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Book part
Publication date: 12 May 2022

Robin S. Codding, Melissa Collier-Meek and Emily DeFouw

Evaluation of any given student's responsiveness to intervention depends not only on how effective the intervention is, but also whether the intervention was delivered as…

Abstract

Evaluation of any given student's responsiveness to intervention depends not only on how effective the intervention is, but also whether the intervention was delivered as intended as well as in the appropriate format and according to the most useful schedule. These latter elements are referred to as treatment integrity and treatment intensity, respectively. The purpose of this chapter is to define and describe how treatment integrity and intensity can be incorporated in the evaluation of outcomes associated with individualized intervention delivery.

Details

Delivering Intensive, Individualized Interventions to Children and Youth with Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-738-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 January 2021

Joachim Körkel

This paper aims to present the theoretical foundation and practical approach of “open-target addiction treatment” (OTAT). Traditional treatment programmes are…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the theoretical foundation and practical approach of “open-target addiction treatment” (OTAT). Traditional treatment programmes are usually-oriented towards fixed predefined goals (abstinence, reduced consumption and harm reduction) and often focus on one substance only (e.g. alcohol). However, as a rule, people who use drugs consume several substances and sometimes additionally exhibit behavioural addictions. For many of these addictions, there is more or less motivation for change, but commonly it is not abstinence as a consistent goal. The paradigm of OTAT systematically considers multi-substance use, expects high readiness to change and is aware that commonly clients lack the willingness to abstain permanently.

Design/methodology/approach

The theory and practice of OTAT involve three components, namely, first, to create a systematic inventory of all psychoactive substances consumed and addictive behaviours performed, second, to clarify, which substance-related change goals clients pursue and third, to choose adequate treatment options matching the substance-specific goals of the clients. Furthermore, OTAT includes didactic tools to support working along with these three steps (e.g. a set of cards to gain an overview over the psychoactive substances used and addictive behaviours performed).

Findings

The systematic implementation of OTAT requires fundamentally different concepts about addiction and its treatment, specific competencies of the staff and a corresponding portfolio of interventions within the treatment facilities.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should focus more on patients’ goal preferences and their impact on their willingness to take up treatment and its outcomes.

Practical implications

To implement OTAT treatment, institutions have to undergo a systematic process of team and organizational development.

Social implications

OTAT has the potential to reduce the treatment gap and to serve severely addicted individuals in a more comprehensive way.

Originality/value

The OTAT approach has not been described in the addiction treatment literature so far.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2003

Denise M Necoechea and H.Lee Swanson

There has been much discussion in the literature in recent years on the problems involved in the identification of children with reading disabilities. One of the most…

Abstract

There has been much discussion in the literature in recent years on the problems involved in the identification of children with reading disabilities. One of the most influential sources of knowledge in the field of learning disabilities is the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). This agency has typically been a major funding source for methodologically rigorous reading intervention research. Further, such research has contributed significantly to the validity of identifying children suspected of learning disabilities as “treatment resistors” (e.g. Vellutino et al., 1996). Yet, the NICHD has recently been the focus of some controversy. The purpose of this chapter was to synthesize NICHD funded research conducted over the past 10 years via a meta-analysis to determine what can be generalized from this body of research that can be applied to the identification of students with learning disabilities in reading. The results of the synthesis were that a prototypical intervention study has a mean effect size (ES) of 0.67 (SD=0.42), indicating that most interventions designed to increase reading skills were effective. The overall ES ranged, however, from 0.19 to 1.76, and therefore some criterion could be established for identifying treatment resistors. Performance below an overall ES of 0.25 was suggested as one of several criteria for identifying children with potential reading disabilities. However, this suggestion must be put in the context of intervention outcomes. The synthesis indicated that: (a) performance was more pronounced on skill or process measures (e.g. ES varies from 0.45 to 1.28 on measures of segmentation and pseudoword reading) than on measures of actual reading (ES varies from 0.17 to 0.60 on real word and comprehension measures); (b) the magnitude of effect sizes were more related to instructional activity (e.g. explicit instruction/practice) than to the content of instruction (e.g. type of phonics instruction); and (c) the bulk of intervention studies focused on a narrow range of reading behaviors (i.e. phonological awareness). Implications related to identification and sound teaching practice versus content training of reading instruction (e.g. phonological skills, comprehension skills) are discussed.

Details

Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-029-6

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2009

Margaret Richards, Mike Doyle and Peter Cook

Dual‐diagnosis strategies are developing in medium secure services in response to both government policies and clinical need and there has been a move towards integrated…

Abstract

Dual‐diagnosis strategies are developing in medium secure services in response to both government policies and clinical need and there has been a move towards integrated services for this patient group. Substance use that has been a feature of the index offence must be taken into account as much as psychosis or the offending behaviour. Treatment of dual diagnosis relies heavily on cognitive‐behavioural therapies. Relapse in either psychosis or substance use increases risk and re‐admission rates to medium security. This paper reviews the literature on family interventions in dual diagnosis and its applicability to forensic mental health inpatient services. As there appeared to be limited direct evidence, various domains were examined and extrapolated to a forensic setting as appropriate. The review indicates the potential for positive outcomes for families following family interventions in dual diagnosis, which may be beneficial in a forensic setting in lowering risk.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2012

Carl J. Liaupsin, Jolenea B. Ferro and John Umbreit

Treatment integrity (TI; also known as fidelity of implementation, treatment fidelity, and procedural reliability) refers to the degree to which an intervention is…

Abstract

Treatment integrity (TI; also known as fidelity of implementation, treatment fidelity, and procedural reliability) refers to the degree to which an intervention is implemented as intended. TI data provides evidence of the internal validity of a study; without TI data, one cannot attribute observed effects to an intervention or distinguish whether interventions that fail do so because of problems with the intervention, its delivery, or both. Unfortunately, the field of intervention research has seen limited progress in the assessment and reporting of TI over time. This chapter describes the development of models of TI across fields, options for measuring TI, and important issues yet to be resolved.

Details

Classroom Behavior, Contexts, and Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-972-1

Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Steven W. Steinert, Sneha Shankar and Eamonn P. Arble

This paper aims to evaluate trends in research and clinical practice that may contribute to the limited utility of assessment and treatment modalities designed to capture…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate trends in research and clinical practice that may contribute to the limited utility of assessment and treatment modalities designed to capture and address psychopathy. It identifies a lack of consistency between the academic understanding of psychopathy and how the construct is applied in clinical contexts. The authors provide clarity and direction for a more effective application of the psychopathy construct in practical contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

This review first examines the etiology of important limitations to psychopathy research and practical application, and proposes the adoption of the most recent empirical conceptualization of the construct into practical contexts. It then evaluates the current functionality of psychopathy in practical contexts. The review ultimately proposes a method for designing intervention practices based on the model used in the development of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder, which will improve the practical utility of the construct.

Findings

The present review provides evidence that a multifaceted and dimensional perspective of psychopathy will improve the practical utility of the construct and help move the field forward. It suggests that considering independent components of the psychopathy construct along a continuous scale, as with DBT, will contribute to improvements in assessments and treatments that target psychopathy.

Practical implications

The current review applies relevant research to a model for developing an intervention modality particularly in forensic or correctional settings where individuals high in psychopathy are often seen. The implications outlined provide a framework that could impact practice and assessment in forensic contexts moving forward.

Originality/value

Previous research has not concisely outlined problems concerning the link between psychopathy research and how the construct is applied in practical settings. Few researchers have proposed plausible solutions that could improve the utility of the construct in such settings.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 July 2019

Amrit Mann and Chris Wagstaff

Methamphetamine users commonly experience induced methamphetamine associated mental health symptoms. Currently, psychosocial treatment is implemented to reduce use;…

Abstract

Purpose

Methamphetamine users commonly experience induced methamphetamine associated mental health symptoms. Currently, psychosocial treatment is implemented to reduce use; however, to date, the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment in methamphetamine use and the associated mental health symptoms has not been reviewed. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review was performed by searching databases (PubMed, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO and CINAHL) and following clear inclusion/exclusion criteria.

Findings

In total, 12 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, measuring a variety of psychosocial interventions and measuring a variety of different mental health outcomes. Decreased methamphetamine use was observed in the five studies which recorded this.

Research limitations/implications

Most studies in this review were preliminary trials and only three were RCTs. Additionally, methamphetamine use is a particular problem in Japan and is becoming more prevalent in Europe, yet neither primary nor secondary searching identified papers from these regions.

Practical implications

While the findings may not provide sufficient supporting evidence to instigate changes in clinical practice, this work should be developed further, as it is clear that psychosocial interventions can be successful in treating this population.

Social implications

This review demonstrates that psychosocial treatments can improve symptoms associated with methamphetamine use. Reduction in mental health symptoms has been shown to attract individuals to drug use treatment and thus indirectly reducing methamphetamine use.

Originality/value

Given the consequences of methamphetamine for individuals and communities treatment options must be explored. A review of psychosocial interventions in the treatment of methamphetamine use and associated mental health symptoms had not been done previously. This review provides a foundation for further research.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2009

John Rose, Alex O'Brien and David Rose

There is growing evidence for the efficacy of anger treatment programmes, which aim to reduce inappropriate aggression in people with learning disabilities. To date they…

283

Abstract

There is growing evidence for the efficacy of anger treatment programmes, which aim to reduce inappropriate aggression in people with learning disabilities. To date they have been provided in both group and individual formats, but the differential efficacy of these approaches is yet to be assessed. Individuals with a learning disability and inappropriately expressed anger were assigned to either group or individual treatment or a waiting list control, depending on the availability of treatment options. In this way, 23 participants completed group treatment, 18 individual treatment and 21 were included in a waiting list control. Participants were assessed both before and after treatment using an anger provocation inventory. Improvements were found in the scores obtained on the anger inventory for both the group and individual treatments compared to the control using a 2 by 3 split plot ANOVA. There was no difference between group and individual treatments. These results replicate previous findings that suggest that both group and individual cognitive behavioural interventions are effective treatment options for people with learning disabilities, but do not support either method of delivery as the preferred option. Limitations of the data are discussed.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Jesse Wynn, Aaron Hudyma, Elizabeth Hauptman, Tiffani Nicole Houston and James Michael Faragher

– The purpose of this paper is to seek to present an overview of past, present, and future approaches to the treatment of problem gambling.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to seek to present an overview of past, present, and future approaches to the treatment of problem gambling.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the literature concerning conceptual, historical, and clinical research perspectives on the treatment of problem gambling.

Findings

Perspectives on the etiology, maintenance, conceptualization, and treatment of problem gambling have evolved over time. Once seen as a failure of moral character, problem gambling is now considered to be an addictive disorder with similarities to substance abuse disorders. Empirical research into the treatment of problem gambling is progressing, but is relatively sparse compared to the body of research in other addictive disorders. Methodological issues have been identified that will need to be addressed in future research. Currently, cognitive-behavioral approaches have received the most attention and have the greatest amount of research support. Brief interventions, pharmacological interventions, family therapy, and Gamblers Anonymous are also in use. Future directions for problem gambling treatment that are being researched and implemented are mindfulness-based interventions and internet-based treatment approaches.

Originality/value

This review should be useful to those seeking general information about problem gambling treatment, its development, status, and future directions.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2018

Clive G. Long, Olga Dolley and Clive Hollin

In the UK, the mental health treatment requirement (MHTR) order for offenders on probation has been underused. A MHTR service was established to assess the effectiveness…

Abstract

Purpose

In the UK, the mental health treatment requirement (MHTR) order for offenders on probation has been underused. A MHTR service was established to assess the effectiveness of a partnership between a probation service, a link worker charity and an independent mental healthcare provider. Short-term structured cognitive behavioural interventions were delivered by psychology graduates with relevant work experience and training. Training for the judiciary on the MHTR and the new service led to a significant increase in the use of MHTR orders. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 56 (of 76 MHTR offenders) completed treatment in the first 12 months. A single cohort pre-post follow-up design was used to evaluate change in the following domains: mental health and wellbeing; coping skills; social adjustment; and criminal justice outcomes. Mental health treatment interventions were delivered under supervision by two psychology graduates who had relevant work experience and who were trained in short term, structured, cognitive behavioural (CBT) interventions.

Findings

Clinically significant changes were obtained on measures of anxiety and depression, and on measures of social problem solving, emotional regulation and self-efficacy. Ratings of work and social adjustment and pre-post ratings of dynamic criminogenic risk factors also improved. This new initiative has addressed the moral argument for equality of access to mental health services for offenders given a community order.

Originality/value

While the current initiative represents one of a number of models designed to increase the collaboration between the criminal justice and the mental health systems, this is the first within the UK to deliver a therapeutic response at the point of sentencing for offenders with mental health problems. The significant increase in the provision of MHTR community orders in the first year of the project has been associated with a decrease in the number of psychiatric reports requested that are time consuming and do not lead to a rapid treatment.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

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