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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

WenRuo Zhu, ZhongXin Gao, YongJun Tang, JianGuang Zhang and Li Lu

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the ability of turbulence models to model the flow field in the runner of a Francis turbine. Although the complex flow in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the ability of turbulence models to model the flow field in the runner of a Francis turbine. Although the complex flow in the turbine can be simulated by CFD models, the prediction accuracy still needs to be improved. The choice of the turbulence model is one key tool that affects the prediction accuracy of numerical simulations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the SST k-w and RNG k-e turbulence models, which can both accurately predict complex flow fields in numerical simulations, to simulate the flow in the entire flow passage of a Francis turbine with the results compared against experimental data for the performance and blade pressure distribution in the turbine to evaluate the applicability of the turbulence models.

Findings

The results show that the SST k-w turbulence model more accurately predicts the turbine performance than the RNG turbulence model. However, the blade surface pressures predicted by the SST k-w turbulence model were basically identical to those predicted by the RNG k-e turbulence model, with both accurately predicting the experimental data.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the lack of space, the method used to measure the blade surface pressure distributions is not introduced in this paper.

Practical implications

Turbine performance and flow field pressure in the runner, which are the basis of turbine preliminary performance judgment and optimization through CFD, can be used to judge the rationality of the turbine runner design. The paper provides an evidence for the turbulence selection in numerical simulation to predict turbine performance and flow field pressure in the runner and improves the CFD prediction accuracy.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils a test of the flow field pressure in the runner, which provide an evidence for judge the adaptability of turbulence model on the flow field in runner. And this paper also provides important evaluations of two turbulence models for modeling the flow field pressure distribution in the runner of a Francis turbine to improve the accuracy of CFD models for predicting turbine performance.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

D. Xu, B.C. Khoo and M.A. Leschziner

The flow inside an axisymmetric diffuser with a curved surface centre body is numerically simulated using different turbulence models, namely a high‐Reynolds number k‐ε in…

Abstract

The flow inside an axisymmetric diffuser with a curved surface centre body is numerically simulated using different turbulence models, namely a high‐Reynolds number k‐ε in conjunction with wall function turbulence model, a high‐Reynolds number k‐ε with one‐equation turbulence model, a low‐Reynolds number k‐ε turbulence model, a RNG turbulence model and an anisotropic turbulence model. For the separation and reattachment positions, the comparisons made between the various numerical predictions and experimental measurements show that the high‐Reynolds number k‐ε with one‐equation turbulence model is superior to other models in the present study.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Anuj Kumar Shukla and Anupam Dewan

Convective heat transfer features of a turbulent slot jet impingement are comprehensively studied using two different computational approaches, namely, URANS (unsteady…

Abstract

Purpose

Convective heat transfer features of a turbulent slot jet impingement are comprehensively studied using two different computational approaches, namely, URANS (unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations) and SAS (scale-adaptive simulation). Turbulent slot jet impingement heat transfer is used where a considerable heat transfer enhancement is required, and computationally, it is a quite challenging flow configuration.

Design/methodology/approach

Customized OpenFOAM 4.1, an open-access computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, is used for SAS (SST-SAS k-ω) and URANS (standard k-ε and SST k-ω) computations. A low-Re version of the standard k-ε model is used, and other models are formulated for good wall-refined calculations. Three turbulence models are formulated in OpenFOAM 4.1 with second-order accurate discretization schemes.

Findings

It is observed that the profiles of the streamwise turbulence are under-predicted at all the streamwise locations by SST k-ω and SST SAS k-ω models, but follow similar trends as in the reported results. The standard k-ε model shows improvements in the predictions of the streamwise turbulence and mean streamwise velocity profiles in the zone of outer wall jet. Computed profiles of Nusselt number by SST k-ω and SST-SAS k-ω models are nearly identical and match well with the reported experimental results. However, the standard k-ε model does not provide a reasonable profile or quantification of the local Nusselt number.

Originality/value

Hybrid turbulence model is suitable for efficient CFD computations for the complex flow problems. This paper deals with a detailed comparison of the SAS model with URANS and LES for the first time in the literature. A thorough assessment of the computations is performed against the results reported using experimental and large eddy simulations techniques followed by a detailed discussion on flow physics. The present results are beneficial for scientists working with hybrid turbulence models and in industries working with high-efficiency cooling/heating system computations.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

C.D. Pérez‐Segarra, A. Oliva, M. Costa and F. Escanes

In this paper a numerical simulation, based on finite differencetechniques, has been developed in order to analyse turbulent natural andmixed convection of air in internal…

Abstract

In this paper a numerical simulation, based on finite difference techniques, has been developed in order to analyse turbulent natural and mixed convection of air in internal flows. The study has been restricted to two‐dimensional cavities with the possibility of inlet and outlet ports, and with internal heat sources. Turbulence is modelled by means of two‐equation k‐ε turbulence models, both in the simplest form using wall functions and in the more general form of low‐Reynolds‐number k‐ε models. The couple time average governing equations (continuity, momentum, energy, and turbulence quantities) are solved in a segregated manner using the SIMPLEX method. An implicit control volume formulation of the differential equations has been employed. Some illustrative numerical results are presented to study the influence of geometry and boundary conditions in cavities. A comparison of different k‐ε turbulence models has also been presented.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2020

Taurista Perdana Syawitri, Yufeng Yao, Jun Yao and Budi Chandra

The aim of this paper is to assess the ability of a stress-blended eddy simulation (SBES) turbulence model to predict the performance of a three-straight-bladed vertical…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to assess the ability of a stress-blended eddy simulation (SBES) turbulence model to predict the performance of a three-straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). The grid sensitivity study is conducted to evaluate the simulation accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations are solved using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Two types of grid topology around the blades, namely, O-grid (OG) and C-grid (CG) types, are considered for grid sensitivity studies.

Findings

With regard to the power coefficient (Cp), simulation results have shown significant improvements of predictions using compared to other turbulence models such as the k-e model. The Cp distributions predicted by applying the CG mesh are in good agreement with the experimental data than that by the OG mesh.

Research limitations/implications

The current study provides some new insights of the use of SBES turbulence model in VAWT CFD simulations.

Practical implications

The SBES turbulence model can significantly improve the numerical accuracy on predicting the VAWT performance at a lower tip speed ratio (TSR), which other turbulence models cannot achieve. Furthermore, it has less computational demand for the finer grid resolution used in the RANS-Large Eddy Simulation (LES) “transition” zone compared to other hybrid RANS-LES models.

Originality/value

To authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply SBES turbulence model to predict VAWT performance resulting for accurate CFD results. The better prediction can increase the credibility of computational evaluation of a new or an improved configuration of VAWT.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2007

Federico Ghirelli

To provide an eddy‐viscosity turbulence model that accounts for the non‐equilibrium shape of the energy spectrum and for the effect of velocity correlation on turbulent viscosity.

Abstract

Purpose

To provide an eddy‐viscosity turbulence model that accounts for the non‐equilibrium shape of the energy spectrum and for the effect of velocity correlation on turbulent viscosity.

Design/methodology/approach

The turbulence model is built using the standard model as the starting point. It is suggested that the character of turbulence depends on the time elapsed since its generation. Therefore, a local variable named “age of turbulence” or α, is defined and its transport equation is derived. Two hypotheses are formulated. The first one is that the shape of the energy spectrum depends on α. The second one is that also the effect of velocity correlation on turbulent viscosity is a function of α, in analogy with the dispersion coefficient of a particle in a turbulent flow. Hence, expressions for the characteristic time scaleτT and the turbulent viscosity νT are proposed and they are integrated in the standard model, resulting in a three equation model named here kεα. The expressions of νT and τT reduce to those of the model in decaying turbulence, and deviate from them in recently produced turbulence. The empirical constants are calibrated and various benchmark experiments are simulated.

Findings

A comparison between computed results and experimental data show that the kεα model is generally more accurate than the standard model.

Originality/value

The “age of turbulence” has not been used previously to characterise turbulence. The work is especially relevant for combustion/reacting applications, where the expression of the characteristic turbulence time scale is crucial for the estimation of the reactant mixing rates.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

Mehrdad Raisee and Arman Rokhzadi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer through passages with an array of either detached or alternative attached‐detached ribs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer through passages with an array of either detached or alternative attached‐detached ribs of square cross‐section.

Design/methodology/approach

The finite‐volume method in a partially staggered grid system has been applied. For the modeling of turbulence, the zonal as well as the linear and non‐linear low‐Reynolds number k  −  ε models have been employed.

Findings

The numerical results show that the presence of the ribs produces a very complex flow in the channel. The mean flow predictions for the channel with detached ribs show that the low‐Re k  −  ε models are able to reproduce most of the experimentally observed flow features away from the ribbed wall, but return lower stream‐wise velocities close to the wall. Additionally, all low‐Re k  −  ε models underpredict the stream‐wise turbulence intensity whilst producing correct cross‐stream turbulence intensity levels close to the measured data. All three turbulence models fail to completely reproduce the distribution of Nusselt number. Among three turbulence models examined in this work, the zonal k  −  ε model produces the best heat transfer predictions.

Originality/value

The work contributes in understanding of the flow and thermal development in passages with detached ribs. The present set of 2D and steady heat and fluid flow comparisons establishes a base‐level for more realistic three‐dimensional and unsteady computations. The results of this study may be of interest to engineers attempting to re‐design the internal cooling system of gas turbine blades and to researchers interested in the turbulent flow‐modification aspects of heat transfer enhancement of forced convection in ribbed passages.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 19 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Yasser M. Ahmed and A.H. Elbatran

This paper aims to investigate numerically the turbulent flow characteristics over a backward facing step. Different turbulence models with hybrid computational grid have…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate numerically the turbulent flow characteristics over a backward facing step. Different turbulence models with hybrid computational grid have been used to study the detached flow structure in this case. Comparison between the numerical results and the available experiment data is carried out in the present study. The results of the different turbulence models were in a good agreement with the experimental results. The numerical results also concluded that the k-kl-ω turbulence model gave favorable results compared with the experiment.

Design/methodology/approach

It is very important to study the flow characteristics of detached flows. Therefore, the current study investigates numerically the flow characteristics in backward facing step by using two-, three- and seven-equation turbulence models in the finite volume code ANSYS Fluent. In addition, hybrid grid has been used to improve the capability of the unstructured mesh elements for predicting the flow separation in this case. Comparison between the different turbulence models and the available experimental data was done to find the most suitable turbulence model for simulating such cases of detached flows.

Findings

The present numerical simulations with the different turbulence models predicted efficiently the flow characteristics over the backward facing step. The transition k-kl-ω gave the best acceptable results compared with experimental data. This is a good concluded remark in the fields of fluid mechanics and hydrodynamics because the phenomenon of flow separation is not easy to be predicted numerically and can affect greatly on the predicted drag of moving bodies in many engineering applications.

Originality/value

The CFD results of using different turbulence models have been validated with the experimental work, and the results of k-kl-ω proven acceptable with flow characteristics. The results of the current study conclude that the use of k-kl-ω turbulence model will contribute towards a more efficient utilization in the fields of fluid mechanics and hydrodynamics.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Mehdi Dadkhah, Mehran Masdari, Mohammad Ali Vaziri and Mojtaba Tahani

In this paper, experimental and numerical results of a lambda wing have been compared. The purpose of this paper is to study the behaviour of lambda wings using a CFD tool…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, experimental and numerical results of a lambda wing have been compared. The purpose of this paper is to study the behaviour of lambda wings using a CFD tool and to consider different numerical models to obtain the most accurate results. As far as the consideration of numerical methods is concerned, the main focus is on the evaluation of computational methods for an accurate prediction of contingent leading edge vortices’ path and the flow separation occurring because of the burst of these vortices on the wing.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental tests are performed in a closed-circuit wind tunnel at the Reynolds number of 6 × 105 and angles of attack (AOA) ranging from 0 to 10 degrees. Investigated turbulence models in this study are Reynolds Averaged Navior–Stokes (RANS) models in a steady state. To compare the accuracy of the turbulence models with respect to experimental results, sensitivity study of these models has been plotted in bar charts.

Findings

The results illustrate that the leading edge vortex on this lambda wing is unstable and disappears soon. The effect of this disappearance is obvious by an increase in local drag coefficient in the junction of inner and outer wings. Streamlines on the upper surface of the wing show that at AOA higher than 8 degrees, the absence of an intense leading edge vortex leads to a local flow separation on the outer wing and a reverse in the flow.

Research limitations/implications

Results obtained from the behaviour study of transition (TSS) turbulence model are more compatible with experimental findings. This model predicts the drag coefficient of the wing with the highest accuracy. Of all considered turbulence models, the Spalart model was not able to accurately predict the non-linearity of drag and pitching moment coefficients. Except for the TSS turbulence model, all other models are unable to predict the aerodynamic coefficients corresponding to AOA higher than 10 degrees.

Practical implications

The presented results in this paper include lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients in various AOA and also the distribution of aerodynamic coefficients along the span.

Originality/value

The presented results include lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients in various AOA and also aerodynamic coefficients distribution along the span.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

Sílvio Aparecido Verdério Júnior, Vicente Luiz Scalon and Santiago del Rio Oliveira

The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the main physical–numerical parameters in the computational evaluation of natural convection heat transfer rates…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the main physical–numerical parameters in the computational evaluation of natural convection heat transfer rates in isothermal flat square plates in the laminar regime. Moreover by experimentally validate the results of the numerical models and define the best parameter settings for the problem situation studied.

Design/methodology/approach

The present work is an extension of the study by Verderio Junior et al. (2021), differing in the modeling, results analysis and conclusions for the laminar flow regime with Rade=1×105. The analysis of the influence and precision of the physical–numerical parameters: boundary conditions, degree of mesh refinement, refinement layers and κω SST and κε turbulence models, occurred from the results from 48 numerical models, which were simulated using the OpenFOAM® software. Comparing the experimental mean Nusselt number with the numerical values obtained in the simulations and the analysis of the relative errors were used in the evaluation of the advantages, restrictions and selection of the most adequate parameters to the studied problem situation.

Findings

The numerical results of the simulations were validated, with excellent precision, from the experimental reference by Kitamura et al. (2015). The application of the κω SST and κε turbulence models and the boundary conditions (with and without wall functions) were also physically validated. The use of the κω SST and κε turbulence models, in terms of cost-benefit and precision, proved to be inefficient in the problem situation studied. Simulations without turbulence models proved to be the best option for the physical model for the studies developed. The use of refinement layers, especially in applications with wall functions and turbulence models, proved unfeasible.

Practical implications

Use of the physical–numerical parameters studied and validated, and application of the modeling and analysis methodology developed in projects and optimizations of natural convection thermal systems in a laminar flow regime. Just like, reduce costs and the dependence on the construction of experimental apparatus to obtain experimental results and in the numerical-experimental validation process.

Social implications

Exclusive use of free and open-source computational tools as an alternative to feasible research in the computational fluid dynamics area in conditions of budget constraints and lack of higher value-added infrastructure, with applicability in the academic and industrial areas.

Originality/value

The results and discussions presented are original and new for the applied study of laminar natural convection in isothermal flat plate, with analysis and validation of the main physical and numerical influence parameters.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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