of non-profit organizations and the corresponding strategies have implications for practitioners and academics. The typology and its contents can help managers assess their non-profits, competitive environment and their current strategies, plan their double bottom line strategies and last but not the least, develop and implement strategies for social and fiscal sustainability. In addition, our paper provides great opportunities for future research to subject our typology and its contents to conceptual and empirical scrutiny.

Practical implications

The strategies described here are developed based on scholarly research and examples from successful non-profits. The typology and the related list of strategies provide a manager with the tools to accurately diagnose organizational challenges and adopt plans to improve the organization’s viability.

Social implications

Non-profit organizations are an integral part of society that bolsters economic prosperity, environmental integrity and social justice. This paper may provide guidance for a number of non-profit managers to keep their organizations operating and serving important social missions.

Originality/value

In the context of organizations for social mission, several typologies exist that looked at firms from the perspectives of ownership versus profit objectives, entrepreneurship conceptualizations of economists and origins and development paths of social enterprises. While these typologies provided foundations for theoretical and empirical work into social enterprises, our typology offers strategies for the sustainability of mission and/or money objectives of non-profits. The value of this research lies in integrating virtuous and pragmatic objectives of non-profit sustainability that, in turn, can ensure the social mission of non-profits.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 38 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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