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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2020

Tulay Girard and Musa Pinar

This study aims to use a holistic approach to empirically examine the direct and indirect relationships of both core and supporting consumer-based brand equity (CBBE…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use a holistic approach to empirically examine the direct and indirect relationships of both core and supporting consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) dimensions from students’ perspectives and the underlying impact they have on building a robust university brand equity. It also tests whether student perceptions of the importance of the brand equity constructs significantly differ based on demographics.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts the core and supporting university brand equity dimensions that have been tested for reliability and validity in prior research. Data were collected at a major university in the USA. The study used judgment sampling to carefully select a targeted sample of various colleges and class levels. A total of 439 useable surveys were collected.

Findings

The results of partial least squares–structural equation modeling reveal significant relationships between both core and supporting brand equity dimensions. The core brand equity dimensions include brand awareness, perceived quality, brand association, brand trust, learning environment, emotional environment, university reputation and brand loyalty. The supporting brand equity dimensions include library services, dining services, residence hall and physical facilities. Significant direct and/or indirect relationships were found between the core and supporting CBBE dimensions. The demographic variables of gender, semester standing and living arrangement also influence the importance of some of the core and supporting dimensions.

Practical implications

The results suggest that females, freshman and students living on-campus require specific attention in higher education. For a better representation and understanding of the university student population, we recommend that future studies use probability sampling and multiple universities for cross-validation.

Originality/value

Using the brand ecosystem framework, this is the first comprehensive study testing the relationships between both core and supporting CBBE dimensions in higher education. The study offers valuable insights to university stakeholders for building a strong university brand. It also confirms that the measures of the CBBE brand equity dimensions are valid and are applicable to other higher education institutions.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Musa Pinar, Tulay Girard and Cigdem Basfirinci

In response to global competitive challenges, universities recently started developing better strategies for branding. Branding has been used as a differentiation strategy…

Abstract

Purpose

In response to global competitive challenges, universities recently started developing better strategies for branding. Branding has been used as a differentiation strategy for higher education institutions. As the number of universities (public and private) has increased, so has the competition for students, the universities in Turkey have faced similar challenges. The main objective of this study is to investigate, from the students' perspective, the role of interactions of brand equity dimensions in creating a strong university brand.

Design/methodology/approach

Compiling from the literature, the study used a survey instrument to collect data at a comprehensive public university in Turkey. To assure representation of students across the campus, the sample included students at freshmen, sophomore, junior, senior and graduate levels from all major colleges.

Findings

Based on 1,300 usable surveys from students across all colleges of a major state university, the PLS-SEM model revealed significant relationships among the brand equity dimensions of brand awareness, perceived quality, brand association, learning environment, emotional environment, brand trust, brand loyalty and university reputation. These brand dimensions collectively and/or individually influence the students' university learning experiences that may result in creating strong university brand equity.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted at a government-owned university in Turkey capturing only students' perceptions. Future research could benefit from perceptions of other stakeholders like faculty, staff, alumni, and parents and testing the relationships for different types of universities. This study discusses the implications for developing university branding strategies.

Originality/value

The study empirically tests the validity and effects of the university brand equity dimensions with Turkish university students using structural equation modeling (SEM). It confirms that the measures of brand equity dimensions are also applicable in a different country.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Pradeep Korgaonkar, Ronnie Silverblatt and Tulay Girard

To investigate if consumer online patronage is influenced by product category and online store type.

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate if consumer online patronage is influenced by product category and online store type.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on the prior work in this area by the authors and other researchers the study collected data in two phases to investigate the study hypotheses.

Findings

The study results suggest that consumers' online patronage is differed based on product type. Interaction effects of the online stores and product type were significant too. Additionally, the rank order of importance of the Internet attribute varied among the three types of online retailers.

Research limitations/implications

The study results should be replicated in other markets. Future studies may also include a variety of different types of online outlets to improve the conclusiveness of the findings reported in this study.

Practical implications

The results should be of interest to the online retailers in choosing the types of merchandise and services to emphasis in the retailers marketing program.

Originality/value

The paper should be of interest to academicians as well as practitioners as it contributes to the small but growing literature in the area of online retailing. It adds to the literature on the product classification paradigm as well as offers practical guidelines for managers.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Tulay Girard, Rachel C. Litzinger and Mark M. Lennon

– The purpose of this paper is to present a review of an iPad application called iPocket Coach that can be used with a mobile device in business education.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a review of an iPad application called iPocket Coach that can be used with a mobile device in business education.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses the educational benefits of this application for classroom use and develops a pedagogical exercise by which students can build interpersonal skills.

Findings

The iPocket Coach can not only be used to develop skills but learn about common management issues involving conflict resolutions, personal development, providing constructive feedback, interviewing, performance evaluations, promotions, rewards, and terminations.

Originality/value

The exercise developed can be used in a consumer behavior or sales management course that teaches students how to handle difficult customers.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Musa Pinar, Tulay Girard, Paul Trapp and Zeliha Eser

The purpose of this paper is to examine customer, management, and contact personnel perceptions of consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) and its dimensions utilizing a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine customer, management, and contact personnel perceptions of consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) and its dimensions utilizing a services branding triangle framework in the banking industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from customers, managers, and contact personnel of three types of banks in Turkey – state, private, and foreign.

Findings

The study finds significant external branding gaps between the perceptions of managers and customers and interactive branding gaps between the perceptions of contact personnel and customers, but no internal branding gaps between the perceptions of managers and contact personnel with respect to CBBE dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was limited to Turkish adult citizens of a single major metropolitan area in Turkey and bank personnel in three cities.

Originality/value

The services branding triangle framework used in this study allows service brand managers to understand not only the differences in the perceptions of brand equity dimensions of bank customers, managers, and contact personnel, but also provides an opportunity to identify the external, internal, and interactive branding gaps of each of the brand equity dimensions. The findings provide an empirical test for the three promises theory and identifying potential branding gaps resulting from differences between consumer, management, and contact personnel perceptions of CBBE and its dimensions. The paper discusses the implications of the findings in developing a strong services brand and brand equity.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Musa Pinar, Paul Trapp, Tulay Girard and Thomas E. Boyt

In today's complex and highly competitive marketplace, universities and colleges, realizing a need to develop sustainable strategies, have turned to branding as a…

Abstract

Purpose

In today's complex and highly competitive marketplace, universities and colleges, realizing a need to develop sustainable strategies, have turned to branding as a solution. However, because of unique service characteristics, universities’ branding attempts may not always result in success. The purpose of this paper, utilizing the concept of brand equity as a foundation of understanding, is to present a framework and scale measurements of university brand equity and its dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

Because no prior measurement scales for university branding have existed, the scale measures for this study are compiled from the literature on brand equity measurements identifying the core and supporting value-creation factors for higher education. For this exploratory study, several pretests and exploratory factor analyses were conducted to ensure that the scale items are comprehensible and clearly measure the intended constructs. Students are considered as the target population for this study. Data for the main study were collected at a comprehensive university in the Midwestern USA. A total of 30 classes with varying sizes provided 439 usable surveys.

Findings

Empirical results from the survey research suggest that some of the brand equity dimensions are more important in developing strong university brands. Of the core dimensions, perceived quality of faculty is the most important brand equity dimension, followed by university reputation and emotional environment, brand loyalty, and brand awareness dimensions for creating a strong university brand. Among the supporting brand equity dimensions, library services was the most important for creating a strong university brand, followed by student living (residence halls and dining services), career development, and physical facilities (e.g. gym, classrooms, labs).

Research limitations/implications

Although the target population was students, as a first step, the survey was administered to students at one university. Administering surveys to students at different universities and comparing the results would improve the reliability of the brand equity scales. The significant correlations found among the brand equity dimensions suggest the interconnectedness of these dimensions. The findings have implications for developing and implementing university brand strategies. The authors suggest serious consideration to be given to a holistic approach to branding efforts.

Originality/value

The branding literature offers no prior research that develops and tests a scale or examines the issues and factors that are important for developing strong university brands and brand equity for higher education institutions. This study develops the scale measurements through a comprehensive literature review, tests the validity of the measurements, and takes the brand equity theory one step further by identifying the core and supporting-value creation factors suggested sporadically in the literature. The framework suggests that both core and supporting value-creating activities are dynamically interrelated and work jointly in creating student learning experiences, and ultimately, a strong university brand.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2012

Musa Pinar, Tulay Girard and Zeliha Eser

The purpose of this paper is to examine bank brand equity from consumer perspectives by comparing the consumer‐based brand equity (CBBE) dimensions of local and global…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine bank brand equity from consumer perspectives by comparing the consumer‐based brand equity (CBBE) dimensions of local and global banks in Turkey. The paper determines if and how CBBE differs across three types of banks (state, private, and foreign).

Design/methodology/approach

Measurements of brand equity dimensions were drawn from the literature, which included brand awareness, perceived quality, brand image, brand association, organizational association, and brand loyalty. Data were collected from adult customers of three types of banks.

Findings

It was found that the overall CBBE, perceived quality, brand image/association, and brand loyalty were significantly higher for private banks than for state and foreign banks. Organizational association was the highest for state banks, followed by private banks, and the lowest for foreign banks. Foreign banks scored the lowest in perceived quality, brand loyalty, and the overall CBBE.

Originality/value

The results help foreign banks understand branding challenges/threats they may face from local banks in new markets. Such challenges might pertain to low levels of organizational associations and service quality perceived for foreign banks, as found in this study. The findings close the gap in the area of the brand equity theory that has not been adequately developed for the banking/financial industry.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Tulay Girard and Musa Pinar

This study aims to examine the potential effects of the gender similarity between the presenter and evaluator on the presentation evaluation scores obtained with an…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the potential effects of the gender similarity between the presenter and evaluator on the presentation evaluation scores obtained with an evaluation form.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from marketing students at two universities in the USA. A rubric and separate survey instrument were used to capture student presentation evaluation scores and perceptions of gender differences in various aspects of presentation quality.

Findings

Findings indicate that gender of evaluators or presenters did not have any significant effect on presentation scores. The survey of student perceptions of gender effect on student presentations indicate that while female students seem to be perceived as better presenters than male students, the study found no consistent patterns of gender effect on presentation evaluations.

Research limitations/implications

Only four evaluation criteria were used to measure presentation quality.

Originality/value

The results of this exploratory study uses the actual presentation evaluations and survey of student perceptions suggesting that student inputs can be included for grading without any concern of gender bias on grading.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Musa Pinar, Paul Trapp, Tulay Girard and Thomas E. Boyt

In today's complex and highly competitive marketplace, universities and colleges, realizing a need to develop sustainable strategies, have turned to branding as a…

Abstract

Purpose

In today's complex and highly competitive marketplace, universities and colleges, realizing a need to develop sustainable strategies, have turned to branding as a solution. However, because of their unique service characteristics, universities' branding attempts may not always result in success. The aim of this paper is to present a brand ecosystem framework in order to develop branding strategies for colleges and universities.

Design/methodology/approach

The key elements of the framework include: student experiences as the driving force of the university branding strategies, academic services as the core value creation activities in delivering student learning experiences that are co‐created with students and faculty, and supporting activities that are important in creating the core value.

Findings

The framework suggests that both core and supporting value‐creating activities are dynamically inter‐related and work jointly in creating student learning experiences, and ultimately, a strong university brand.

Originality/value

The paper presents the crucial elements and the relationships among them for building successful brands in higher education.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Brian Roberts

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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