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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Meshack O. Efeoma and Ola Uduku

The purpose of this paper is to adduce the most appropriate thermal comfort assessment method for determining human thermal comfort and energy efficient temperature…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to adduce the most appropriate thermal comfort assessment method for determining human thermal comfort and energy efficient temperature control in office buildings in tropical West Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the Adaptive Thermal Comfort Standard, from its research evolution to its contemporary use as an environmental design assessment Standard. It compares the adaptive component of ASHRAE Standard 55 and the European CEN/EN 15251. It begins by reviewing relevant literature and then produces a comparative analysis of the two standards, before suggesting the most appropriate Adaptive Thermal Comfort Standard for use in assessing conditions in tropical climate conditions. The suggested Standard was then used to analyse data collected from the author's pilot research into thermal conditions, in five office buildings situated in the city of Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria.

Findings

The paper provides insight as to why the ASHRAE adaptive model is more suitable for thermal comfort assessment of office buildings in the tropical West African climate. This was demonstrated by using the ASHRAE Thermal Comfort Standard to assess comfort conditions from pilot research study data collected on Nigerian office buildings by the author.

Originality/value

The paper compares the adaptive component of ASHRAE Standard 55 with CEN/EN 15251, and their different benefits for use in tropical climates. It suggested the need for further research studies and application of the ASHRAE Adaptive Thermal Comfort Standard in the tropical West African climate.

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Structural Survey, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Mahdi Valitabar, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Henry Skates and Peiman Pilechiha

The aim of this paper is to present a parametric design method to generate optimum adaptive facades regarding occupants' comfort and building energy criteria. According to…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to present a parametric design method to generate optimum adaptive facades regarding occupants' comfort and building energy criteria. According to the literature review, the following questions have arisen to address the research gaps: Is it possible to have the outside view throughout the whole year without discomfort glare by utilising adaptive solar facades (ASFs)? How can architects integrate both view quality and quantity into ASF design? What is the impact of dynamic vertical shading systems mounted on south facades on the outside view, occupants' visual comfort and operational energy? How can we evaluate the view quantity through multi-layer shading systems?

Design/methodology/approach

In recent years, there is a surge in demand for fully glazed buildings, motivating both architects and scholars to explore novel ideas for designing adaptive solar facades. Nevertheless, the view performance of such systems has not been fully explored especially when it comes to the effect of dynamic vertical shading systems mounted on south facades. This fact clarifies the need to conduct more research in this field by taking into account the window view and natural light. Consequently, a simulation research is carried out to investigate the impact of a dynamic shading system with three vertical slats used on the south facade of a single office room located in Tehran, on both view quality and quantity, visual comfort and operational energy. The research attempts to reach a balance between the occupant's requirements and building energy criteria through a multi-objective optimisation. The distinctive feature of the proposed method is generating some optimum shading which could only cover the essential parts of the window area. It was detected from the simulation results that the usage of a dynamic vertical shading system with multi slats for south facades compared to common Venetian blinds can firstly, provide four times more view quantity. Secondly, the view quality is significantly improved through enabling occupants to enjoy the sky layer the entire year. Finally, twice more operational energy can be saved while more natural light can enter the indoor environment without glare. The final outcome of this research contributes toward designing high-performance adaptive solar facades.

Findings

This paper proposes a new metric to evaluate the view quantity through a multi-layer shading system. The proposed method makes it clear that the usage of dynamic vertical shading systems with multi-layers mounted on south facades can bring many benefits to both occupants and building energy criteria. The proposed method could (1) provide four times more view quantity; (2) improve view quality by enabling occupants to watch the sky layer throughout the whole year; (3) slash the operational energy by twice; (4) keep the daylight glare probability (DGP) value in the imperceptible range.

Research limitations/implications

The research limitations that should be acknowledged are ignoring the impact of the adjacent building on sunlight reflection, which could cause discomfort glare issues. Another point regarding the limitations of the proposed optimisation method is the impact of vertical shading systems on users' visual interests. A field study ought to be conducted to determine which one could provide the more desirable outside view: a vertical or horizontal the view. Research on the view performance of ASFs, especially their impact on the quality of view, is sorely lacking.

Originality/value

This paper (1) analyses the performance of dynamic vertical shadings on south facades; (2) evaluates outside view through multi-layer shading systems; and (3) integrates both view quality and quantity into designing adaptive solar facades.

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Open House International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Anwar Ibrahim, Hikmat H. Ali and Wala'a Alqarra

This study aims to evaluate the effect of the installed photovoltaic (PV) systems on the aesthetic perception of the mosque’s architectural form. It also aims to develop a…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the effect of the installed photovoltaic (PV) systems on the aesthetic perception of the mosque’s architectural form. It also aims to develop a framework for integrating PV cells with the various elements of the building type.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a mixed-method approach comprising both qualitative and quantitative techniques for data collection procedures. This includes surveys, literature review, focus groups and an experiment.

Findings

The results revealed a negative impact of the building-applied PV panels on people’s perception of the mosque’s architectural form. However, integrating the PV cells with the mosque form was perceived as more aesthetically pleasing. Certain integrating PV strategies integrated more harmoniously with certain mosque styles.

Research limitations/implications

This study is focused on limited styles of one building type. Extra research is needed to explore the differences between the different participated groups.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research that explores the ways the installed PV systems impact the users’ architectural aesthetic perception of the mosque. This study informs the design process and practice and construction industry by highlighting the opportunities PV systems, as a legitimate sustainable energy resource, offers to architects and manufacturers.

Details

Open House International, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Nurul Hayati Yong, Qi Jie Kwong, Kok Seng Ong and Dejan Mumovic

As suggested in many previous studies, good thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) played a significant role in ensuring human comfort, health and productivity in…

Abstract

Purpose

As suggested in many previous studies, good thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) played a significant role in ensuring human comfort, health and productivity in buildings. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the thermal comfort and IAQ conditions of open-plan office areas within a green-certified campus building through a post occupancy evaluation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the field measurement method, environmental dataloggers were positioned at three office areas during office hours to measure the levels of thermal comfort parameters, CO2 concentrations and the supply air rates. At the same time, questionnaires were distributed to the available office staff to obtain their perception of the indoor environment. The findings were then compared with the recommended environmental comfort ranges and used to calculate the thermal comfort indices.

Findings

Results show that the physical parameters were generally within acceptable ranges of a local guideline. The neutral temperature based on the actual mean vote at these areas was 23.9°C, which is slightly lower than the predicted thermal neutrality of 25.2°C. From the surveyed findings, about 81% of the occupants found their thermal environment comfortable with high adaptation rates. A preference for cooler environments was found among the workers. Meanwhile, the air quality was perceived to be clean by a majority of the respondents, and the mean ventilation rate per person was identified to be sufficient.

Research limitations/implications

This study focussed on the thermal environment and air quality at selected office spaces only. More work should be carried out in other regularly occupied workplaces and study areas of the green educational building to allow a more thorough analysis of the indoor air conditions.

Practical implications

This paper highlights on the thermal comfort and air quality conditions of the air-conditioned office spaces in a green-certified campus building and is intended to assist the building services engineers in effective air conditioning control. The findings reported are useful for thermal comfort, IAQ and subsequently energy efficiency improvements in such building type where adjustments on the air temperature set-point can be considered according to the actual requirements. This study will be extended to other green campus spaces for a more exhaustive analysis of the indoor environment.

Originality/value

There is limited information pertaining to the environmental comfort levels in offices of green campus in the tropics. This study is, therefore, one of the earliest attempts to directly explore the thermal comfort and IAQ conditions in such workplace using both on-site physical measurement and questionnaire survey.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Majid Haji‐Sapar and Siew Eang Lee

To establish national energy performance benchmarks and an energy efficiency classification system for commercial office buildings from whole building to sub‐systems level…

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Abstract

Purpose

To establish national energy performance benchmarks and an energy efficiency classification system for commercial office buildings from whole building to sub‐systems level for building professionals including facility managers.

Design/methodology/approach

Issuing of survey form and questionnaires to 16 building owners before field interview. Building physical data and systems nameplate, quantities and types were verified on site. The past 24 months electricity consumption bills were also collected from building owners. Physical environmental conditions and short‐term power measurement on building systems were done to determine the level of energy consumption and performance.

Research limitations/implications

The classification and benchmarking methodology developed is useful for the regions to establish their own database and tools.

Practical implications

The building energy performance assessment and auditing methodology are useful to both building owner/manager and energy services companies (ESCOs) in carrying out systematic assessment and analysis on building energy characteristics. The benchmark system established will also serve as a reference to building professionals to adopt a more holistic approach in designing an energy efficient building. Useful also for building owners who are considering carrying out retrofitting works on their existing building or systems.

Originality/value

The study provides detailed whole building and systems benchmarks for Singapore. The results provide an objective evaluation system of commercial office building energy performance.

Details

Facilities, vol. 23 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2021

Md. Jewel Rana, Md. Rakibul Hasan and Md. Habibur Rahman Sobuz

Application of appropriate shading device strategies in buildings can reduce direct solar heat gain through windows as well as optimize cooling and artificial lighting…

Abstract

Purpose

Application of appropriate shading device strategies in buildings can reduce direct solar heat gain through windows as well as optimize cooling and artificial lighting load. This study investigates the impact of common shading devices such as overhangs, fins, horizontal blinds, vertical blinds and drapes on energy consumption of an office building and suggests energy efficient shading device strategies in the contexts of unique Bangladeshi subtropical monsoon climate.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was performed through the energy simulation perspective of a prototype office building using a validated building energy simulation tool eQUEST. Around 100 simulation patterns were created considering various types of shading devices and building orientations. The simulation results were analysed comprehensively to find out energy-efficient shading device strategies.

Findings

Optimum overhang and fin height is equal to half of the window height in the context of the subtropical climate of Bangladesh. South and West are the most vulnerable orientations, and application of shading devices on these two orientations shows the highest reduction of cooling load and the lowest increment of lighting load. An existing building was able to save approximately 7.05% annual energy consumption by applying the shading device strategies that were suggested by this study.

Originality/value

The shading device strategies of this study can be incorporated into the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) as new energy-efficient building design strategies because the BNBC does not have any codes or regulations regarding energy-efficient shading device. It can also be used as energy-efficient shading device strategies to other Southeast Asian countries with similar climatic contexts of Bangladesh.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Christian Koranteng, Barbara Simons, Kwabena Abrokwa Gyimah and Jimmy Nkrumah

Accra, the capital city of Ghana, is seeing high-rise buildings springing up with extensive glazing. Given the challenges of the country concerning energy provision…

Abstract

Purpose

Accra, the capital city of Ghana, is seeing high-rise buildings springing up with extensive glazing. Given the challenges of the country concerning energy provision, guaranteeing comfort in buildings and sustainability aspects, this trend is questionable and worrying in this pandemic era. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate how glazing types and their properties could reduce cooling loads and provide comfort by following the recommendations set by the Ghana Green Building Council (GHGBC) after the Green Star of South Africa, as well as other references found in literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Indoor thermal conditions were monitored to evaluate prevailing indoor conditions. Using a simulation application, various options were probed based on the Green recommendations and others found in literature to improve thermal comfort within the structure. Moreover, a questionnaire survey with observation was undertaken with 250 architects to understand the basis of decisions taken when specifying glazing for buildings.

Findings

The results indicate that cooling loads increased by 2% when the GHGBC after the Green Star of South Africa recommendations were applied. However, the use of the recommendations of previous research conducted in Ghana could reduce cooling loads by 38% to save energy. Suggested strategies of air velocity up to 1.0 m/s as well as thermal mass, comfort ventilation, conventional dehumidification and air-conditioning were found to be means to improve indoor comfort. Furthermore, the architects revealed that around 40% of multi-storey buildings are 70%–100% glazed. Of all the buildings, 62.4% was found to be glazed with single pane windows, making them use so much energy in cooling. Additionally, the survey underlined the client’s preference, cost and functionality as the three main bases for the choice of glazing in multi-storey office buildings.

Originality/value

A significant contribution of this study to the body of knowledge is the provision of empirical evidence to support the fact that due to climate difference, each country needs to undertake more experimental research works to be able to come out with standards that work. Thus, the GHGBC after the Green Star of South Africa does not necessarily work within the climatic context of Ghana.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Baharuddin Hamzah, Muhammad Taufik Ishak, Syarif Beddu and Mohammad Yoenus Osman

The purpose of this paper is to analyse thermal comfort and the thermal environment in naturally ventilated classrooms. Specifically, the aims of the study were to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse thermal comfort and the thermal environment in naturally ventilated classrooms. Specifically, the aims of the study were to identify the thermal environment and thermal comfort of respondents in naturally ventilated university classrooms and compare them with the ASHRAE and Indonesian National Standard (SNI); to check on whether the predicted mean vote (PMV) model is applicable or not for predicting the thermal comfort of occupants in naturally ventilated university classrooms; and to analyse the neutral temperature of occupants in the naturally ventilated university classrooms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out at the new campus of Faculty of Engineering, Hasanuddin University, Gowa campus. A number of field surveys, which measured thermal environments, namely, air temperature, mean radiant temperature (MRT), relative humidity, and air velocity, were carried out. The personal activity and clothing properties were also recorded. At the same time, respondents were asked to fill a questionnaire to obtain their thermal sensation votes (TSV) and thermal comfort votes (TCV), thermal preference, and thermal acceptance. A total of 118 respondents participated in the study. Before the survey was conducted, a brief explanation was provided to the participants to ensure that they understood the study objectives and also how to fill in the questionnaires.

Findings

The results indicated that the surveyed classrooms had higher thermal environments than those specified in the well-known ASHRAE standard and Indonesian National Standard (SNI). However, this condition did not make respondents feel uncomfortable because a large proportion of respondents voted within the comfort zone (+1, 0, and −1). The predictive mean vote using the PMV model was higher than the respondents’ votes either by TSV or by TCV. There was a huge difference between neutral temperature using operative temperature (To) and air temperature (Ta). This difference may have been because of the small value of MRT recorded in the measured classrooms.

Originality/value

The research shows that the use of the PMV model in predicting thermal comfort in the tropic region might be misleading. This is because PMV mostly overestimates the TSV and TCV of the respondents. People in the tropic region are more tolerant to a higher temperature. On the basis of this finding, there is a need to develop a new thermal comfort model for university classrooms that is particularly optimal for this tropical area.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 34 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2019

Alolote Amadi and Anthony Paul Higham

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the ongoing discourse centred on enhancing building performance to provide an interpretation of life cycle cost (LCC) analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the ongoing discourse centred on enhancing building performance to provide an interpretation of life cycle cost (LCC) analysis, directly applicable to building construction in coastal areas located in tropical wet–humid settings.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 50 buildings based on physical observation is carried out to identify typical failure patterns in wet‒humid environment. Further, a comparative initial construction cost and LCC analysis is computed for two alternative building schemes with identical floor plans: Scheme A using sound construction and detailing to guard against future maintenance problems and Scheme B adopting the typical designs evident in the study area.

Findings

The result of the analysis shows that in the long-run scheme, A is an economically more viable option than B, as the increased initial costs are entirely offset by the reduced running cost.

Research limitations/implications

The contextual nature of LCC analysis poses difficulties in applying the evidence provided in this study to provide a generalisable financial justification to buildings clients.

Practical implications

The outcome of the study provides analytical validation to overcome resistances and enables informed decision making by clients, which is necessary to promote transition from conventional to environmentally responsive design choices suitable to wet–humid conditions.

Originality/value

The study provides an interpretation of LCC analysis, directly applicable to building construction in the tropical wet–humid setting of coastal areas against the backdrop of inconsistencies in the practical application of the theory of LCC.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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