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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

A. R. Elangovan, Werner Auer-Rizzi and Erna Szabo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of damage incurred by the trustor as a result of a trust violation and the impact of different levels of post-violation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of damage incurred by the trustor as a result of a trust violation and the impact of different levels of post-violation trust repair behaviours by the trustee on the subsequent erosion of trust.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 232 middle to senior level managers using a two-part scenario-based experimental design to test the impact of damage incurred (avoided) and post-violation repair behaviour. Respondents’ levels of trust were measured pre- and post-violation as well as forgiving and a range of demographic variables.

Findings

Results showed that trust eroded independent of the level of damage that may have been caused. Further, post-violation trust repair behaviour by the trustee led to a significantly lower erosion of trust as compared to not engaging in such behaviours. Furthermore, erosion of trust was minimized, when the trustee engaged in increasing levels of trust repair behaviour. Results also showed that trustors who were relatively more forgiving were less likely to lose trust in the trustee after a violation.

Research limitations/implications

In this study we focused on two key factors influencing the erosion of trust. Further factors need to be identified and empirically tested in order to get a more holistic view on how trust erodes. The results serve as one step towards building an integrated model of trust erosion.

Practical implications

For practicing managers, the results imply that the actual incurrence or avoidance of damages from a trust violation appears to be peripheral – trustors are more concerned about the violation as a principle and a harbinger of similar future incidents. Further, quickly engaging in trust repair behaviours, such as offering an a good explanation, a heartfelt apology, and appropriate remedy, helps minimize the erosion of trust.

Originality/value

This paper addresses an under-investigated facet of trust research in organizations – erosion of trust – which is especially crucial in light of the growing awareness that most organizational relationships actually start off with high levels of trust rather than low trust. Thus, this study offers insights into maintaining (as opposed to building) trust.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

A.R. Elangovan, Werner Auer‐Rizzi and Erna Szabo

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the trustor's responsibility‐attributions for a trust violation and the trustee's frequency of prior violations on…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the trustor's responsibility‐attributions for a trust violation and the trustee's frequency of prior violations on the subsequent erosion of trust in the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 120 middle‐senior level managers using a two‐part scenario‐based experimental design to test the impact of attributions and frequency of violations. Respondents' levels of trust and distrust were measured pre‐ and post‐violation as well as forgiving and a range of demographic variables.

Findings

Results showed that trust eroded (and distrust increased) more when trustors perceived the trustees as not wanting to fulfill the trust‐expectations than when they could not do so. Further, trustors were willing to tolerate a maximum of two violations before trust in the relationship eroded significantly. The results also showed that trustors who were relatively more forgiving were less likely to lose trust in the trustee after a violation, as were younger and less experienced individuals.

Research limitations/implications

Although scenario‐based experiments assess the cognitive states of the respondents rather than actual behaviors, they serve as a valuable first step. By highlighting the two‐step sequence that may underlie the trust erosion process and emphasizing the importance of using an attributional perspective, the paper invites future research on a range of factors such as patterns of violation, degrees of damage, etc. Collectively, they ought to lead to an integrated model of trust erosion.

Practical implications

For practicing managers, the results underscore the importance of maintaining trust by constantly meeting expectations. While they may be forgiven for one‐time mistakes in maintaining trust, they cannot be repeated without severely damaging the trust in the relationship. Also, employees need to be convinced that the erring manager or colleague has done his/her very best to prevent the violation.

Originality/value

This paper addresses an under‐investigated facet of trust research in organizations – erosion of trust – which is especially crucial in light of the growing awareness that most organizational relationships actually start off with high levels of trust rather than low trust. Thus, this study offers insights into maintaining (as opposed to building) trust.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2020

Elvira Bolat, Julie Robson, Kokho Jason Sit, Shannon Birch-Chapman, Samreen Ashraf, Juliet Memery and Caroline Jackson

This paper aims to understand consumers’ response to the trust repair mechanisms adopted by corporate brands in a service sector context following prominent trust damaging…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand consumers’ response to the trust repair mechanisms adopted by corporate brands in a service sector context following prominent trust damaging organizational transgressions.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a qualitative approach, six focus group discussions are used to investigate three high-profile consumer trust erosion cases within the service sector.

Findings

Consumer trust varies by context. Despite the severity of trust damage, corporate brands can recover trust towards their brands amongst consumers not directly affected by transgressions. Not all trust repair mechanisms are equally applicable to all service contexts, and re-branding could be used as a trust repair mechanism. Corporate brands in the service sector should focus on sense-making, relational approaches and transparency. Orchestration of trust repair mechanisms needs to be integrated within the trust rehabilitation processes.

Research limitations/implications

This study illustrates it is important to reconsider trust repair processes to accommodate context and integrate post-transgression consumer research.

Practical implications

Successful corporate brand rehabilitation of consumer trust requires examination of the trustworthiness dimensions consumers express before and after the transgression to select the most appropriate trust repair mechanisms. Findings suggest organizations also have preventative trust repair management programs.

Originality/value

This research is the first to empirically apply the conceptual framework of Bachmann et al. (2015) to explore consumer responses to the trust repair mechanisms adopted by corporate brands by context.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2021

Malek Sghaier, Hamida Skandrani and Julie Robson

This study aims to identify the responses required to repair political trust in Tunisia and the differences between two key stakeholder groups, namely, politicians and voters.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the responses required to repair political trust in Tunisia and the differences between two key stakeholder groups, namely, politicians and voters.

Design/methodology/approach

A sequential mixed method study was adopted using two data sources: semi-structured interviews conducted with citizens and politicians; and media data from TV political talk shows. Data was collected over a three-year period following several key events that affected trust.

Findings

New responses were identified to repair political trust, and these were categorized using a trust repair framework. In addition to short- and long-term responses, a new category, swift response, was identified to resolve immediate political uncertainty. The role of the trustor (i.e. voters) in actively restoring trust was identified for the first time.

Research limitations/implications

This study focussed on trust repair responses suggested by voters and politicians and not necessarily responses that were implemented by government or political parties during the period of study. The effectiveness of the suggested responses in repairing trust was not evaluated.

Practical implications

Identification of the responses required to repair trust with voters, how these differ over time, and according to different trust violations will help Tunisian politicians rebuild trust more effectively during election and non-election periods. Notably, differences highlighted between the responses suggested by voters and politicians suggest that politicians may not understand how to repair voter trust.

Originality/value

Contrary to previous studies that assume a trustor (the voter) is a passive observer, this research identified the proactive role that citizens play in the trust repair process.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2022

Dagmara Lewicka

The importance of trust in student–university relations is relevant not only for the quality of the educational process and the satisfaction with studying achieved by…

Abstract

Purpose

The importance of trust in student–university relations is relevant not only for the quality of the educational process and the satisfaction with studying achieved by students, but also for the importance of positive evaluation of HEIs to others. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify the stages and mechanisms that build trust in student–university relations, the causes of trust violation and trust repair practices.

Design/methodology/approach

Public university students from Poland (16) and Germany (12) took part in the study based on semi-structured interviews. The research procedure followed an inductive approach. In addition, the critical events technique was used to identify trust violation and trust repair practices.

Findings

The study identifies the stages of the HEIs trust building process and the mechanisms upon which it is built. It attempts to catalogue trust violations, distinguishing three groups of “perpetrators” and categories of their differentiation in terms of their impact on trust. The study indicates ad hoc, informal methods of trust repair applied at HEIs and their conditions.

Practical implications

This study provides useful guidance for managers on how to build and maintain trust in HEIs.

Originality/value

The issue of trust building in HEIs is relatively new and therefore has not been sufficiently recognised to date. This study is the first to the author's knowledge to comprehensively address the problem of trust building, pointing out the mechanisms on which the formation of trust in HEIs is based. This study provides a novel contribution to the limited literature on trust violation and trust repair in HEIs.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Jae Choi and Derek L. Nazareth

The aim of this paper is to study the critical role of trust in electronic commerce extensively in the context of establishing initial trust between trading partners…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to study the critical role of trust in electronic commerce extensively in the context of establishing initial trust between trading partners. Ongoing trust between partners can quickly be eroded through security or other trust violations. This paper examines whether customers are willing to transact with an eCommerce vendor in light of security and trust violations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws upon research in professional trust relationships and adapts it to the e-commerce context to create a process view of trust violation and repair. Using a design science framework, this paper employs agent-based modeling as the simulation technique to study the implications of security and trust violations on the willingness of customers to continue transacting with the vendor. The simulations are conducted for a variety of trust violations and reconciliation actions.

Findings

While some of the results are predictable, the key finding for managers is that moderate reconciliation tactics are effective for all cases but the most severe trust violations, where trust is irrevocably broken. This has clear financial implications, particularly in cases where vendors may operate with small margins in competitive markets.

Originality/value

Given the increasing push toward mobile and Internet-based commerce, and the large range of possible trust violations and security incidents in online purchases, coupled with increasing competition among vendors, it becomes imperative for vendors to provide effective tactics to repair customer trust violations when they arise.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Satu Koskinen and Anna-Maija Lämsä

The purpose of this paper is to explore the trust development in the dyadic relationship of CEO and chair of the board.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the trust development in the dyadic relationship of CEO and chair of the board.

Design/methodology/approach

A narrative approach is adopted to examine the meanings that CEOs and chairpersons give to trust in their relationship, and to explore trust as an evolving phenomenon that can increase or decline over the course of the relationship. The data include 16 CEO-chair dyads from Finnish limited companies.

Findings

The results suggest that trust may exist on different levels and evolve in various ways during the course of the relationship. Integrity and agreement on company strategy are proposed to form the foundation for trust in the CEO-chair relationship, whereas ability and benevolence are necessary for trust to develop to a higher level.

Research limitations/implications

Studying trust development based on the data generated at one point of time and in only one country are the major limitations of the study.

Practical implications

It is proposed that the level of trust influences value creation in the relationship.

Originality/value

The study adds to the limited number of previous studies on the CEO-chair relationship and contributes to the literature on trust development by making visible the viewpoint of both partners, and the meaning of the different components of trust.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Abstract

Details

Understanding National Culture and Ethics in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-022-1

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Edward C. Tomlinson

This research aims to separate the effect of a promise from an apology, examine interactional justice as a theoretical mechanism explaining the relationship between these…

1292

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to separate the effect of a promise from an apology, examine interactional justice as a theoretical mechanism explaining the relationship between these accounts and post‐violation trust, examine how message content compares to the gesture of sending a message, and test offense severity as a moderator.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employed the Trust Game.

Findings

Results indicated significant apology × promise and apology × promise × offense severity interactions on interactional justice, and interactional justice fully mediated the relationship between promises and post‐violation trust.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study was completed using a laboratory game with anonymous partners, results suggest that interactional justice provides a means for relationships to quickly get back on track after a violation. Specifically, promises provide “forward‐looking” information (trustworthy intent) and interpersonal sensitivity (demonstration of courtesy and concern) that enable interactional justice to affect subsequent trust.

Practical implications

These findings attest to the efficacy of clear accounts to foster interactional justice; in particular, apologies lead to higher interactional justice for less serious offenses. Furthermore, accounts that are “forward‐looking” lead to higher post‐violation trust via interactional justice perceptions.

Originality/value

Recent empirical studies suggest that apologies are associated with higher post‐violation trust, but, unlike this article, have not explicated this process or its boundary conditions.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Peder Hyllengren, Gerry Larsson, Maria Fors, Misa Sjöberg, Jarle Eid and Olav Kjellevold Olsen

The study seeks to illuminate factors that benefit, or do not benefit, the development of swift trust towards leaders in temporary military groups.

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Abstract

Purpose

The study seeks to illuminate factors that benefit, or do not benefit, the development of swift trust towards leaders in temporary military groups.

Design/methodology/approach

The study group comprised 50 Norwegian cadets, 34 Norwegian military officers, 317 Swedish cadets, and 190 Swedish military officers. Data were gathered using a questionnaire which included two open‐ended questions on aspects which contribute to swift trust (and lack thereof) towards leaders, as well as Likert‐scale questions on temporary group characteristics, and a personality inventory.

Findings

A qualitative clustering analysis of the open‐ended responses yielded a hierarchical model of aspects which contribute to swift trust (or the lack thereof) with the following two superior categories: individual‐related characteristics such as emotional stability and relationship‐related characteristics such as encourage involvement and creativity. The latter superior category covaried most strongly with ratings of the groups' performance.

Research limitations/implications

The results need to be substantiated by further research in other professional groups and cultures.

Practical implications

The findings can help leaders of temporary groups become more conscious of how they may affect the group members' development of swift trust.

Originality/value

The hierarchical and detailed model of aspects which contribute to swift trust in leaders of temporary groups is new.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000