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Article

Peijie Wang and Bing Zhang

The authors make assessment on RMB valuation and to contribute to the fierce debate on this important issue, which is perceived to have a great effect on the improvement…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors make assessment on RMB valuation and to contribute to the fierce debate on this important issue, which is perceived to have a great effect on the improvement or deterioration in trade balance. A triangular analysis approach is put forward and empirical assessment is made. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A triangular analysis approach based on no arbitrage conditions for three currencies, and causality and influence analysis.

Findings

First, it has been found that the movements in the RMB dollar exchange rate do influence the dollar euro exchange rate and the former do have a causality effect on the latter, in both the long run and the short term. Second, it is implied that the RMB is overvalued vis-à-vis the US dollar, as the analysis suggests that an overvalued euro vis-à-vis the US dollar would imply a kind of overvaluation of the RMB vis-à-vis the US dollar, and by any conventional measures the euro has appeared to be overvalued vis-à-vis the US dollar, especially in the months before the last financial crisis.

Practical implications

First, the peg of the RMB to the US dollar that undervalues the RMB vis-à-vis the US dollar will not help promote China's overall trade balance or export even if undervaluation of currencies can ever help improve nations' terms of trade. Second, no stability in RMB exchange rates can be claimed by pegging the RMB to the US dollar, as the exchange rate of the RMB vis-à-vis currencies other than the US dollar would be as volatile as that between the US dollar and the euro and other convertible currencies.

Originality/value

A new triangular analysis approach in international finance research. First, there is an advantage to adopt this seemingly simple analytical framework: it is highly reliable; no triangular arbitrage conditions have to be met even under exchange controls, whilst PPP may not hold even with flexible exchange rate regimes. Second, it does away with the thinking confined to small open economies that has dominated academic research for so long and is totally inapplicable to the RMB case.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article

Va Nee L. Van Vleck and David Vera

The purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction of enforcement and adjudication for general deterrence of drunk-driving. The authors present a triangular feedback…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the interaction of enforcement and adjudication for general deterrence of drunk-driving. The authors present a triangular feedback model between three domains: police, courts and drunk-driving events. The authors’ deductive approach imposes no structural assumptions beyond the core of general deterrence theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a largely untapped data set for California’s 58 counties from 1990 to 2010, the authors estimate a series of heterogeneous panel Granger non-causality tests. This empirically based evidence is re-organized per the proposed triangular feedback model to objectively categorize local criminal justice systems as active, responsive or reactive (with respect to drunk-driving).

Findings

Our results suggest that state-level analyses obscure useful variations that empirical panel methods can now handle. The authors provide evidence that research based on empirically derived groupings, rather than inductively based preconceptions, is key to understanding enforcement and compliance. The authors provide a less confounded picture of the relationship between drunk-driving enforcement and adjudication.

Research limitations/implications

Our study addresses one offense for a particular state in the USA. It is an exploratory analysis. This analytical and empirical approach is new.

Practical implications

Our approach imposes very few a priori assumptions and requires a minimum of data series to be executed. The method can be broadly applied to a range of topics and observational units.

Social implications

The authors aim to expand identification of local systems’ effectiveness (or not) and mechanisms of for general deterrence of drunk-driving. The offense is one that can be committed easily and unintentionally; it does not presume anomie. The authors address general communities, not anomalies. Knowing how enforcement and compliance operate is essential to an array of behavioral externalities.

Originality/value

This is a new empirically based approach for analyzing social systems. It is a marriage of new macroeconomic time-series techniques with an old question, most often addressed by microeconomic research. This study uses an underutilized data source to construct a unique panel data set.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part

Shampa Roy-Mukherjee and Michael Harrison

This chapter addresses the two important themes that we believe characterise how the platform-based gig economy operates. The first of the two themes explores the shifting…

Abstract

This chapter addresses the two important themes that we believe characterise how the platform-based gig economy operates. The first of the two themes explores the shifting boundaries of the triangular business model and its place within the wider, evolving capitalist structure. The triangular business model is the foundation of the platform-based gig economy and consists of the digital platform, the producer/worker and the end consumer. The digital platform acts as the intermediary and provides a market for exchange of goods and services between the workers and the end consumers. The fluidity of the triangular relationship has left the platform-based gig economy beyond the reach of the traditional neo-liberal regulatory system leading to the blurring of employee and employer relations. The second theme is based on the exploration and application of the Marxist concept of surplus value creation and its appropriation within the gig structure. Here, the authors seek to show the exploitation of the worker as a participant in the triangular business model. Given that the worker bears the majority of the entrepreneurial risk and provides capital they ought to receive a proportion of the surplus value created from the transaction. The authors have established the increasing dominance of platforms within the triangular business model and the enhanced scope for exploitation of workers in form of poor remuneration standards due to employee status ambiguity and the appropriation of a disproportionate amount of surplus value flowing to the platform owners.

Details

Conflict and Shifting Boundaries in the Gig Economy: An Interdisciplinary Analysis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-604-9

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Article

Eleni Michopoulou, Iride Azara and Anna Russell

This study aims to examine issues of talent management (TM) in events. Specifically, it investigates the triangular relationship that exists amongst temporary event…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine issues of talent management (TM) in events. Specifically, it investigates the triangular relationship that exists amongst temporary event workforces, event employment businesses (EEBs) and event organisers (EOs).

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed method design was used including a quantitative survey of UK temporary event workers (TEW) to examine their characteristics and motivations to work at events; a qualitative survey with (EOs) to understand the reasons for using TEW and (EEBs) and interviews with EEBs to understand their challenges in delivering best-fit between TEW and EOs.

Findings

This study sheds light on the complex relationships amongst temporary event workforces, EOs and event employment businesses. Findings show TEW who display high levels of affective commitment towards their employment organisation and possess the characteristics of extraversion and contentiousness, are highly motivated to work at events. EOs suggest their operational restrictions (such as limited resources, time and expertise) are fuelling the need to use EEBs to source staff with the right skills and attitudes. In turn, these recruiters demonstrate they play an active role in reconciling the often-conflicting needs of EOs and TEW.

Originality/value

This study extends knowledge and understanding on TM in events by providing insights into the characteristics of TEW as a growing labour market segment in the event sector. Significantly, the study contributes to a better understanding of the critical role that EEBs play in the construction, development and management of talent in events.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Mosad Zineldin and Torbjörn Bredenlöw

While there are many studies on the relationship between service quality and productivity/efficiency (prodeff), between service quality and image and between services and…

Abstract

While there are many studies on the relationship between service quality and productivity/efficiency (prodeff), between service quality and image and between services and positioning, so far, no work in the literature has examined the triangular relationship between quality, prodeff and positioning. This article aims to develop theoretically and empirically an insight understanding of the strategic relationship between service quality, prodeff and positioning strategies. A case study shows that the choice of positioning strategy is not a simple one: it is not merely a question of quality and prodeff, but concerns the behavior of the entire organization. Some key quality, prodeff and positioning measurement areas identified from the literature and the case study are outlined in the paper. Finally, the paper argues that the quality of PRODSERV and prodeff strategies must be tied to broad business and positioning strategies and should be part of the organization’s mission/vision statements.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 16 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article

Beverley Costa and Stephen Briggs

Working across languages is playing an increasingly important role in the delivery of mental health services, notably through psychotherapy and psychological therapies…

Abstract

Purpose

Working across languages is playing an increasingly important role in the delivery of mental health services, notably through psychotherapy and psychological therapies. Growing awareness of the complex processes that ensue in working across languages, including the presence and role of an interpreter, is generating new conceptualisations of practice, but there is a need now to evidence how these impact on service users. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses the model for working with interpretation developed by Mothertongue multi-ethnic counselling service, which conceptualises the therapeutic process as working within triangular relationships consisting of service user, therapist and interpreter. Second, the paper discusses the qualitative, practice-near methods applied in, and findings from a pilot study to evaluate the interpreter's role.

Findings

Three patterns of response to interpreters were identified: negative impacts on the therapy, the interpreter as conduit for therapy and the therapist and interpreter jointly demonstrating a shared enterprise. It is concluded that the method and findings of the pilot justify a larger study that will further evaluate the experiences of service users and continue to develop and test conceptualisations for best practice.

Originality/value

Working across languages is now recognised as an increasingly important aspect of therapy in contexts where migration has created new demographics. This paper contributes to the discussion of working therapeutically with people with mental health difficulties across languages. Its originality lies, first, in the discussion of a new clinical approach to working with interpreters, and second in the methods used to access the views of service users about their experiences of interpreters.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article

Anastasios Hadjisolomou

The purpose of this paper is to revisit discussions on managerial work, seeking to re-examine the front-line service manager’s position within the service triangle, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to revisit discussions on managerial work, seeking to re-examine the front-line service manager’s position within the service triangle, and bring forward questions of agency that remain under-developed by scholars. Challenging the assumed unitarist and “consensus” standing point in organizations it recognizes that front-line managers, similarly to their subordinates, resist corporate demands and unveils stories of “battles” and disengagement towards their role, providing a rich empirical agenda regarding managerial misbehaviour. In order to explore front-line managers’ agency issues, the paper adopts the framework of the dimensions of misbehaviour, as developed by Ackroyd and Thompson (1999), to capture and to better describe and understand the recalcitrant agential practices by front-line managers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper calls on qualitative data from two case study organizations in the Cyprus food-retail sector. In total, 46 interviews took place with participants across different departments and different management levels. This aimed for a better and deeper understanding of the research problem through understanding of the different perspectives.

Findings

The evidence reveals the intensification of FLSMs’ work and their feelings of pressure. FLSMs, however, did not stay apathetic and have utilized tactics to oppose the increasing workload and the expansion of their role. The paper classifies these tactics using the four dimensions of misbehaviour (Ackroyd and Thompson, 1999), namely, appropriation of time; work, product and identity. It shows that FLSMs not only resist corporate demands, like their subordinates, but also devised practices which are similar to workers. The data also reveal a variety in actions of misbehaviour between FLSMs depending on the level of customer interaction and their mobility on the shop floor.

Research limitations/implications

Students of managerial work overlooked the political realities of management and the contested nature of (front-line service) management work. As this study has shown FLSMs across the shop floor strongly identify more with “front-line employees” than senior management, protecting their own interests within the employment relationship via oppositional actions and disengagement. FLSM is, of course, in an agency relationship with capital; however, this neglects the heterogeneity in interests at different levels of management. This paper shifts the focus of management research away from the traditional agency argument and discusses FLSMs as “misbehaving agents”. It challenges the assumed unitarist and “consensus” standing point for FLSMs in organizations and calls HRM scholars to embrace a pluralist analysis in line management research.

Practical implications

This research shows that FLSMs misbehave as an expression of discontent towards the expansion and intensification of their role. Yet, the data reveal variation in the organization of FLSMs’ work across the shop floor and consequently variation in their actions of misbehaviour. This suggests that it is erroneous to presume a similar labour process for these managers and/or over-generalize their battling actions. HR practitioners will need to re-examine the roles of FLSMs in organizations, recognize the variety of interests within management, step away from rhetoric discourses of unproblematic devolvement of HR and managerial tasks to the front-line and appropriately review, redesign and re-organize front-line managerial work.

Social implications

Although research has fruitfully located the powerlessness of front-line managers as a central theme in their analysis, the complexity of the front-line management position within the social relations of interactive service work and their “logic of action” within their labour process remains a relatively marginal theme in research. Indeed, FLSMs’ position within the triangle, where managerial work is subject to degradation and trilateral conflicting dynamics and their battles within their own labour process, still remains under-explored. This study addresses this research lacuna focusing on the FLSMs’ experiences on the front-end and their actions of misbehaviour within their labour process.

Originality/value

The paper brings forward questions of agency that remain under-developed by scholars and unveils “stories of battles”. It discusses FLSMs as “misbehaving agents” a question that is only superficially addressed in resistance and managerial studies. This paper challenges the embedded HRM unitarist assumption that FLSMs are conscientiously agents of the capital and reveals evidence suggesting the plurality of interests across management. HRM scholars, especially those discussed line managers as HRM partners, have overestimated FLSMs’ identification with senior management and the strategic goals of the organization. As this study has shown FLSMs across the shop floor strongly identify with “front-line employees”, protecting their own interests within the employment relationship via oppositional actions and disengagement.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article

Graeme Edward Payne and Greg Fisher

Following a recent government initiated change to a consumer-directed care model across the Australian community aged care sector, the purpose of this paper is to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

Following a recent government initiated change to a consumer-directed care model across the Australian community aged care sector, the purpose of this paper is to explore frontline home support workers’ perceptions of relational changes with clients in power and subordination within the triadic relationship between employer, employee and client.

Design/methodology/approach

Contextual interviews were held with managers (n=4), coordinators (n=10) and semi-structured face-to-face interviews with support workers (n=17) in three organizations. Interview transcripts were analyzed.

Findings

Some workers did not perceive a power change in their relationships with clients. Others perceived minimal change but were concerned about the incoming client generation (baby boomers) that were more aware of their rights. Others felt subordinated to the client, perceived a loss of control or that felt treated like an employee of the client. Consistent with the philosophy of consumer-directed care, senior staff encouraged clients to treat workers in this way.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is recommended on worker and client perceptions of relationships within the context of a consumer or client focused model.

Practical implications

A clear and realistic understanding of the locus of power within a triadic relationship by all actors is important for positive workplace outcomes.

Social implications

The increasing ageing population makes it essential that workers’ relationships with clients and with their organization are unambiguous.

Originality/value

This study makes a contribution to theories about change and power transfer in the implementation of consumer-directed care through the perceptions of support workers. Examination of power and subordination transfer through the perceptions of the actors of rather than through the prism of organizational policy deepens the understanding of frontline service work and relationships.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Article

Wai Peng Wong, Keng Lin Soh, Chu Le Chong and Noorliza Karia

The purpose of this paper is to assess the efficiency, effectiveness and performance of logistics companies in Singapore and Malaysia which are the growing logistics hubs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the efficiency, effectiveness and performance of logistics companies in Singapore and Malaysia which are the growing logistics hubs in Asia by using a triangular data envelopment analysis (DEA). It also identifies various factors that significantly affect the efficiency, effectiveness and performance of the Singaporean and Malaysian logistics companies and proposes ways to improve their competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

First, this study employs a triangular DEA to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the companies. Second, Tobit regression is used to explore the factors that affect logistics performance. Third, the managerial decision-making matrix is addressed and suggestions made to help logistics managers improve performance.

Findings

The results reveal that small firms, on average have more potential than the large ones. The results also demonstrate that investment influences firm performance significantly.

Originality/value

This paper is the first attempt to apply a triangular DEA-based approach by decomposing performance into efficiency and effectiveness for logistics companies in Singapore and Malaysia.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 64 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article

Richard Johnstone and Michael Quinlan

The purpose of this research is to analyse the problems for occupational health and safety (OHS) regulators posed by agency work/leased labour (also known as labour hire…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to analyse the problems for occupational health and safety (OHS) regulators posed by agency work/leased labour (also known as labour hire in Australasia), using Australian evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on an examination of prosecutions involving labour hire firms along with other documentary records (union, industry and government reports and guidance material). The study also draws on interviews with approximately 200 regulatory officials, employers and union representatives since 2001 and workplace visits with 40 OHS inspectors in 2004‐2005.

Findings

The triangular relationship entailed in labour leasing, in combination with the temporary nature of most placements, poses serious problems for government agencies in terms of enforcing OHS standards notwithstanding a growing number of successful prosecutions for breaches of legislative duties by host and labour leasing firms.

Research limitations/implications

Research to investigate these issues in other countries and compare findings with those for Australia is required, along with assessing the effectiveness of new enforcement initiatives.

Practical implications

The paper assesses existing regulatory responses and highlights the need for new regulatory strategies to combat the problems posed by labour.

Originality/value

The OHS problems posed by agency work have received comparatively little attention. The paper provides insights into the specific problems posed for OHS regulators and how inspectorates are trying to address them.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000