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Article

A. Nicolet, F. Zolla, Y. Ould Agha and S. Guenneau

This paper aims to review various techniques used in computational electromagnetism such as the treatment of open problems, helicoidal geometries and the design of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review various techniques used in computational electromagnetism such as the treatment of open problems, helicoidal geometries and the design of arbitrarily shaped invisibility cloaks. This seemingly heterogeneous list is unified by the concept of geometrical transformation that leads to equivalent materials. The practical set‐up is conveniently effected via the finite element method.

Design/methodology/approach

The change of coordinates is completely encapsulated in the material properties.

Findings

The most significant examples are the simple 2D treatment of helicoidal geometries and the design of arbitrarily shaped invisibility cloaks.

Originality/value

The paper provides a unifying point of view, bridging several techniques in electromagnetism.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

Manik Bhowmick, Arup Kumar Rakshit and Sajal Kumar Chattopadhyay

Dref-3 friction spun core yarns produced using staple fibre yarn as the core, e.g. Jute core yarn wrapped with cotton fibre, have poorer mechanical properties compared to…

Abstract

Purpose

Dref-3 friction spun core yarns produced using staple fibre yarn as the core, e.g. Jute core yarn wrapped with cotton fibre, have poorer mechanical properties compared to the core yarn itself. The purpose of this study was to understand the structure of such yarns, that will lead to the optimization of fibre, machine and process variables for production of better quality yarn from the Dref-3/3000 machines.

Design/methodology/approach

The Dref spinning trials were conducted following a full factorial design with six variables, all with two operative levels. The Dref-3 friction spun yarn, in which the core is a plied, twisted ring yarn composed of cotton singles and the sheath, formed from the same cotton fibres making the singles, has been examined. The structures have also been studied by using the tracer fibre technique.

Findings

It was observed that rather than depending on the plied core yarn, the tensile properties of the Dref-3 yarn are significantly determined by the parameters those affect the constituent single yarn tensile properties, i.e. the amount of twist and its twist direction, yarn linear density and the sheath fibre proportion used during the Dref spinning in making the final yarn. Further, when the twist direction of single yarn, double yarn and the Dref spinning false twisting are in the same direction, the produced core-sheath yarn exhibits better tensile properties.

Practical implications

The understanding of the yarn structure will lead to optimized production of all staple fibre core Dref spun yarns.

Social implications

The research work may lead to utilization of coarse and harsh untapped natural fibres to the production of value-added textile products.

Originality/value

Though an earlier research has reported the effects of sheath fibre fineness and length on the tensile and bending properties of Dref-3 friction yarn, the present study is the first documented attempt using the tracer fibre technique to understand Dref-3 yarn structure with plied staple fibrous core.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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Article

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Javad Rahmani Fard and Mohammad Ardebili

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a novel axial flux-switching motor with sandwiched permanent magnet for direct drive electric vehicles (EVs), in which the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a novel axial flux-switching motor with sandwiched permanent magnet for direct drive electric vehicles (EVs), in which the torque density is increased and the cogging torque is decreased. For reducing the back-electromotive force (EMF) harmonics and cogging torque, a twisted structure is employed. To improve the dynamic performance of the axial field flux-switching sandwiched permanent magnet (AFFSSPM) motor a space vector modulation-direct torque and flux control scheme is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-objective optimization is performed by means of artificial neural network and non-sorting genetic algorithm II to minimize the cogging torque while preserving the average torque.

Findings

A comparative study between two proposed machines and the conventional flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machine is accomplished and the static electromagnetic characteristics are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the proposed model with twisted structure has significantly improved performance over the conventional FSPM machine in back-EMF and efficiency. The proposed controller has a speed loop only and contains neither the current loop nor hysteresis control. The AFFSSPM motor exhibits excellent dynamic performance with this scheme.

Originality value

The axial flux-switching permanent-magnet machine is one of the most efficient machines but the AFFSSPM with sandwiched permanent magnet has not been specially reported to date. Thus in this paper, the authors report on optimal design of an axial flux-switching sandwiched permanent magnet machine for electric vehicles and investigate its dynamic performance.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

Madan Lal Regar, Sujit Kumar Sinha and Bhavna Choubisa

Sewing thread plays an important role in transforming a two-dimensional fabric into three-dimensional garment. Over the years, ring spinning has been dominating the yarn…

Abstract

Purpose

Sewing thread plays an important role in transforming a two-dimensional fabric into three-dimensional garment. Over the years, ring spinning has been dominating the yarn market because of its consistent performance. Eli-Twist spinning system, a new method of yarn manufacture, provides a product with improved mechanical and physical properties than the conventional ring-spun yarn. It is the process of producing a two-ply compact yarn with improved fibre utilisation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the feasibility of using Eli-Twist yarn as a sewing thread and to compare its performance with conventional thread.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, regular polyester and Indian cotton were used to produce the Eli-Twist and conventional TFO thread. Three different blends (100 per cent polyester, 50/50 polyester/cotton [P/C] and 100 per cent cotton) were taken to produce three different counts (39.4 tex, 29.5 tex and 23.6 tex) from each composition. The hairiness, tenacity, breaking elongation and coefficient of yarn-to-metal friction of threads were tested and a comparative analysis was made. The seam performance of all the threads was judged by seam strength, seam efficiency and seam elongation.

Findings

The results show that the mass irregularity and imperfections are more or less similar for both types of threads. Eli-Twist sewing thread has shown less friction, less hairiness and higher tensile strength. The Eli-Twist sewing thread was found to be better than the conventional two-ply sewing thread. The seam performance parameters, such as seam strength, seam efficiency and seam elongation of the Eli-Twist thread showed significantly improved performance.

Originality/value

The main concern of this study is delineating the performance of the Eli-Twist sewing thread. No study in this regard has been reported so far. The improved physical and mechanical behaviour of the Eli-Twist yarn has prompted to assess its performance as sewing thread.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

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Article

H. Zhan and W. Zhao

Turbine blisks designed for advanced liquid rocket engine turbopumps are usually of a timed structure with twisted blades, and they can be machined effectively with the…

Abstract

Turbine blisks designed for advanced liquid rocket engine turbopumps are usually of a timed structure with twisted blades, and they can be machined effectively with the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. After the machining specifications have been designated, the EDM process of a turbopump turbine blisk is discussed, in which the kernel problems are the design of the electrode and the searching of an interference free path to feed the electrode to machine the blisk.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 74 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article

George K. Stylios

Examines the fourteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…

Abstract

Examines the fourteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

S. Shaikhzadeh Najar, E. Hezavehi, Sh. Hoseini Hashemi and A. Rashidi

The purpose of this paper is to describe a unique approach to investigate the wrinkle force of textile structures in a cylindrical model.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a unique approach to investigate the wrinkle force of textile structures in a cylindrical model.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, an apparatus was designed and constructed in order to investigate the torsional and wrinkle behavior of textile structures in a cylindrical model under a different rotational level using data acquisition and micro‐controller systems.

Findings

In the light of research results, the fiber and fabric type, fabric physical and mechanical properties and imposed rotational level significantly contributed to wrinkle characteristics of worsted fabrics. It was noticed that with increase of rotational level, the wrinkle force, and energy increased along weft and warp directions. Wrinkle characteristics along warp direction exhibited greater values than in weft direction.

Originality/value

The study is aimed at determining wrinkle behavior of worsted fabrics under the combined influences of compression and torsional strains.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article

Awadhesh Kumar Choudhary, Monica Puri Sikka and Payal Bansal

The purpose of this review paper is to define the dominating factors (such as fiber, yarn, fabric structure, sewing thread, sewing needle and machine parameters) that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this review paper is to define the dominating factors (such as fiber, yarn, fabric structure, sewing thread, sewing needle and machine parameters) that affect the seam damages and causing defects. It also describes the various explanations of sewing defects in garment production and critically analyzes them for optimum selection of parameters and speeds for minimizing such faults. Hence, the knowledge of various factors which affect the sewing damages/defects will be helpful for garment manufacturers/researchers to know influence of the parameters and control the quality of producing seam.

Design/methodology/approach

This section is not applicable for a review paper.

Findings

Sewing damages such as needle cut and other sewing damages/defects are studied mostly in woven fabric. There are very few studies conducted on knitted fabric sewing damages/defects. The sewing damage problems do not have single solution that is capable of removing these damages in fabric. All the determined and affecting parameters related to fiber, yarn, fabric construction, sewing thread and sewing machine must be examined to design appropriate remedial measurement related to machine design, fabric parameters and sewing thread. This could help in minimizing or eliminating the needle cut and other sewing damage problems.

Originality/value

It is an original review work and is helpful for garment manufacturers/researchers to reduce the defects and be able to produce good quality seam.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Content available
Article

Hiroko Yokura and Sachiko Sukigara

For over a century, traditional Japanese cotton crepe fabrics have been popular for men’s underwear in the humid summer. Now, consumer demand is for crepe fabrics that are…

Abstract

Purpose

For over a century, traditional Japanese cotton crepe fabrics have been popular for men’s underwear in the humid summer. Now, consumer demand is for crepe fabrics that are more attractive, reflecting a shift in use from underwear to women’s dresses. The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the structures of the crepe and its constituent yarns affect the physical properties, handle and silhouette formability of crepe fabrics for dresses.

Design/methodology/approach

Three plain-weave gray fabrics were finished by four different processes to change their crepe structures. The mechanical and surface properties of the fabrics were measured using the Kawabata evaluation system for fabrics. The primary hand values and silhouette formability of the fabrics were calculated using conversion equations based on the physical properties. The handle of the crepe fabrics and the aesthetic appearance of flared collars made of them were assessed by female students using the semantic differential method.

Findings

Comparing the fabrics made from the same gray fabric, the piqué crepe fabrics showed larger Hari (anti-drape) and Shari (crispness) than the others. The subjective hand value of softness was closely related to fabric thickness. The assessors preferred the fine piqué crepe fabrics over the wide piqué fabrics regarding both the tactile feeling of the fabrics and the aesthetic appearance of the flared collars. The attractiveness of the flared collars was dominated by the shear stiffness of the fabrics.

Originality/value

The fine piqué crepe fabric made from fine yarns produced a more preferable handle. The fine piqué fabric made from thicker yarns produced flared collars with silhouettes that are more attractive. This indicates that the fine piqué structure is a positive feature that makes the fabric suitable for various types of dresses.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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