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Anne-Maria Holma

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial…

Abstract

This study provides a comprehensive framework of adaptation in triadic business relationship settings in the service sector. The framework is based on the industrial network approach (see, e.g., Axelsson & Easton, 1992; Håkansson & Snehota, 1995a). The study describes how adaptations initiate, how they progress, and what the outcomes of these adaptations are. Furthermore, the framework takes into account how adaptations spread in triadic relationship settings. The empirical context is corporate travel management, which is a chain of activities where an industrial enterprise, and its preferred travel agency and service supplier partners combine their resources. The scientific philosophy, on which the knowledge creation is based, is realist ontology. Epistemologically, the study relies on constructionist processes and interpretation. Case studies with in-depth interviews are the main source of data.

Details

Deep Knowledge of B2B Relationships within and Across Borders
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-858-7

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Article

Yi Liu, Jiaqi Xue and Yuan Li

Rather than focussing on dyadic distributor–supplier relationships, this study aims to examine whether the difference in transaction-specific investments (TSIs) between…

Abstract

Purpose

Rather than focussing on dyadic distributor–supplier relationships, this study aims to examine whether the difference in transaction-specific investments (TSIs) between rival suppliers in a supplier–distributor–supplier triad influences whether distributors expropriate or maintain their supplier’s TSIs.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on triadic data from 276 questionnaires that address both the supplier–distributor relationship and the rival supplier–distributor relationship, a moderated regression analysis is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Five out of six hypotheses are supported by the empirical test. The results show that the supplier’s TSIs increase the distributor’s opportunistic behaviour and reduce cooperation when the distributor perceives that the supplier’s TSIs are lower than those of a rival supplier. In contrast, when the distributor perceives that the supplier’s TSIs are higher than those of a competitor, the supplier’s TSIs do not improve cooperation and can shift the link between the supplier’s TSIs and the distributor’s opportunism from being positive to negative.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for the top managers of supplier firms embedded in distribution networks. This study suggests that the competitor’s TSIs can be regarded as an indicator of the supplier’s relationship with the distributor. By keeping an eye on their competitors’ TSIs, the top managers of suppliers can predict the likelihood of distributors’ opportunistic and cooperative behaviour and make efforts to improve their position by adjusting their own firm’s TSIs. Furthermore, this information can help suppliers decide on their investment strategies and maintain stable and healthy relationships.

Originality/value

This study 1) examines the effect of TSIs using a triadic framework and triadic data and demonstrates that how a distributor responds to a supplier’s TSIs, with either opportunism or cooperation, depends on the relative level of those TSIs in focal and competitive relationships; and 2) reveals the expropriation effects and restraint effects of TSIs by drawing on prospect theory. This finding indicates the dynamics of TSIs in a triadic relationship.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article

Miia Martinsuo and Rami Sariola

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding on the emergence of mutually beneficial relationships between component suppliers and third parties in projects, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding on the emergence of mutually beneficial relationships between component suppliers and third parties in projects, and their interaction practices in the project and potential new services.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative, exploratory research strategy is employed in the context of construction projects, with construction component manufacturers as the focal component suppliers. In total 22 interviews were conducted with structural engineers and architects as relevant third parties, to discover the specifics of component suppliers’ third-party relationship development in construction projects.

Findings

The results show the crucial role of third parties in the constructor’s and customer’s decision-making process, and various ways for component suppliers to develop the relationship toward the third parties. The results offer important knowledge about the cooperation between construction component suppliers and third parties and means to increase the centrality of component suppliers in the project network.

Research limitations/implications

The research was delimited to structural engineers and architects as third parties in construction projects in one country. Further research is encouraged on third-party cooperation in other kinds of project networks, other kinds of third parties, and the various forms of triadic cooperation in project networks.

Practical implications

The results encourage component suppliers to take a proactive approach in developing relationships with third parties, when strengthening their network position. The paper introduces practical ways in which component suppliers may take action toward generating powerful main contractor-supplier-third-party triads.

Originality/value

Limited research attention has been directed at third parties and triadic cooperation in project networks. This paper offers important knowledge about the relationship between component suppliers and third parties, particularly in terms of third parties’ expectations and practical initiatives to enhance the relationships.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article

Max Finne and Jan Holmström

The purpose of this paper is to explore servitization in the context of the service supply chain, particularly the effects of the relationship between the subsystem…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore servitization in the context of the service supply chain, particularly the effects of the relationship between the subsystem supplier and the end user on the supplier's as well as on the supply chain's ability to provide industrial services. In addition, it aims to present a solution to overcome the challenges of lack of this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study incorporating an explorative design science approach identifies a theoretically novel and practically relevant problem in the field of service supply chain management. The study combines empirical data collection; systematic conceptualization of means and ends; evaluation of proposed solutions in iterative‐ and action‐oriented cycles; and theoretical explanation of the observed phenomena and outcomes.

Findings

By establishing a triadic operational model with an integrator and end user, the subsystem supplier can servitize within a supply chain in which the end user relationship is controlled by the integrator. This enables the combining of critical service provision capabilities: supplier's maintenance‐related capabilities and integrator's end user access.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed to determine the importance of managing the transition to subsystem suppliers in different types of industrial service supply chains. Because these observations and proposals are based on a single case study, the authors cannot draw conclusions as to how they apply to manufacturers in different problem situations.

Practical implications

The paper presents a decision‐making procedure that describes how a subsystem supplier opting for cooperation in the service supply chain can formulate a coherent set of triadic operational models with intermediaries and end users.

Originality/value

The paper shows how servitization takes place on supply chain level.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article

Kizito Elijah Kanyoma, Frank Wogbe Agbola and Richard Oloruntoba

The purpose of this paper is to explain the interrelationships in internal and external supply chain integration (SCI) across multiple tiers of manufacturing-based small…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the interrelationships in internal and external supply chain integration (SCI) across multiple tiers of manufacturing-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a developing country, Malawi.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing the resource-based view, resource-dependence and network theory perspectives, and drawing on a multiple embedded case-study approach, the research investigated the internal and external linkages within three-tier supplier, manufacturer and retailer SCs and described varying perspectives of SCI across supply chain positions.

Findings

Firms with strategic intra-firm resources were less committed to external integration, deploying their resources as a source of power to dominate and exploit their dependent partners. The SCI across multiple tiers was impaired by dependence but enhanced by interdependence strategies of firms. Although lack of trust, promotion of non-overlapping self-interests, corruption in sourcing processes and resource constraints negatively affected SCI, firm commitment to external integration promoted greater commitment among firms, thus having a positive effect on SCI.

Research limitations/implications

Further analysis of SCI of SME triads and a more systematic longitudinal analysis across other market segments should be explored to generalize the conclusions of this study.

Practical implications

The external influences on dyadic relationships go beyond the interactions of heterogeneous firms in the network to encompass interpersonal interactions across the network, where individuals may potentially prioritize personal connections and sabotage the interests of their firms.

Originality/value

The research explored the internal and external dimensions of SCI in multi-tier SCs of SMEs, and provided for the first time new evidence to show that firm commitment to engaging with partners complements the mechanisms of SCI within a developing country context. It highlights the need to develop trust, eliminate corruption, promote greater commitment of SC partners and encourage greater investment in firms’ resource capabilities to enhance SCI among SMEs.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article

Anniina Schreiner

This paper aims to improve the knowledge of the way business relationships end by using a triadic analysis. Triadic analysis is used as a tool, permitting the examination…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to improve the knowledge of the way business relationships end by using a triadic analysis. Triadic analysis is used as a tool, permitting the examination of a dyadic business relationship in relation to a third actor(s). The triadic approach has been chosen for two reasons: first, because a triad is the smallest possible network and so offers a network perspective on the phenomenon. Second, the triadic approach exposes the process of forming internal and external coalitions, which affects the course of events and, thus, offers a different perspective from the traditional dyadic one on the dissolution of business relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

As adopting a triadic perspective on the ending of business relationships and the field of research are relatively new, data gathering and empirical findings play an important role in producing understanding of the phenomenon. This qualitative research uses the abductive approach, in which empirical findings are systematically combined with the theoretical literature related to the topic. The research also draws from the theoretical literature of ending dyadic business relationships and uses a body of literature from the field of sociology where triadic analysis has long been used.

Findings

As the result, this paper presents a model describing the end of a triadic business relationship and details the characteristics that derive from a triadic perspective. The study answers questions on what kind of process takes place when a triadic business relationship is ending; what kinds of sub-processes can be identified; and also adds information on what kinds of coalitions companies may form during the ending process of a triadic business relationship. The findings suggest that triadic analysis is an appropriate tool when studying a dyadic business relationship in relation to third actors.

Originality/value

The research offers a new insight into the phenomenon of ending business relationships by using a triadic perspective.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article

Antti Tuomela, Markku Heimbürger, Juha Nummi and Jouko Toivonen

A case study at Senate Properties, a Finnish building owner organisation, for theory building was conducted to provide significant insights into strategic planning in…

Abstract

Purpose

A case study at Senate Properties, a Finnish building owner organisation, for theory building was conducted to provide significant insights into strategic planning in partnership networks with a view to developing interaction in a triadic alliance. The purpose of this paper is to describe how a Finnish building owner organisation, Senate Properties, the focal firm of the studied network, manages multi‐level interaction in the alliance network of the case study.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the building owner's role is studied by using two network analysis studies. The emergent phase of a “triadic alliance” of service providers, building owners as contract managers, and the end‐users of services is analysed by using two separate qualitative network analysis studies.

Findings

The case study indicates that the networks of building users, owners, facilities management parties and service providers can improve their interaction and cooperation by multilevel interaction building, mutual orientation building in groups and formation of boundary‐spanning roles. We therefore present a model or a framework for interaction building in triadic networks that is derived from a knowledge base that can better explain the requirements of core businesses, key real estate and facilities services attributes and options evaluation to meet dynamic changes.

Research limitations/implications

The paper suggests that organisations involved in facilities management that enter into an alliance have to communicate and proactively exchange information to strengthen the interaction and cooperation between network members. For success, each network member should share information and each must learn from the others.

Originality/value

The interaction approach of network analysis takes place in a new building owner centred environment. The paper argues on a general level that to understand the complicated roles within the workplace environment, it is necessary to study the interaction needs of different functions.

Details

Facilities, vol. 23 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article

Debbie Isobel Keeling, Angus Laing and Ko De Ruyter

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the changing nature of healthcare service encounters by studying the phenomenon of triadic engagement incorporating interactions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the changing nature of healthcare service encounters by studying the phenomenon of triadic engagement incorporating interactions between patients, local and virtual networks and healthcare professionals.

Design/methodology/approach

An 18-month longitudinal ethnographic study documents interactions in naturally occurring healthcare consultations. Professionals (n=13) and patients (n=24) within primary and secondary care units were recruited. Analysis of observations, field notes and interviews provides an integrated picture of triadic engagement.

Findings

Triadic engagement is conceptualised against a two-level framework. First, the structure of triadic consultations is identified in terms of the human voice, virtual voice and networked voice. These are related to: companions’ contributions to discussions and the virtual network impact. Second, evolving roles are mapped to three phases of transformation: enhancement; empowerment; emancipation. Triadic engagement varied across conditions.

Research limitations/implications

These changing roles and structures evidence an increasing emphasis on the responsible consumer and patients/companions to utilise information/support in making health-related decisions. The nature and role of third voices requires clear delineation.

Practical implications

Structures of consultations should be rethought around the diversity of patient/companion behaviours and expectations as patients undertake self-service activities. Implications for policy and practice are: the parallel set of local/virtual informational and service activities; a network orientation to healthcare; tailoring of support resources/guides for professionals and third parties to inform support practices.

Originality/value

Contributions are made to understanding triadic engagement and forwarding the agenda on patient-centred care. Longitudinal illumination of consultations is offered through an exceptional level of access to observe consultations.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article

Artur Swierczek

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the manufacturer that occupies the central position in the triadic supply chain is capable of enhancing relationships…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the manufacturer that occupies the central position in the triadic supply chain is capable of enhancing relationships within both dyads to produce the network rent and extra profit shared among all supply chain actors.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for an exploratory study using a survey of triads forming supply chains. To reveal the capability of yielding the network rent in the examined triads, multiple regression analysis with Interaction effects was used. Having confirmed the existence of supernormal profit, the partial least square path model was developed to investigate the effects of manufacturer structural embeddedness on relational embeddedness and the resulting impact on the network rent.

Findings

The obtained findings show that manufacturer structural embeddedness has a direct and positive effect on relational embeddedness and relational embeddedness of two dyads (represented as a higher order factor) has a direct and positive effect on the network rent. In addition, relational embeddedness mediates the positive relationship between manufacturer structural embeddedness and network rent, as the null model with no mediation appears to underestimate the direct and positive effect between manufacturer structural embeddedness and the network rent.

Research limitations/implications

The study makes three key contributions. First, it extends the application of both relational and structural embeddedness to grasp the network architecture of the triadic supply chain. Second, the concept of manufacturer structural embeddedness is used to elaborate on the role of the manufacturer in establishing relationships of high quality with the supplier and the customer. In connection to the previous point, the calculated network rent demonstrates that establishing collaborative relationships in triadic supply chains may bring a significant supernormal profit, derived as the outcome of mutual interplay between the relational performances of two dyads.

Practical implications

The study shows that manufacturers intending to use their central position to develop collaborative relationships with both partners, and the supplier and the customer, ought to appreciate the role of social ties embedded in interorganizational networks. The paper also implies that in parallel with using formal contracts as a governance mechanism, the manufacturer centrally positioned in the triadic supply chains ought to deliberately shape relational embeddedness of both dyads. Finally, managers can consider the ways to enhance relational embeddedness in a triad by improving relational embeddedness of a certain dyad.

Originality/value

This study provides a novel framework for studying two basic dimensions of embeddedness (structural and relational) and their impact on the network rent in triadic supply chains that goes beyond the dyadic perspective and incorporates the extended supply chain.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article

Artur Swierczek

First, the paper aims to explore the ability of the actor sitting on the structural hole to achieve the additional rent, which is modeled as the outcome of joint effect…

Abstract

Purpose

First, the paper aims to explore the ability of the actor sitting on the structural hole to achieve the additional rent, which is modeled as the outcome of joint effect between the relational performances of two dyads (supplier–buyer and buyer–customer) within the triadic supply chains. Second, the paper seeks to empirically compare the value of additional rent among different structural hole states of triadic supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

Building upon the theoretical tenets of social capital theory, complemented by the underpinnings of relational view, this research uses survey data gathered from the triadic supply chains in Europe. To conduct necessary processing, the multivariate statistical analyses have been performed.

Findings

The findings suggest that the rent is actually yielded by the actors bridging the structural hole in the triadic supply chain; however, its value, as evidenced in the study, is diverse regarding the specific structural hole state. More specifically, the highest value of rent is generated by the buyer establishing cooperative posture of both dyads in the triadic supply chains. The value of rent close to zero is revealed in the triadic supply chains with negative relational posture of both dyads. Interestingly, the lowest level of rent produced by the buyer from bridging the structural hole is reported with the triadic supply chains in which one dyad demonstrates a more cooperative relational posture, whereas the other one indicates an adversarial relational posture. Not only does this result suggest that there is no rent, but it even goes further to indicate a negative return (or loss) derived by the manufacturer in this group of triadic supply chains.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to the relational posture, either strong or weak; therefore, it would be worthwhile to examine a wider spectrum of behaviors, based on the adversarial relationships, deprived of mutual trust, when both actors in a dyad act opportunistically and antagonistically. Moreover, regarding the research method used, the case study is usually deemed to be more appropriate to deeply grasp the complex issues of social behavior. Finally, caution should also be exercised while generalizing the results obtained from the research.

Practical implications

For practicing supply chain managers, this study points that that it is likely that both actors collaborating with the buyer (the supplier and the customer) also enjoy additional benefits offered by the rent. Importantly for managers, regardless of the effort made by the focal actor, the careless attitude and independence of suppliers and customers may make it hard or even impossible for the buyer to establish triads that include relationships of high quality.

Social implications

In terms of social implications, this study brings to the fore that not only are the buyers driven by self-interest but they may be also guided by ethical and social rules when interacting with suppliers and customers in their triads. This research evidenced that the buyer in the triadic supply chain can act as the moderator that tends to simultaneously establish a strong relational posture to two other actors in such a way that the joint effect of relational performance generated by both dyads significantly contributes to the higher level of buyer’s individual performance.

Originality/value

The study investigates whether and how establishing relational posture of two dyads in the triadic supply chains can affect the additional rent for the buyer derived from bridging the structural hole.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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