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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Alexandra E. MacDougall, John E. Baur, Milorad M. Novicevic and M. Ronald Buckley

On many occasions, organizational science research has been referred to as fragmented and disjointed, resulting in a literature that is, in the opinion of many, difficult…

Abstract

On many occasions, organizational science research has been referred to as fragmented and disjointed, resulting in a literature that is, in the opinion of many, difficult to navigate and comprehend. One potential explanation is that scholars have failed to comprehend that organizations are complex and intricate systems. In order to move us past this morass, we recommend that researchers extend beyond traditional rational, mechanistic, and variable-centered approaches to research and integrate a more advantageous pattern-oriented approach within their research program. Pattern-oriented methods approximate real-life phenomena by adopting a holistic, integrative approach to research wherein individual- and organizational-systems are viewed as non-decomposable organized wholes. We argue that the pattern-oriented approach has the potential to overcome a number of breakdowns faced by alternate approaches, while offering a novel and more representative lens from which to view organizational- and HRM-related issues. The proposed incorporation of the pattern-oriented approach is framed within a review and evaluation of current approaches to organizational research and is supplemented with a discussion of methodological and theoretical implications as well as potential applications of the pattern-oriented approach.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-824-2

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Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2010

N. Sharon Hill and Karen Wouters

E-learning programs exist in a wide variety of formats. Without a framework for distinguishing between different e-learning programs, it is a challenge for researchers to…

Abstract

E-learning programs exist in a wide variety of formats. Without a framework for distinguishing between different e-learning programs, it is a challenge for researchers to compare their effectiveness or identify characteristics of e-learning that contribute to learning effectiveness. Based on general theories of learning, we develop a typology that compares e-learning programs in terms of the nature of the learning interactions they provide for learners in three dimensions: degree of interaction, learner control of interactions, and informational value of interactions. The typology dimensions apply to learner–instructor, learner–learner, and learner–instructional material interactions. We also discuss important theoretical implications of the typology. First, we show the utility of the typology for comparing the effectiveness of different e-learning programs. Second, we apply the typology dimensions to develop a theoretical framework for e-learning research that provides a foundation for examining factors that influence learning effectiveness in an e-learning program. The framework identifies e-learning program characteristics, learner characteristics, and contextual factors that impact learning effectiveness in different e-learning environments. It also shows how the typology dimensions align with learning goals to influence learning effectiveness.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-126-9

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2020

Som Sekhar Bhattacharyya

The purpose of this study is international business strategy (IBS) has evolved into a complex and vast domain of study. Given this fact, the author first proposed a set of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is international business strategy (IBS) has evolved into a complex and vast domain of study. Given this fact, the author first proposed a set of screens that a firm’s IBS manager was required to assess before venturing into a foreign country. Then the author developed an integrated IBS framework to secure a holistic view regarding IBS. Finally, the author proposed a typology to classify IBS archetypes.

Design/methodology/approach

The author undertook a systematic and integrated literature review of IBS literature. The literature review was carried out with a conceptual perspective in mind. Incremental and argumentative logic was applied to develop the integrated IBS framework from a wide domain of literature. Furthermore, the typology on IBS initiatives was also developed based upon a classification scheme developed in the framework.

Findings

The author developed the integrated conceptual framework based upon six building blocks which were conceptual elements. The framework consisted of the antecedent variable as internationally deployable organizational resources and capabilities (IDORC), the mediating variables as internationally implementable organizational process (IIOP), internationally executable practices and activities (IEPA) and international market product service offerings (IMPSO). The moderating variable was international initiatives management direction and control (IIMDC), while the dependent variable was international market performance assessment (IMPA). Thus, IDORC, IIOP, IEPA, IMPSA, IIMDC and IMPA were the building blocks of IBS framework. There were 12 types of IBS typologies based upon the dominant role played by the home and host countries in the six building block elements of IBS mentioned. The 12 typologies were domestic reproduction (DR), foreign country centric offerings (FCCO), international offerings perspective (IOP), foreign country-driven activities (FCDA), international-driven activities (IDA), foreign country-driven process (FCDP), international-driven process (IDP), foreign country initiatives domestically controlled (FCIDC), international initiatives domestically controlled (IIDC), international initiatives home-dominant foreign dyad controlled (IIHDFDC), international independent initiative (III) and international coordinated network approach (ICNA).

Research limitations/implications

In this study, an integrated framework on IBS was developed. In the theoretical framework, antecedent (DORC), mediating (IIOP, IEPA and IMPSA), moderating (IIMDC) and dependent variables (IMPA) have been incorporated. This was the first theoretical contribution of this paper toward IBS theorization. Second contribution of this paper was toward typology development regarding IBS initiatives archetypes. The 12 typologies were DR, FCCO, IOP, FCDA, IDA, FCDP, IDP, FCIDC, IIDC, IHDFDC, III and ICNA. The IBS typology is based upon the six constituent concepts developed from literature.

Practical implications

Managers who are responsible for the planning and execution of IBS initiatives could from the integrated IBS framework comprehend what would be the steps required to plan and execute an IBS strategy in its entirety for success in foreign markets. Furthermore, managers could understand the various mediation and moderation roles regarding the IBS factors present in any firm internationalization effort. This would help managers not only to amplify the mediating effects but also to tweak the efforts of moderation so as to arrive at better internationalization performance. The section on typology on IBS initiatives would help managers to secure a better fit for the IBS initiative of the firm. The typology would anchor managerial perspectives regarding how the home country firm organizational contributions on resources and capabilities, processes, practice activities and products and services need to be offered in foreign countries.

Originality/value

To the best of author’s knowledge, this is one of the first frameworks regarding an integrated perspective on IBS and a typology on IBS based upon a set of antecedent (resources and capabilities), mediation (process, activities and market offerings), moderation (management control) and dependent (performance) variables building on firm resource-based view perspectives.

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Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2020

Richard Nicholls

This study aims to provide service managers and researchers with a deeper understanding of the direct on-site interactions taking place between customers.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide service managers and researchers with a deeper understanding of the direct on-site interactions taking place between customers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT), 284 incidents are analysed to develop a typology of how service customers experience direct on-site CCI.

Findings

The research reveals a wide range of CCI. A typology consisting of nine distinct categories of CCI emerged: (1) shared use space, (2) assigned space and possessions, (3) information provision, (4) assistance, (5) social conversations, (6) disrespectful attitude, (7) queuing discipline, (8) transaction efficiency and (9) undesired customers and ‘camouflaged customers’. These categories can accommodate a multitude of customer behaviours that impact, negatively or positively, on the service experience of other customers.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies could be conducted following a more inclusive research design capable of gaining CCI insights from employees and managers.

Practical implications

Practitioners can use the typology to systematically identify the full range of specific CCI behaviours affecting their businesses. It also assists them in the analysis and understanding of individual C2C (customer-to-customer) interactions. For academics the typology makes available a comprehensive framework to guide future research into CCI.

Originality/value

The study constitutes the first systematic attempt to classify direct on-site CCI across a wide range of services. The typology, unrestricted by any single-industry bias, is robust and conceptually broad, and therefore highly portable across service industries.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Chanchai Tangpong, Michael D. Michalisin, Rodney D Traub and Arlyn J. Melcher

The purpose of this study is to review the existing typologies of buyer-supplier relationships (BSRs) in the literature, to critically assess their dimensions and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review the existing typologies of buyer-supplier relationships (BSRs) in the literature, to critically assess their dimensions and underlying assumptions, and to propose a more complete BSR typology and future directions for BSR typology research.

Design/methodology/approach

This study takes a conceptual approach in highlighting the limitations of existing BSR typologies and synthesizing their key typology-defining variables when proposing an alternative BSR typology.

Findings

The proposed BSR typology is based on alternative behavioral assumptions: bounded rationality and choice-determinism, and uses relationalism, supplier dependence and buyer dependence as the typology-defining variables. This BSR typology captures four prominent BSR types in the extant literature (i.e. market/discrete relationship, captive-buyer/supplier-dominant relationship, captive-supplier/buyer-dominant relationship and strategic/bilateral partnership) and four new BSR types developed in this study (i.e. supplier-led collaboration, buyer-led collaboration, competitive/win–lose partnership, and free will/voluntary collaboration).

Research limitations/implications

The performance implications of the new BSR types have yet to be empirically tested; however, empirical approaches for future research are discussed.

Originality/value

As BSR typology research has been conducted over the years, a thorough review and systematic assessment of the extant research in terms of fundamental assumptions, typology-defining variables, overall progress and limitations becomes an important reflective task in guiding future research efforts toward the collective advancement in this line of inquiry. Departing from the existing literature, this study also uses more realistic BSR assumptions and a more complete set of typology-defining variables in developing an alternative BSR typology, arguably more complete and more theoretically sound than the previous BSR typologies in the literature.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Angela Samantha Maitland Irwin, Kim‐Kwang Raymond Choo and Lin Liu

The purpose of this paper is to measure the size of the money laundering and terrorism financing problem, identify threats and trends, the techniques employed and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure the size of the money laundering and terrorism financing problem, identify threats and trends, the techniques employed and the amount of funds involved to determine whether the information obtained about money laundering and terrorism financing in real‐world environments can be transferred to virtual environments such as Second Life and World of Warcraft.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of 184 Typologies obtained from a number of anti‐money laundering and counter‐terrorism financing (AML/CTF) bodies to: determine whether trends and/or patterns can be identified in the different phases of money laundering or terrorism financing, namely, the placement, layering and integration phases; and to establish whether trends and/or behaviours are ubiquitous to a particular money laundering or terrorism financing Type.

Findings

Money launderers and terrorism financers appeared to have slightly different preferences for the placement, layering and integration techniques. The more techniques that are used, the more cash can be successfully laundered or concealed. Although terrorism financers use similar channels to money launderers, they do not utilise as many of the placement, layering and integration techniques. Rather, they prefer to use a few techniques which maintain high levels of anonymity and appear innocuous. The sums of monies involved in money laundering and terrorism financing vary significantly. For example, the average maximum sum involved in money laundering cases was AUD 68.5M, as compared to AUD 4.8 for terrorism financing cases.

Originality/value

This paper provides some insight into the relationship between predicate offence, the predominant techniques utilised in carrying out that offence and the sums of money involved.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Robert E. McDonald, Jay Weerawardena, Sreedhar Madhavaram and Gillian Sullivan Mort

The purpose of this paper is to offer a sustainability-based typology for non-profit organizations and corresponding strategies to sustain the mission and/or financial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a sustainability-based typology for non-profit organizations and corresponding strategies to sustain the mission and/or financial objectives of non-profit organizations. The balance of mission and money, known in the non-profit literature as the double bottom line, is a challenge for professional managers who run non-profits and scholars who study them.

Design/methodology/approach

Typologies are often used to classify phenomena to improve understanding and bring about clarity. In this paper, non-profit organizations are viewed from a social and fiscal viability perspective, developed from the long standing challenge of balancing mission and money.

Findings

The typology developed in this paper identifies several normative strategies that correspond to the social and fiscal viability of non-profit organizations. In fact, the strategies offered in this paper can help non-profit managers achieve organizational sustainability, thus enabling them to continue what they are meant to do – to provide greater social value to their constituents.

Research limitations/implications

The typology presented is a classification system rather than a theoretical typology. Its purpose is to help managers of non-profits to recognize threats to their organizations’ long-term survival and offer strategies that if adopted can move the organizations to less vulnerable positions. However, the recommended strategies are by no means exhaustive. Furthermore, the focus of the paper is on non-profit organizations, not profit-driven or hybrid entities. The sustainability-based typology of non-profit organizations and the corresponding strategies have implications for practitioners and academics. The typology and its contents can help managers assess their non-profits, competitive environment and their current strategies, plan their double bottom line strategies and last but not the least, develop and implement strategies for social and fiscal sustainability. In addition, our paper provides great opportunities for future research to subject our typology and its contents to conceptual and empirical scrutiny.

Practical implications

The strategies described here are developed based on scholarly research and examples from successful non-profits. The typology and the related list of strategies provide a manager with the tools to accurately diagnose organizational challenges and adopt plans to improve the organization’s viability.

Social implications

Non-profit organizations are an integral part of society that bolsters economic prosperity, environmental integrity and social justice. This paper may provide guidance for a number of non-profit managers to keep their organizations operating and serving important social missions.

Originality/value

In the context of organizations for social mission, several typologies exist that looked at firms from the perspectives of ownership versus profit objectives, entrepreneurship conceptualizations of economists and origins and development paths of social enterprises. While these typologies provided foundations for theoretical and empirical work into social enterprises, our typology offers strategies for the sustainability of mission and/or money objectives of non-profits. The value of this research lies in integrating virtuous and pragmatic objectives of non-profit sustainability that, in turn, can ensure the social mission of non-profits.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 38 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2008

Pingsheng Tong, Jean L. Johnson, U.N. Umesh and Ruby P. Lee

This paper aims to advance interfirm relationship (IR) research by applying a theoretically based typology in IR settings and empirically investigating the association of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to advance interfirm relationship (IR) research by applying a theoretically based typology in IR settings and empirically investigating the association of information technology (IT) and relational reciprocity with IR types.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws on Fiske's relational models theory to conceptualize an IR typology. In a business service context, a questionnaire was administered and IR types modeled via a multivariate logistic regression with IT pervasiveness, IT customization, reciprocity and embeddedness as predicting variables.

Findings

The IR typology comprises communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, and market pricing types. The authors find that reciprocity is more likely to associate with an equality‐matching relationship and a communal sharing relationship than with a market‐pricing relationship. Pervasive use of IT fosters an equality‐matching IR, but IT‐enabled customization distances an IR from an equality‐matching relationship.

Research limitations/implications

A theoretical implication flows from the innovative application of Fiske's relational models theory to a context of business interactions and investigation of IT in association with IR types. The affirming findings empirically validate the IR typology and offer a new perspective in studying IR structures. This research also exemplifies the theoretical value and great potentials for further exploration of the theory in IR research.

Practical implications

The IR typology equips marketing managers with a useful tool in comprehending the intricate IRs and developing appropriate strategies for effective IR management. In designing IT use in IR interactions, both the scope and specific function of IT should be considered in order to ensure that all aspects affect consistently. Managers may encourage reciprocal exchange in shifting an IR away from a calculating relationship but consider intensive IT to foster an IR emphasizing balance and correspondence.

Originality/value

The novelty of this paper lies in the innovative application of Fiske's relational forms in IR settings and the empirical examination of the IT‐IR structure association. The IR typology advances IR research by offering a theoretically compelling and practically advantageous framework in studying IR structure, and the examination of IT‐IR associations brings to light the significance of IT in IR structures, which has been largely under‐explored.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Anoush Margaryan, Colin Milligan and Allison Littlejohn

This study aims to test the validity of a knowledge work typology proposed by Davenport. Although this typology has been referenced extensively in the literature, it does

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to test the validity of a knowledge work typology proposed by Davenport. Although this typology has been referenced extensively in the literature, it does not appear to have been empirically validated.

Design/methodology/approach

The typology was tested through a questionnaire survey among knowledge workers (n=459) in a multinational company. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to determine the knowledge work groupings arising from the survey.

Findings

The vast majority of the respondents could not be grouped into any one of Davenport's four knowledge work types. Furthermore, PCA revealed four groupings: low‐agency collaboration; low‐ agency routine work; rule‐based work; and high‐agency expert work. The results confirm only one of Davenport's typology models, the Expert model. Davenport's Collaboration model was found to have elements of the Transaction model. The Transaction and the Integration typology models were not confirmed. Instead, two further models incorporating elements of both Transaction and Integration models emerged. Finally, in contrast to Davenport's typology, the clusters that emerged from this study do not fit a matrix structure.

Research limitations

A follow‐up qualitative study would be required to better understand the four models that emerged from the data and to elucidate organisational factors that underpin the models.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study testing the validity of Davenport's typology.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

Jordan Gamble and Audrey Gilmore

This paper aims to address the emerging post-millennium trends in co-creational marketing, in the context of how these trends apply to the recorded and live sectors of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the emerging post-millennium trends in co-creational marketing, in the context of how these trends apply to the recorded and live sectors of the music industry. Consideration of marketing as a broadened concept to include societal processes has implications not only for the marketing concept itself, but also for the roles of the parties implicitly involved in the marketing process. Therefore, the standard and polarising marketing clichés of “firm and customer”, “buyer and seller”, and “producer and consumer” may be replaced with a more contemporary marketing approach in which value can be created and shared by either party.

Design/methodology/approach

Initially the paper provides a review of contemporary literature on co-creational aspects of marketing and a subsequent identification of typologies of co-creation practices. Conceptual frameworks pertaining to the relationships of these typologies are then proposed. An extensive review and analysis of journal articles, industry reports and news sources on music industry marketing was conducted. From this review and analysis, 30 examples of co-creational marketing were identified. The music industry was chosen as it constitutes a relevant and contemporary marketing context due to the existence of interactive technology and changing consumer preferences regarding their interaction with music intermediaries and against a context of digital piracy.

Findings

Five typologies of co-creational marketing were found to be relevant to the music industry. Key examples of co-creational marketing within the music industry are discussed and analysed in relation to the identified typologies and conceptual frameworks.

Research limitations/implications

The relevancy of co-creational marketing practices to the music industry is investigated, followed by consideration of managerial implications and future research directions.

Originality/value

The theoretical prospect of value co-creation through active consumer contributions to the marketing process is not revolutionary or new, but the implications of such a potential shift in power or influence have developed into a contemporary challenge for marketers.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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