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Article

Dong Jiang, Litian Hu and Dapeng Feng

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize a novel kind of crown‐type phosphate ionic liquids with better tribological properties for steel/Al system. The anions of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize a novel kind of crown‐type phosphate ionic liquids with better tribological properties for steel/Al system. The anions of crown‐type phosphate ionic liquids contain no F element, which are non‐corrosive to metal.

Design/methodology/approach

To improve the tribological properties of ionic liquid lubricants for the extremely difficult system of the steel‐against‐aluminum metal couple, novel crown‐type phosphate ionic liquids were prepared. The tribological properties of the crown‐type phosphate ionic liquids were evaluated at different loads and frequencies on an Optical SRV oscillating friction and wear tester. The morphology and chemical compounds of the wear scars were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Findings

Compared with conventional ionic liquids, the novel crown‐type phosphate ionic liquids prepared in the present work exhibit a more excellent anti‐wear ability for steel/Al2024 contact at different loads and frequencies. By the morphological analysis with SEM, less debris was observed in the worn surface lubricated with crown‐type phosphate ionic liquids, though more debris was observed when lubricated with LB106 and LP106. By the XPS analysis, boundary lubrication film composed of aluminum (III) oxide, organometallic compounds, and silicon aluminum phosphate were found in the worn surface. Namely, the tribological behaviors of the crown‐type phosphate ionic liquids could be attributed to their stronger adsorption and tribochemical interactions with the Al alloys.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the higher mean friction coefficients of crown‐type phosphate ionic liquids in the research, researchers are encouraged to modify their structure for better tribological properties.

Practical implications

The crown‐type phosphate ionic liquid exhibited better anti‐wear performance for steel/aluminum contact than the conventional ionic liquids containing F element. This will expand the application of high strength aluminum alloys.

Originality/value

The phosphate ionic liquid is a non‐corrosive liquid and would not cause metal corrosion. Also, the tribological properties of crown‐type phosphate ionic liquid with steel/aluminum contact are better than that of conventional ionic liquids. By the designing of molecular structure, new phosphate ionic liquids will exhibit excellent tribological properties: lower wear volume and lower friction coefficient.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 65 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Yuncai Zhao, Fei Yang and Yongming Guo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological properties of a textured lubricating wear-resistant coating modified by nano-SiC at a high temperature. Its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological properties of a textured lubricating wear-resistant coating modified by nano-SiC at a high temperature. Its aim is to explore the influence of a new composite method on the organisation and structure of sprayed coatings as well as the evolution rules governing their high-temperature tribological properties.

Design/methodology/approach

A KF301/WS2 lubricating, wear-resisting, coating was prepared on matrix material GCr15 by applying supersonic plasma spraying technology. On the basis of this sample, using nano-SiC particles as a filler, the KF301/WS2 nano-modified coating with its round, pit-type texture was prepared by laser re-melting technology and a surface texturing technique. Two kinds of coating micro-organisations and structures were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the tribological properties of both the modified and conventional coatings were studied at a high temperature.

Findings

Results showed that nano-particles could effectively improve the coating micro-structure, and make the structure denser and more uniform, thus significantly increasing the wear resistance of the coating. When the friction and wear processes were stable, the friction coefficient decreased by 13 per cent, while the wear loss decreased by 45.9 per cent.

Originality/value

This research concentrating on the study of the process and performance of coatings doped with nano-particles by laser re-melting incorporating simultaneous surface texturing, and studies of their high-temperature tribological properties. That is because applying nano-particle modification technology to the development of wear-resistant coatings, and by applying the nano-particles to such coatings by thermal spraying technology, they can achieve a modification of the coating which makes the structure denser and more uniform.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Bin Xiao, Xiaolin Zheng, Yi Zhou, Dan Yao and Yang Wan

This study aims to evaluate the tribological behavior of water-lubricated rubber bearings sliding against stainless steel under different lubricate conditions.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the tribological behavior of water-lubricated rubber bearings sliding against stainless steel under different lubricate conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The water-lubricated rubber bearings under various normal loads and sliding speeds were carried out on the ring-block friction test, and the wear morphology is test conducted by using scanning electron microscope.

Findings

The results indicate that the surface of water-lubricated rubber bearings has a more alternative friction coefficient and wear rate under seawater than other lubricate conditions. The seawater not only acts as a lubricating medium but also brings microstructure while corroding the rubber interface, thereby further enhancing the lubricating effect and storing abrasive debris.

Originality/value

In this paper, tribological properties of the water-lubricated rubber bearing on ring-block friction test has been investigated. Water-lubricated rubber bearing was carried out on various lubricate conditions, and the friction coefficient, wear rate and worn surface were analyzed. Also, the effects of sliding speeds were investigated.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-06-2020-0204/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Joao Luiz do Vale, Carlos Henrique da Silva and Carlos M.G. da Silva Cruz

The purpose of this article is to discuss the tribological behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and property changes imposed by wear tests.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to discuss the tribological behavior of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and property changes imposed by wear tests.

Design/methodology/approach

Long-duration dry wear tests were carried out in a sliding bearing on shaft tribometer. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses were performed in the PTFE in its original condition and after the tests.

Findings

The wear products merged in multilayer films and were expelled out of the test sequence. Through DSC and FTIR analyses in the polymeric material, before and after tests, it was possible to verify an increase of the crystallinity degree of PTFE, as well as absence of crystalline fusion of the material. The wear products presented changes in the infrared spectra, which suggests the occurrence of some bonds of hydrogen and oxygen.

Originality/value

It was verified on correlation that fibril mechanism, which occurred during PTFE wear, and its crystallinity degree increase. Also, analysis of PTFE wear products showed CO and CH bonds, which were imposed by wear test.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Raquel Bayón, Cristina Zubizarreta, Roman Nevshupa, Juan Carlos Rodriguez, Xana Fernández, Unai Ruiz de Gopegui and Amaya Igartua

The aim of this work is the study the tribological behaviour and tribocorrosion resistance of newly developed multilayer PVD coatings Cr/CrN and CrN/ZrCN applied on…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this work is the study the tribological behaviour and tribocorrosion resistance of newly developed multilayer PVD coatings Cr/CrN and CrN/ZrCN applied on nitrided F1272 steel for gear applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Tribological characterization has been completed by several tribological tests performed under ball‐on‐disc configuration, extreme pressure tests to determine the maximum load before the films failure and rolling‐sliding tests under line‐contact conditions (35‐40 per cent of sliding). The response of the different coatings to sodium chloride aggressive environment has been simulated by accelerated tribocorrosion tests, combining simultaneously chemical and mechanical factors. The synergistic effect of wear on corrosion behaviour and vice versa, has been studied in order to compare the protective properties of the different PVD coatings developed.

Findings

Cr/CrN PVD coating improves wear in almost a 90 per cent compared to the nitrided substrate, presenting a similar behaviour to this one under extreme pressure conditions. CrN/ZrCN coating also improved substrate wear and especially good behaviour for this coating was observed under extreme pressure conditions. Cr/CrN coating strongly decreases micropitting and scuffing effect when it is tested under rolling‐sliding configuration. Under micro‐pitting conditions, coating protects the substrate and reduces the fatigue of uncoated discs. When adhesive wear (scuffing) is studied also Cr/CrN improves notable the nitrided steel performance. Under simultaneously corrosion‐wear conditions, Cr/CrN coating registered the lowest material loss because in this case only corrosion effect contributed to the coated surface degradation being the mechanical contribution inappreciable.

Originality/value

New multilayer coatings with improved wear performance and tribocorrosion resistance have been developed and comprehensively characterized. These coatings can be used in advanced gears for corrosive environmental conditions as well as with biodegradable lubricants.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Xiangqiong Zeng, Hongling Yi, Hua Wu, Jing Li, Tianhui Ren, Weimin Liu and Zhongyi He

This paper seeks to study the tribological properties, corrosion inhibition properties and action mechanism of two triazine‐containing disulfides, TOSS and TOMA, as…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to study the tribological properties, corrosion inhibition properties and action mechanism of two triazine‐containing disulfides, TOSS and TOMA, as additives in combustion engine base oil (5CST); those properties of an alkyl disulfide dodecyl disulfide and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) were also evaluated for comparison to discover whether these additives could be used as potential substitute candidates for ZDDP.

Design/methodology/approach

Their tribological performances were evaluated using a four‐ball machine. The worn surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

Findings

The three additives have good load‐carrying capacity and corrosion inhibition properties comparable with those of ZDDP. The anti‐wear properties of the triazine‐containing disulfides TOSS and TOMA are good but a little inferior to those of ZDDP. The friction‐reducing performances of the additives are better than those of ZDDP. The XPS results show that absorption and tribochemical reactions occur to generate a complex boundary lubrication films comprising inorganic sulfate, sulfide, iron oxide and organic nitrogen, and sulfur‐containing compounds.

Research limitations/implications

The anti‐oxidation properties are still to be estimated, and the synergistic effectiveness with other additives could be demonstrated.

Practical implications

These additives are good extreme pressure and anti‐wear additives in combustion engine base oil and, through further modification of molecular structure or combination with other additives, they may be a potential replacement for ZDDP.

Originality/value

To reduce the cost, the products synthesized were not finely separated. Their tribological properties as additives in the widely used combustion engine base oil were first investigated and results indicate that they show excellent performances.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 60 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Xianguo Hu

To provide a suitable useful mixing ration of nano‐sized molybdenum disulfide and commercial common molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) particles (approximately 1.5 μm in diameter…

Abstract

Purpose

To provide a suitable useful mixing ration of nano‐sized molybdenum disulfide and commercial common molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) particles (approximately 1.5 μm in diameter) in liquid paraffin, which can lead to a better tribological performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The MoS2 nanoparticles and commercial common MoS2 particles (approximately 1.5 μm in diameter) were dispersed in liquid paraffin with different concentrations and ratios by means of ultrasonic in order to study their lubrication capacity, friction reduction and wear resistance. The tribological experiments were carried out by MQ‐800 four‐ball tribometer, in which extreme pressure, wear scan diameter and friction coefficient were measured. It was analyzed that the chemical status of elements on the rubbed surface by X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and it was observed that the surface topography of wear scan by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Findings

The results showed that the loading capacity of liquid paraffin with different kinds of MoS2 particles were increased with their contents. The liquid paraffin containing the mixture of MoS2 nanoparticles and common MoS2 particles has a better wear resistance, friction‐reducing performance and extreme pressure property than the liquid paraffin containing pure common MoS2 or pure nano‐MoS2 particles. The optimal mixing ratio of nano‐MoS2 and common MoS2 is 20 wt percent, the loading capacity reaches the highest value. By XPS and SEM it was suggested that the difference in the tribological performance between MoS2 nanoparticles and MoS2 common particles was attributed to the surface and interfacial size‐effect of nanoparticles and the formation of molybdenum trioxide thin film on the rubbed surface.

Research limitations/implications

It is not studied that the effects of mixing of common MoS2 and nano‐MoS2 in the actual lubricating oil with various additives.

Practical implications

It provided a basic research results and data for the application of nano‐MoS2 particles.

Originality/value

The mixing of nanoparticles and non‐nano‐sized particles will lead to new tribological results, which is different from results obtained from other nanoparticles before.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 57 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Luciano Castro Lara, Henara Costa and José Daniel Biasoli de Mello

This paper aims to analyse the influence of the thickness of different layers [diamond-like-carbon (DLC) and chromium nitride (CrN)] on the sliding wear behaviour of a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the influence of the thickness of different layers [diamond-like-carbon (DLC) and chromium nitride (CrN)] on the sliding wear behaviour of a multifunctional coating on AISI 1020 substrates. When small and cheap components need to be manufactured in large scale, they are often produced using soft metals, such as unhardened low carbon steels and pure iron.

Design/methodology/approach

Two families, one with thicker films and the other with thinner films, were deposited onto a soft carbon steel substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Reciprocating linear tests with incremental loading assessed the durability of the coatings. In addition, friction coefficient and wear rates of both specimens and counterbodies were measured at a constant load.

Findings

Thinner layers presented lower sliding wear rates (four-five times lower) for both specimens and counterbodies, less spalling and protective tribolayers on the wear tracks.

Originality/value

Although multilayered CrN–DLC coatings on relatively hard substrates such as HSS and cemented carbide tools are already a proven technology, much less is known about its deposition on a much softer substrate such as low carbon steel. In previous works, we have analysed the influence of layer thickness on hardness and scratch resistance of the same coatings. This paper presents results for their performance under wear sliding conditions using an original approach (three-dimensional triboscopic maps) for two distinct configurations (increasing load and constant load).

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

H. PETER JOST and J. SCHOFIELD

In Part 1 the authors dealt with the background of tribology and its intended purpose, ie to conserve energy by minimization of wear and friction in moving parts of plant…

Abstract

In Part 1 the authors dealt with the background of tribology and its intended purpose, ie to conserve energy by minimization of wear and friction in moving parts of plant and machinery — the basis of the 1966 Jost Report. In Part 2 they set out to show in great detail how this may be achieved dramatically by intensive research and development.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Zhengfeng Jia, Yuchang Su, Yanqiu Xia, Xin Shao, Yanxin Song and Junjie Ni

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological properties of a Cu–Cr–Zr alloy lubricated with acid rain.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological properties of a Cu–Cr–Zr alloy lubricated with acid rain.

Design/methodology/approach

The Cu 2.5 weight per cent–Cr-0.08 weight per cent–Zr alloy was produced in a vacuum induction furnace. The H2SO4 + H2O, HNO3 + H2O and H2SO4 + HNO3 + H2O mixtures with pH of 5 were used as acid rain. Pure water was used as rain. The friction and wear properties of Cu–Cr–Zr alloy/American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 52100 steel couples lubricated with acid rain were investigated using a reciprocating ball-on-disc friction and wear tester (Optimol SRV, Germany). For investigating the properties of the alloy and wear scars, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope were used.

Findings

The wear rate of the Cu–Cr–Zr alloy lubricated with H2O containing HNO3 (pH = 5) was larger than pure water under the same conditions. The tribofilms containing Cu, Cr, Zr, S and N formed during sliding with acid rain, but corrosion also took place at that time.

Originality/value

The wear rate of the Cu–Cr–Zr alloy lubricated with H2O containing HNO3 (pH = 5) was larger than pure water, the wear and corrosion took place during sliding. As the trolley wires, the life of the Cu–Cr–Zr alloy was influenced by the environment.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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