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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Jiusheng Bao, Yan Yin, Lijian Lu and Tonggang Liu

The purpose of this study is to establish an effective method for characterizing the tribological properties of friction brakes during continuous braking because they have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to establish an effective method for characterizing the tribological properties of friction brakes during continuous braking because they have direct influences on the reliable operation of transport vehicles and industrial equipments.

Design/methodology/approach

First, tribological tests were carried out with the X-DM type friction tester, and changing curves of friction coefficient and temperature were obtained. Second, a novel tribological characteristic parameter set characterizing the tribological properties of brake pair in continuous braking was extracted from some important experimental data such as friction coefficient, wear rate and temperature. Finally, the influence of law and mechanism of braking number on dynamic tribological parameters was studied through continuous braking experiments.

Findings

The extracted tribological characteristic parameter set includes two subsets: dynamic characteristic parameter subset and overall characteristic parameter subset, which is composed of ten parameters: dynamic parameters of friction coefficient (including average, trend coefficient and stability coefficient), dynamic wear rate, dynamic average temperature, dynamic temperature rise, overall average friction coefficient, overall wear rate, overall average temperature and overall temperature rise.

Originality/value

Conclusively, the novel tribological characteristic parameter set is more comprehensive and objective, and it can provide a theoretical basis for the study of tribological properties in continuous braking.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Pengfei Du, G.X. Chen, Shiyuan Song, Jiang Wu, Kechen Gu, Dachuan Zhu and Jin Li

The tribological properties of muscovite and its thermal-treated products as lubricant additives in lithium grease were investigated. The effect of thermal temperature on…

Abstract

Purpose

The tribological properties of muscovite and its thermal-treated products as lubricant additives in lithium grease were investigated. The effect of thermal temperature on the crystal structure and tribological properties of muscovite was studied. This study aims to explore the tribological mechanism of muscovite and optimize a proper thermal activation temperature, thus further improving the tribological properties.

Design/methodology/approach

The crystal structure of muscovite samples was characterized by SEM, TG-DSC, XRD and FTIR. The tribological properties of grease samples were investigated using a four-ball tribotester and the worn surface was analyzed by SEM and EDS.

Findings

The excellent tribological properties of muscovite can be ascribed to the layer structure and lubricant film formed on the worn surface. Thermal temperature at 500-600°C increases the surface activity and oxygen releasing capability, and thus favors the formation of lubricant film and accordingly further improves the tribological properties. However, the layer structure is destroyed and hard phases such as alumina and amorphous appear after thermal temperature activated beyond 1000°C, as it results in the aggravation of friction and wear.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, it is the first to study the effect of thermal temperature on the crystal structure and tribological properties of muscovite. The tribological mechanism of muscovite particle and its thermal-treated products was disclosed.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Bao Jiusheng, Zhu Zhencai, Yin Yan and Chen Guoan

The purpose of this paper is to find the influence of the initial braking velocity and braking frequency on the tribological performance of the non‐asbestos brake shoe…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find the influence of the initial braking velocity and braking frequency on the tribological performance of the non‐asbestos brake shoe used in mine hoisters during some continuous emergency brakings.

Design/methodology/approach

The tribological performance experiments of the WSM‐3 non‐asbestos brake shoe braking on the 16 Mn steel are investigated on the X‐DM friction tester, by simulating continuous emergency brakings of a mine hoister ten times. Three kinds of tribological indexes: friction coefficient, its stability coefficient, and wearing rate are considered to score the tribological performance of the brake shoe.

Findings

When the initial braking velocity increases, the mean friction coefficient of the brake shoe decreases at first, then rises, and falls again finally. But when the braking frequency exceeds seven times, the falling process of the friction coefficient at low‐velocity period does not appear again. Second, when the initial braking velocity is no higher than 10 m/s, the mean friction coefficient rises with the braking frequency increasing. But when the velocity exceeds 10 m/s, the mean friction coefficient rises with the braking frequency increasing at first, then falls. Third, when the initial braking velocity is no higher than 12.5 m/s, the friction coefficient of the brake shoe has quite a favorable stability with the coefficient is no bigger than 75 percent. But when the velocity exceeds 12.5 m/s, the stability of the friction coefficient is diminishing obviously. Fourth, the wearing rate of the brake shoe increases quickly, during the process that the velocity rising from 10 to 12.5 m/s, but increases much more slowly after that period.

Originality/value

The paper investigates the tribological performance of the WSM‐3 non‐asbestos brake shoe during some continuous emergency brakings and finds that, when the initial braking velocity is no higher than 12.5 m/s and the braking frequency is no more than seven times, the WSM‐3 non‐asbestos brake shoe has quite a high friction coefficient, a good friction stability, and a low‐wearing rate, which indicate that it is very appropriate for using in the disk brake of mine hoisters in China.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 61 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Jing Wang, Hongying Mi, Weigui Zhou, Xin Yang and Yan He

This study aims to the preparation and tribological characteristics of graphene/triangular copper nanoplate composites (abbreviated as GN/Cu nanoplates) as grease additive…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to the preparation and tribological characteristics of graphene/triangular copper nanoplate composites (abbreviated as GN/Cu nanoplates) as grease additive and clarifies the growth mechanism and tribological mechanism of GN/Cu nanoplates by different analysis methods. In this paper, it is expected to alleviate the problems of easy aggregation and poor dispersion stability of graphene in lubricants and provide theoretical support for the application of graphene and its composites in the tribology field.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the GN/Cu nanoplates have been successfully prepared by the electrostatic self-assembly method. The structural characteristics of GN/Cu nanoplates were analyzed via transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Then the tribological properties of GN/Cu nanoplates were investigated under different loads with SRV-IV [Schwingung, Reibung, Verschleiß (German); oscillating, friction, wear (English translation)] tribotester. White-light interferometry was applied to quantify the wear loss of the disk. The element chemical state on worn surfaces was analyzed by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope to clarify the tribological mechanism of graphene composites.

Findings

The electrostatic force between the negative charge of graphene and the positive charge of triangular copper nanoplates promotes the self-assembly of GN/Cu nanoplates. With the addition of GN/Cu nanoplates, the wear loss and average friction coefficient under the load of 200 N have been decreased by 72.6% and 18.3%, respectively. It is concluded that the combined action of graphene deposition film and the copper melting film formed on the worn surface could effectively improve the antiwear ability and friction reduction performance of the grease.

Originality/value

This manuscript fulfills a new approach for the preparation of GN/Cu nanoplates. At the same time, its tribological properties and mechanism as a lubricating additive were studied which provide theoretical support for the application of graphene and its composites in the tribology field.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2020

Igor Velkavrh, Florian Ausserer, Stefan Klien, Joel Voyer, Georg Vorlaufer and Alexander Abbrederis

During the production of cardboard food cans, the packaging bottom and the cylindrical wall are joined in the seaming process. In order to achieve a high-quality…

Abstract

Purpose

During the production of cardboard food cans, the packaging bottom and the cylindrical wall are joined in the seaming process. In order to achieve a high-quality, crack-free surface of the cardboard seam, low friction between the seaming chuck and the cardboard must be ensured. The goal of this study was to minimise the friction between the seaming chuck and the cardboard can surface.

Design/methodology/approach

Tribological properties of the seaming chuck were optimised by adjusting its material properties, surface topography and surface energy followed by measurements of the resulting friction response in sliding contact with a representative paper sample.

Findings

A strong correlation between the surface free energies of the tribological samples and their measured coefficients of friction was observed, indicating that in tribological tests, adhesion was the dominating friction mechanism. Furthermore, the fact that the smoother samples yielded higher friction values than the rougher ones is most likely also correlated with the higher adhesion of the smoother samples originating from their larger contact area.

Research limitations/implications

The existing results indicate that for tribological optimisation of paper and cardboard contacts primarily the adhesive friction component should be considered – by either reducing the surface free energy of the counter-body or optimising its surface topography.

Practical implications

By applying the selected solution concept, a friction reduction of more than 50% as compared to the benchmark was achieved.

Originality/value

The present study provides a guideline for tribological optimisation of paper and cardboard contacts.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/ILT-02-2020-0064/

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Hao Liu, Yujuan Zhang, Shengmao Zhang, Yanfen Chen, Pingyu Zhang and Zhijun Zhang

The purpose of this paper is synthesis of oil-soluble non-spherical nanoparticles modified with free phosphorus and sulphur modifier and investigation of their tribological

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is synthesis of oil-soluble non-spherical nanoparticles modified with free phosphorus and sulphur modifier and investigation of their tribological properties as environment-friendly lubricating oil additives.

Design/methodology/approach

To study the effect of morphology of nanoparticles on their tribological properties, rice-like CuO nanoparticles were synthesized. To improve the solubility of CuO nanoparticles in organic media, the in-situ surface modification method was used to synthesize these products. The morphology, composition and structure of as-synthesized CuO nanoparticles were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The tribological properties of as-synthesized CuO nanoparticles as an additive in liquid paraffin (LP) were evaluated with a four-ball tribometer. The morphology and elemental composition of worn steel ball surfaces were analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Findings

It has been found that as-synthesized CuO nanoparticles with rice-like morphology have an average size of 7 and 15 nm along the shorter axle and longer axle, respectively, and can be well-dispersed in LP. Tribological properties evaluation results show that as-synthesized CuO nanoparticles as additives in LP show good friction-reducing, anti-wear and load-carrying capacities, especially under a higher normal load.

Originality/value

Oil-soluble rice-like CuO nanoparticles without phosphorus and sulphur were synthesized and their tribological properties as lubricating oil additives were also investigated in this paper. These results could be very helpful for application of CuO nanoparticles as environment-friendly lubricating oil additives, owing to their free phosphorus and sulphur elements characteristics.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Mircea Terheci

Attempts to reveal some of the factors that might cause measurement and evaluation errors in dry sliding. Discusses matters such us “what” and “how” is simulated and “why”…

Abstract

Attempts to reveal some of the factors that might cause measurement and evaluation errors in dry sliding. Discusses matters such us “what” and “how” is simulated and “why” and “what” is really measured and suggests ways to tackle these matters. Presents means of avoiding measurement errors as well as suitable testing procedures. Suggests a strategy of experimental work that encompasses the needs of both pure research and engineering design. It was found that the pin‐on‐disc test largely satisfies the conditions for a good simulation of certain engineering applications while providing a wealth of data for both scientific insight and engineering design.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Guotao Zhang, Yanguo Yin, Ting Xie, Dan Li, Ming Xu and Congmin Li

This paper aims to obtain high mechanical and good tribological properties of epoxy resin-based coatings under dry friction conditions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to obtain high mechanical and good tribological properties of epoxy resin-based coatings under dry friction conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Bonded solid lubricant coatings containing Kevlar fibres were prepared by a spraying method. The friction and wear properties of the coatings were experimentally investigated with a face-to-face tribometre under dry friction conditions. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and 3D laser scanning technologies were used to characterise the tribological properties. The action mechanism of the Kevlar fibres on a solid lubricant transfer film was also analysed.

Findings

Adding Kevlar fibres can significantly improve the wear resistance of the coatings. When the Kevlar fibre content increases, the tribological properties of the coatings improve and then worsen. Superior properties are obtained with 0.03 g of Kevlar fibres. Appropriately increasing the load or speed is beneficial to the removal of the outer epoxy resin and the formation of a lubricant film. During friction, the solid lubricants wrapped in the epoxy resin accumulate on the surface to form a transfer film that shows a good self-lubricating performance. In the later friction stage, fatigue cracks occur on the solid lubricant film but cannot connect to one another because of the high wear resistance and the entanglement of the rod-like Kevlar fibres. Thus, no large-area film falls from the matrix, thereby ensuring the long-term functioning of solid lubricant coatings.

Originality/value

Epoxy resin-based solid lubricant coatings modified by Kevlar fibres were prepared, and their friction and wear properties were investigated. Their tribological mechanisms were also proposed. This work provided a basis for the analysis of the tribological properties and design of bonded solid lubricant coatings containing Kevlar fibres.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Kaleem Ahmad Najar, N.A. Sheikh, Mohammad Mursaleen Butt and M.A. Shah

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical and tribological properties of the synthetic diamond coatings deposited on WC-Co cutting tools for their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical and tribological properties of the synthetic diamond coatings deposited on WC-Co cutting tools for their prospective applications in mechanical industry. In this work, the concept of nanocrystalline diamond, microcrystalline diamond and multilayer-diamond coating systems were proposed and deposited on WC-Co substrates with the top-layer nanocrystallinity, optimum thickness and interfacial adhesion strength for load-bearing tribological and machining applications. Also, the overall mechanical and tribological properties of all synthetic diamond coatings were compared for the purpose of selecting a suitable type of protective layer used on the surfaces of WC-Co cutting tools or mechanical dies.

Design/methodology/approach

Smooth and adhesive single layered and multilayered synthetic deposited on chemically etched cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrates using predetermined process parameters in hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. A comparison has been documented between diamond coatings having different nature and architecture for the purpose of studying their mechanical and tribological characteristics. The friction characteristics were studied experimentally using ball-on-disc type linear reciprocating micro-tribometer under the influence of varying load conditions and within dry sliding conditions. Nanoindentation tests were conducted on each diamond coating using Berkovich nanoindenter for the measurement of their hardness and elastic modulus values. Also, the wear characteristics of all sliding bodies were studied under varying load conditions using cumulative weight loss and density method.

Findings

Depositing any type of diamond coating on the cemented carbide tool insert increases its all mechanical and tribological characteristics. When using boron-doping onto the top-layer surface of diamond coatings decrease slightly their mechanical properties but increases the tribological characteristics. Present analysis reveals that friction coefficient of all diamond-coated WC-Co substrates decreases with the increase of normal load. Therefore, maintaining an appropriate level of normal load, sliding time, sliding distance, atmospheric conditions and type of diamond coating, the friction coefficient may be kept to some lower value to improve mechanical processes.

Originality/value

As the single layered synthetic diamond coatings have not given the full requirements of mechanical and tribological properties when deposited on cutting tools. Therefore, the multilayered diamond coatings were proposed and developed to enhance the interfacial integrity of the nanocrystalline and microcrystalline layers (by eliminating the sharp interface) as well as increasing the hardness of tungsten carbide substrate. However, when using boron doping onto the top-layer surface of diamond, coatings decreases slightly their mechanical characteristics but also decreases the value of friction coefficient.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Aleksandar Vencl, Ilija Bobic and Blaza Stojanovic

Aluminium alloys are frequently applied in automotive and other industries, since they provide mass reduction. Besides positive effects, aluminium alloys have their…

Abstract

Purpose

Aluminium alloys are frequently applied in automotive and other industries, since they provide mass reduction. Besides positive effects, aluminium alloys have their shortcomings reflected, first of all, in inappropriate tribological properties of these materials. The aim of this research was to enable the production of cheap aluminium alloy matrix composite with favourable combination of structural, mechanical and tribological properties, focusing on the tribological behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The A356 Al-Si alloy was used as a matrix for producing metal matrix composites in compocasting process. Three different materials, in form of particles, were added to the matrix (Al2O3, SiC and graphite). Hardness and tribological properties (wear, friction and wear mechanism) of heat-treated (T6) samples were examined and compared. Tribological tests were carried out on ball-on-block tribometer under dry sliding conditions. Sliding was linear (reciprocating). Counter body was alumina ball. Average velocity was 0.038 m/s (max. 0.06 m/s), sliding distance was 500 m and normal load was 1 N.

Findings

The effect of two different ceramic particles and graphite particles on tribological properties of obtained composites was evaluated. Wear resistance of composites reinforced with SiC particles was higher and coefficient of friction was lower compared to the composite reinforced with Al2O3 particles. A dual hybrid composite (with SiC and graphite particles) showed the lowest value of wear rate and friction coefficient. Dominant wear mechanism for all tested material was adhesion.

Research limitations/implications

It seems useful to continue the work on developing hybrid composites containing soft graphite particles with A356 Al-Si alloy as matrix. The major task should be to improve particles distribution (especially with higher graphite content) and to explore tribological behaviour in diverse working conditions.

Originality/value

Particulate composites with A356 aluminium alloy as a matrix produced in compocasting process using ceramic particles (Al2O3, SiC) were investigated in many researches, but there are only few detailed analyses of dual composites (with the addition of ceramic and graphite particles). In some previous studies, it was shown that compocasting process, as relatively cheap technology, can obtain good structural and mechanical characteristics of composites. In this study, it was shown that even a low graphite content, under specified conditions, can improve tribological properties.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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