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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2020

Tricia Vilkinas, Duncan William Murray and Sarah Mei Yi Chua

The purpose of this paper is to propose a model of effective managerial leadership that incorporates the motivation of leaders to lead, their leadership behaviours and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a model of effective managerial leadership that incorporates the motivation of leaders to lead, their leadership behaviours and their reflective and learning ability (integrator). This model seeks to provide a more complete picture on the factors that contribute to effective leadership. Drawing on Quinn’s (1984) competing values framework and Vilkinas and Cartan’s (2001) integrated competing values framework, this study addresses the question of what motivates leaders to engage in effective leadership behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study examines the effects of motivation to lead (MTL), the integrator and behavioural repertoire on leadership effectiveness of 439 managers. Data were gathered in an online questionnaire using the online survey tool “Survey Monkey”.

Findings

Results show that the integrator (Vilkinas and Cartan, 2001) and the behavioural repertoire (Hooijberg, 1996) are significant predictors of leadership effectiveness. Affective identity and social-normative motivations to lead are strong predictors of leadership effectiveness, while non-calculative is a weaker predictor.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited by the use of self-perceptions. Future research could broaden the current results by including perceptions of work colleagues.

Practical implications

The results have implications for human resource managers as regards selecting and developing leaders.

Originality/value

This study is the first to examine the ways in which the integrator, behavioural repertoire and MTL predict leadership effectiveness.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Tricia Vilkinas

This paper aims to investigate whether the feedback managers receive from their work colleagues is based on a shared understanding of their leadership behaviours. This…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether the feedback managers receive from their work colleagues is based on a shared understanding of their leadership behaviours. This similarity in perception is called conceptual equivalence. The study also took into account the managers’ and their work colleagues’ expectations.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 441 managers participated in a 360-degree feedback programme that sought responses from their bosses (n = 380), peers (n = 1,621) and subordinates (n = 1,680). The instrument used was the Competing Values Framework 16-item survey, which describes the leadership behaviours that managers must display to be effective. It also measures the behaviours they consider important. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the rating scores of the managers and the three hierarchical levels of their work colleagues to determine conceptual equivalence between self and work colleagues’ ratings. Conceptual models were formulated and compared by testing for factor form equivalence.

Findings

Conceptual equivalence was found across all rater groups for both leadership behaviours displayed and the importance of leadership behaviours.

Practical implications

This paper provides managers and human resource professionals with useful insights on how to improve the use of 360-degree feedback processes by ensuring that conceptual equivalence is established for feedback supplied by raters from different hierarchical levels. The findings also stress the importance of including expectations when receiving feedback on leadership behaviours.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on the benefits of determining the conceptual equivalence of feedback received by managers from various work colleagues. A second contribution is the inclusion of expectations in the feedback process, as none of the previous work has included such a measure.

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

Tricia Vilkinas

Argues that generic research on leadership and management has much to offer those responsible for the academic supervision of research students, particularly PhD students…

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Abstract

Argues that generic research on leadership and management has much to offer those responsible for the academic supervision of research students, particularly PhD students. The analogies between the two “supervisory” roles are clear and the qualities and benefits of good supervisory practice can easily be transferred from corporate to academic arenas. Uses a conceptual framework, the competing values framework modified for academic supervision purposes, to illustrate the capabilities required of the PhD supervisor in the current tertiary environment.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Tricia Vilkinas

Robert Quinn’s competing values framework identified eight managerial roles that managers must display if they are to be effective. The eight roles are innovator, broker…

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Abstract

Robert Quinn’s competing values framework identified eight managerial roles that managers must display if they are to be effective. The eight roles are innovator, broker, producer, director, co‐ordinator, monitor, facilitator and mentor. In this study 509 managers, 127 of whom were females, responded to a survey exploring the extent to which they displayed each of Quinn’s managerial roles. Each managers’ staff were asked to respond to the questionnaire. When the gender of the managers and that of their significant others (staff, peers and boss) was taken into account there was no significant difference reported in the extent to which the eight roles were displayed nor the effectiveness level of male and female managers. The results of this study indicate that the gender of the manager does not impact on how they are perceived by their significant others. Rather it is how effective they are as managers that determines their significant others’ perceptions.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 15 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

Tricia Vilkinas

Lecturer in the Department of Management at the University of Newcastle, Australia, Tricia Vilkinas surveyed successful women in the Australian health service and compared…

Abstract

Lecturer in the Department of Management at the University of Newcastle, Australia, Tricia Vilkinas surveyed successful women in the Australian health service and compared their power bases with women in business in Australia and in banking in America. She found that the women health administrators see their competence as crucial, and more important to their success than luck or being well‐liked. They also rely more on their expertise than on their status to manage staff. Her study also suggests that the staff they manage may differ, or may react differently, than staff managed by men.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Tricia Vilkinas and Greg Cartan

This study seeks to identify the spatial relationships between the managerial roles within the integrated competing values framework (ICVF). The study also aims to…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to identify the spatial relationships between the managerial roles within the integrated competing values framework (ICVF). The study also aims to identify the central role the integrator performs with its critical observing and reflective learning function.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study investigated the spatial configuration of Quinn's original eight operational roles and Vilkinas and Cartan's ninth role to each other. A total of 100 middle managers participated in a 360° feedback program that sought responses from 928 of their “significant others”. Multiple discriminate scaling (MDS) was used to determine the spatial representation of the ICVF.

Findings

The results of the MDS found that the ICVF was a two‐dimensional, four‐quadrant model. However, one of the dimensions from the CVF, stability‐flexibility, was retitled to reflect more truly the roles that anchored this dimension. It was anchored by people‐task focus. The integrator, as predicted, was found to have a pivotal role for managers. In addition, three of the operational roles – producer, director and coordinator – combined to form a consolidated role called the “deliverer”.

Research limitations/implications

The model needs to be further researched for gender and cultural differences. In addition, the spatial maps of effective and ineffective managers need to be compared.

Practical implications

The paper assists managers to gain a clearer understanding of managerial roles, their interrelationships to each other and how to apply them more effectively. The paper would also be of value to those charged with the responsibility for the selection and development of managers.

Originality/value

This paper clarifies the relationship between the paradoxical roles in the ICVF. It also further develops our understanding of the role of the integrator with its critical self‐analysis and reflective learning capability and the central role it plays in the development of effective managers.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2009

Tricia Vilkinas, Jie Shen and Greg Cartan

This study sets out to investigate the leadership roles, the predictors of leadership effectiveness for Chinese managers, and the relative effects of gender and rater…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study sets out to investigate the leadership roles, the predictors of leadership effectiveness for Chinese managers, and the relative effects of gender and rater differences on perceived leadership roles. The study is important as it seeks to investigate whether a leadership model (the Integrated Competing Values Framework) developed for Western cultures explains the leadership behaviours of Chinese managers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a 360° feedback method, the data for the study were collected from 49 middle managers and 142 of their significant others (boss, peers and staff). The data were submitted to a repeated measures ANOVA, with role displayed and position as the within‐subjects factors and gender as the between‐subjects factor, to determine whether there were any significant main or interaction effects. A standard multiple regression was performed, between the effectiveness as the outcome and the leadership roles. This was followed by a forward regression analysis.

Findings

The empirical evidence shows significant differences in the extent to which the leadership roles were displayed. Chinese managers were focused most on getting the job done (deliverer) and monitoring performance (monitor) followed by developing staff (developer) and developing networks (broker). Being innovative (innovator) was the least displayed leadership role. The managers showed moderate reflective capability (integrator) and moderate effectiveness. They rated themselves higher than did their bosses, peers and staff. Their bosses also rated the managers' leadership behaviours higher than did the peers and staff. However, there was no significant difference between men and women in their leadership roles displayed or effectiveness. In the forward regression, the developer contributed relatively most to the prediction of effectiveness.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature on cultural and institutional effects on leadership behaviour and effectiveness. The findings show that cultural and institutional differences do significantly affect variability in leadership behaviour associated with leadership effectiveness.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Tricia Vilkinas, Greg Cartan and Judith Saebel

The purpose of this paper is to understand what was important to managers of businesses in desert Australia, and in particular, what they needed for the businesses to be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand what was important to managers of businesses in desert Australia, and in particular, what they needed for the businesses to be successful.

Design/methodology/approach

There were two studies. In Study 1, 88 managers of business in remote desert Australia were interviewed. In Study 2, 112 managers who had business in regional desert Australia participated in an on‐line survey.

Findings

In both studies, the respondents claimed that their businesses were reasonably successful. In Study 1, the interviewees said that making a living and seeing the business grow were important indices of success. In Study 2, customer/client satisfaction was the strongest indicator of business success. Factors such as safe and all‐weather roads, internet/e‐mail access and reliable power supplies were important to this success. The importance to business success of a number of leadership behaviours was also identified.

Research limitations/implications

Future research needs to encourage a larger number of managers to participate. In addition, suppliers and customers of the businesses need to be included.

Originality/value

This is the first study in which managers were included, because normally, only owner‐managers are involved. It is also the first study of its kind to be undertaken in desert Australia.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Tricia Vilkinas and Greg Cartan

Describes a 1988 study by Quinn which identified eight managerial roles that managers must display if they are to be effective. The eight roles are innovator, broker…

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Abstract

Describes a 1988 study by Quinn which identified eight managerial roles that managers must display if they are to be effective. The eight roles are innovator, broker, producer, director, co‐ordinator, monitor, facilitator and mentor. Reports on the present study where 149 managers, of which 35 per cent were females, responded to a survey exploring the extent to which they displayed each of Quinn’s managerial roles. The self‐perceptions of all managers was that the female managers displayed co‐ordinator, monitor and mentor roles more than did male managers. For each manager, their staff, peers and boss were also asked to respond to the questionnaire. Their staff reported that their female managers displayed five roles (innovator, producer, director, co‐ordinator and mentor) more frequently than did the male managers. Peers reported a difference in two of the managerial roles: broker and mentor (females displaying each role more frequently). Bosses did not see the male and female managers differently. The managers and their peers reported that female managers were more effective than male managers. Concludes that these findings have significance for how managers need to interact with their staff and peers and the need for male managers to develop their managerial roles more if they are to be more effective.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Alison Wyse and Tricia Vilkinas

Current and future public sector executive leadership role demands are explored from a competing values perspective, using roles previously identified with a private…

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Abstract

Current and future public sector executive leadership role demands are explored from a competing values perspective, using roles previously identified with a private sector population. The roles identified were vision setter, motivator, analyser and task master. The results of a 4×2×4×2 MANOVA indicated that there were significant results for the main factors of leadership roles and time and also for the interaction of these two factors. There were no significant gender differences, with female and male Australian Public Service senior executives offering very similar assessments of current and future role demands. Both groups said that future role demands would be greater than is currently the case. Reasons for the differences in the current and future role demands are discussed, and the scope for future research is highlighted.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

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