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The analysis of consumer behaviour requires the consideration of various processes internal and external to the individual. To understand behaviour, it is necessary to examine the complex interaction of many influencing elements. This study deals with determinants of behaviour, culture and reference group influences, the relationships between individuals and their environments, perceived risks, and family decision processes. It concludes with an illustration of tourist behaviour modelling.
The article aims to discuss the relationship of culture and tourist behavior. The focus of the study is to propose an extended research framework related to…
The article aims to discuss the relationship of culture and tourist behavior. The focus of the study is to propose an extended research framework related to individualism/collectivism culture and group travel intention. The article seeks to argue that group travel intention and behavior is not only influenced by the cultural background of individualism or collectivism, but also a function of several factors including social, political, and economic influence, as well as personal background of individual travelers.
The article investigates the major current research and methodological issues in cross‐cultural tourist behavior studies. By reviewing and assessing important concepts related to this particular theoretical topic, the study proposes a conceptual framework based on the extensive literature review and discussion.
The study proposes that personal background, as well as social, political, and economic factors all moderate the relationship between culture and group travel behavior, making tourist behavior in collectivism or individualism cultures more similar or different from one another. The research also tests whether social conditions of marginality contribute to the differences.
The study helps avoid the stereotypes of individualism/collectivism culture related to group travel behavior, and provides better understanding of the function of various personal, social, political, and economic factors on tourist behavior.
Cross‐cultural studies in tourism are limited, especially in the tourist behavior sector. The article offers insights into the cultural differences and tourist behaviors on a more detailed market basis.
The purpose of this paper is to examine how crises impact overall tourist behaviour and travel preferences in times of crisis events, both man-made and natural disasters…
The purpose of this paper is to examine how crises impact overall tourist behaviour and travel preferences in times of crisis events, both man-made and natural disasters. In doing so, the present paper has been designed to provide a new conceptualization of travellers’ shifting preferences in terms of the selection of holiday destinations through the new concept of tourophobia and to classify this as a new type of tourist behaviour.
The present study uses a literature review as a qualitative deductive content analysis of 58 field studies published by major hospitality and tourism journals. By using a deductive content analysis approach, the current paper is designed to delineate tourist behaviour through a generic review of relevant literature detailing travellers’ preferences in times of crisis.
The developed concept of tourophobia and the suggested model, which proposes two possible scenarios, shows that traveller behaviour is heterogeneous in terms of the destination selection process; this finding is based on a content analysis of the articles chosen. Further, by using the developed model, the decline in travel and tourism can also be explained by an increase in what is termed in this paper “tourophobia”, which results from the various devastating effects of crises.
The proposed model is expected to help destination managers and marketers to segment and forecast the future market demand of tourist travel preferences, thereby enabling them to form effective marketing strategies and increase their responsiveness during difficult times. Only articles from hospitality and tourism journals were subjected to content analysis; this is a major limitation of the study.
The present research contributes to current knowledge by describing the concept of tourophobia as a tourist behaviour in times of crisis. As an emerging phenomenon, it is also introduced as being one criterion for the selection of destinations and, therefore, is regarded as a driver for tourist behaviour, thus generating the originality of the paper. This study strives to provide a new direction for future studies on tourist behaviour, rather than offering new empirical data.
本文旨在研究在人为和自然灾害的危机事件中, 危机是如何影响旅游者的整体行为和旅游偏好的。在此过程中, 本论文旨在通过旅游恐惧症的概念, 对旅游者在选择度假目的地方面的偏好变化提供一个新的概念化过程, 并将其归类为一种新的旅游行为类型。
本研究采用文献回顾的方法, 对发表在主流酒店和旅游学术期刊上的58个实地研究进行定性演绎分析。本文运用演绎内容分析法, 通过对危机时期旅游者偏好的相关文献的综述, 勾勒出旅游者的行为特征。
旅游恐惧症的发展概念和假设模型提出了两种可能的情况, 表明旅行者的行为在目的地选择过程中是异质的；这一发现是基于对所选文章的内容分析。此外, 通过使用已开发的模型, 旅游业和旅游业的衰退也可以用本文所称的“旅游恐惧症”的增加来解释, 这是由危机的各种破坏性影响造成的。
该模型有望帮助旅游目的地管理者和营销者对旅游偏好的未来市场需求进行细分和预测, 从而形成有效的营销策略, 增强他们在困难时期的反应能力。本文的一个主要局限是, 仅对酒店和旅游期刊的文章进行了内容分析。
本研究通过将旅游恐惧症的概念描述为危机时期的一种旅游行为, 为当前的知识做出了贡献。旅游恐惧症作为一种新出现的现象, 也是旅游目的地选择的一个标准, 因此它被认为是旅游行为的驱动因素, 从而体现了本文的独创性。本研究旨在为未来的旅游行为研究提供一个新的方向, 而不是提供新的实证数据。
El objetivo del presente documento es examinar cómo las crisis impactan el comportamiento turístico general y las preferencias de viaje en tiempos de crisis, relacionadas con desastres naturales, así como, provocadas por el hombre. Al hacerlo, el presente documento ha sido diseñado para proporcionar una nueva conceptualización de las preferencias cambiantes de los viajeros en términos de la selección de destinos de vacaciones a través del nuevo concepto de “tourophobia”, y para clasificar esto como un nuevo tipo de comportamiento turístico.
El presente estudio emplea una revisión de la literatura basado en un análisis de contenido deductivo cualitativo de 58 estudios de campo publicados por las principales revistas de hotelería y turismo. Al utilizar un enfoque de análisis de contenido deductivo, el documento actual está diseñado para delinear el comportamiento turístico a través de una revisión genérica de literatura relevante que detalla las preferencias de los viajeros en tiempos de crisis.
El concepto desarrollado de “tourophobia” y el modelo sugerido, que propone dos escenarios posibles, muestra que el comportamiento del viajero es heterogéneo en términos del proceso de selección del destino; Este hallazgo se basa en un análisis de contenido de los artículos elegidos. Además, mediante el uso del modelo desarrollado, la disminución de los viajes y el turismo también puede explicarse por un aumento en lo que se denomina en este documento “tourophobia”, que resulta de los diversos efectos devastadores de las crisis.
Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación
Se espera que el modelo propuesto ayude a los directores de planificación turística de destinos, así como a los de marketing a segmentar y pronosticar la demanda futura del mercado con respecto a las preferencias de viajes turísticos, lo que les permite formar estrategias de marketing efectivas y aumentar su capacidad de respuesta en tiempos difíciles. Solo los artículos de revistas de hotelería y turismo fueron sometidas al análisis de contenido; ésta constituye una limitación importante del estudio.
La presente investigación contribuye al conocimiento actual al describir el concepto de “tourophobia” como un comportamiento turístico en tiempos de crisis. Como fenómeno emergente, también se presenta como un criterio para la selección de destinos y, por lo tanto, se considera un motor del comportamiento turístico, generando así la originalidad del documento. Este estudio se esfuerza por proporcionar una nueva dirección para futuros estudios sobre el comportamiento turístico, en lugar de ofrecer nuevos datos empíricos.
- Tourist behaviour
- Tourist typology
- Crisis and Disaster
- Socio-Psychology of Travellers
- Touristic avoidance behaviour
- Comportamiento de evitación turística
- Comportamiento turístico
- Tipología turística
- Crisis y desastres
- Psicología social del viajero
Increasing interest in ‘soft’ policy approaches to travel demand management, poses the question of how to measure the effectiveness of interventions. Much of the focus has…
Increasing interest in ‘soft’ policy approaches to travel demand management, poses the question of how to measure the effectiveness of interventions. Much of the focus has been on statistical reliability of measured change where sample surveys are the primary means of estimating change. Sample surveys also pose issues of non-sampling errors, especially when the ‘measure’ is the difference between ‘before’ and ‘after’. This paper outlines the principles and pitfalls in measuring behaviour change. It draws on voluntary travel behaviour change (VTBC), using a number of approaches, including but not limited to Individualised Marketing (a method developed by the authors). A key issue in VTBC is the extent to which repeated experience can validate the effectiveness of voluntary behaviour change interventions in general, despite statistical errors of individual measurements. Measurement is fundamental to evaluation of outcomes. It can also aid the selection of locations with high potential to achieve change through identification of key success factors. In the specific case of travel behaviour change, there is now a substantial body of research that potentially allows outcomes to be related to other factors. To date, no strong relationships have been identified, but this would be a useful area for further research. Experience does demonstrate, however, that the scale of the intervention is important. Interventions with more than 5000 households are consistently more successful than small ones, even allowing for the greater statistical variability of measurement for smaller projects. Large scale also offers opportunities for intervention design to benefit from the potential for diffusion beyond those directly involved in the project.
Purpose – To provide a behavioural perspective on the relationship between transport and climate change.Methodology/approach – The factors influencing travel behaviour and…
Purpose – To provide a behavioural perspective on the relationship between transport and climate change.
Methodology/approach – The factors influencing travel behaviour and the elements critical to behaviour formation are reviewed. The importance of behaviour change measures to reduce the impact of transport on climate change, and the application of behaviour change measures to increase the sustainability of transport, are examined.
Findings – There have been a range of travel behaviour measures implemented, such as individualised marketing programmes and travel plans, which have demonstrated some behavioural change impacts, in turn affecting climate change emissions, although they tend to be localised and small-scale.
Social implications – There is a real challenge to encourage individuals within society to exhibit more sustainable travel behaviour.
Originality/value – A range of behavioural issues still need to be resolved in terms of the relationship between transport and climate change, including a need to influence attitudes, to bridge the gaps between attitudes and both behaviour and intention, to make an impact at points of transition for individuals, to use cognitive dissonance as a way of harnessing social norms, and to understand more fully social pressure and group influence.
The paper aims to examine the effect of physical distancing control on the intention to travel during the pandemic and to assess the influence of knowledge, social concern…
The paper aims to examine the effect of physical distancing control on the intention to travel during the pandemic and to assess the influence of knowledge, social concern and perceived risk on the theory of planned behavior (TPB).
A total of 1,068 Indonesian respondents through a purposive sampling approach, filled out online questionnaires during the pandemic. The collected data were analyzed using partial least squares-structural equation modeling.
The results indicated that subjective norm as the external factor of the TPB has a stronger effect than the internal factors; attitude and behavioral control. It appears that in a collectivist society, prohibition enforced by family and friends, as well as the government’s sanctions have a stronger influence on one’s decision to travel. The findings also suggested that knowledge, perceived risks and social concern effect tourists’ behavior. Uncertainty and inadequate knowledge will decrease the level of perceived risk, which leads to lower control in practicing physical distancing and increasing intention to travel during the pandemic.
The research has limitations in its use of a convenient sampling method. This method may not represent the whole population, causing the results to be difficult for generalization. There is also the need for extending the TPB model with different variables in the context of tourism and pandemic. This study enriches the existing tourism literature by applying TPB to examine tourists’ behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic, focusing on knowledge, social concern and perceived risk theory.
This paper offers useful insights for tourism planners in the government and private destination management levels. It is crucial for a destination management organization to understand the relationship between knowledge, perception and social concern with tourists’ behavior while traveling during pandemics. The understanding of tourist’s behavior when traveling during the pandemic will assist in developing and creating activities and designing health protocols at tourist attractions.
This study extended the TPB to analyze tourists behavior during the pandemic by applying knowledge, social concern and perceived risk elements.
Este artículo analiza los efectos del control de la distancia física en la intención de viajar durante la pandemia y la influencia del conocimiento, la preocupación social y riesgo percibido en la teoría del comportamiento planificado (TPB).
A través de un sistema de muestreo por conveniencia, se obtuvo una muestra de 1.068 participantes de Indonesia que completaron la encuesta online durante la pandemia. La información recopilada fue analizada a través del PLS-SEM.
Los resultados indicaron que la norma subjetiva como factor externo de la teoría del comportamiento planificado ejerce un efecto superior al de los factores internos; actitud y control del comportamiento. Resulta que, en una sociedad colectivista, la prohibición reforzada por la familia y amigos, así como las sanciones del gobierno ejercen una influencia mayor en la decisión individual de viajar. Los resultados también sugieren que el conocimiento, los riesgos percibidos y la preocupación social afectan al comportamiento del turista. La incertidumbre y el desconocimiento disminuyen el nivel de riesgo percibido lo cual conduce a un menor control a la hora de cumplir con el distanciamiento físico y a una mayor intención de viajar durante la pandemia.
Limitaciones del estudio/implicaciones
Las limitaciones de esta investigación tienen su origen en el sistema de muestreo de conveniencia utilizado en esta investigación. Este método puede no representar al total de la población, lo cual provoca dificultad en la generalización de los resultados. También existe la necesidad de ampliar el modelo de la teoría del comportamiento planificado (TPB) incorporando variables propias del contexto turístico y de la pandemia. Este estudio supone una aportación a la literatura existente en turismo al aplicar la teoría del comportamiento planeado al análisis del comportamiento de los turistas durante la pandemia del covid-19, con un enfoque en el conocimiento, la preocupación social y la teoría del riesgo percibido.
Esta investigación es de utilidad para los responsables de la planificación de la actividad turística tanto a nivel gubernamental como privado. Es crucial para que las organizaciones responsables de la gestión del destino (DMO) comprendan la relación existente entre conocimiento, percepción y preocupación social, con el comportamiento de los turistas cuando viajan en tiempos de pandemia. La comprensión del comportamiento de los turistas cuando viajan durante la pandemia ayudará a desarrollar, crear actividades y diseñar protocolos de salud en las atracciones de los turistas.
Este estudio extiende la teoría de comportamiento planificado al análisis del comportamiento de los turistas durante la pandemia a través de la aplicación del conocimiento, preocupación social y elementos de riesgo percibido.
This paper aims to clarify the differences between students’ travel behaviours in Australia and China and the association between students’ environmental attitudes and…
This paper aims to clarify the differences between students’ travel behaviours in Australia and China and the association between students’ environmental attitudes and their travel behaviours in both countries.
The paper extensively reviewed most of existing literature work on commuting patterns of higher education students with referring to different studies around the world and then used it to build a theoretical framework and conceptual model to relate the travel patterns of students to built environment, personal demographics and environmental knowledge/consideration. An online survey was used with 230 students at Mawson Lakes campus of University of South Australia and Beiyangyuan campus of Tianjin University (China). Statistical tests (i.e. mean test, one-way analysis of variance, factor analysis) were used to analyse the data.
The study reveals that a high dependence on private vehicles amongst students at the Mawson Lakes campus, whilst a more environmentally sustainable modal choice dominated at the Beiyangyuan campus. Those who studied at Mawson Lakes campus tended to have stronger involvement in environmental activities than their counterparts at Beiyangyuan campus, which presented a clear association between environmental awareness and the travel behaviours of the sampled students.
The study focussed on two respective campuses of both universities in Australia and China. Future work could be expanded with students at all campuses of two universities.
The study affirmed the value of nurturing environmental awareness for students in both universities to encourage more environmentally sustainable travel behaviours amongst students. The paper provides policy recommendations such as establishing infrastructure, and facilities for new stream of mobility included sharing bike schemes, which would be very practical due to flexibility and cost effectiveness within University campuses. The paper attempted to transfer lessons from Chinese bike friendly society to Adelaide’s car dominated campus.
This study brings remarkable contributions as comparing university students’ travel behaviours in two different nations. It is the first one in Australia, which links the environmental concerns among university students with their travel behaviours. The paper was successful in getting the gap between theory and practice filled to some extent. The paper has a capability to be used as an evidence-base work in the area of sustainability education.
Independent travelers are those vacationers who have booked only a minimum of their transportation and accommodation arrangements prior to departure on the vacation. Independent travel is an important and growing sector of worldwide tourism. Choice of vacation itinerary for the independent vacation represents a complex series of decisions regarding purchase of multiple leisure and tourism services. This chapter builds and tests a model of independent traveler decision-making for choice of vacation itinerary. The research undertaken employs a two-phase, inductive–deductive case study design. In the deductive phase, the researcher interviewed 20 travel parties vacationing in New Zealand for the first time. The researcher interviewed respondents at both the beginning and the end of their New Zealand vacations. The study compares pre-vacation research and plans, and actual vacation behaviors, on a case-by-case basis. The study examines case study narratives and quantitative measures of crucial variables. The study tests two competing models of independent traveler decision-making, using a pattern-matching procedure. This embedded research design results in high multi-source, multi-method validity for the supported model. The model of the Independent Vacation as Evolving Itinerary suggests that much of the vacation itinerary experienced in independent travel is indeed unplanned, and that a desire to experience the unplanned is a key hedonic motive for independent travel. Rather than following a fixed itinerary, the itinerary of an independent vacation evolves as the vacation proceeds. The independent traveler takes advantage of serendipitous opportunities to experience a number of locations, attractions and activities that they had neither actively researched nor planned.
Introduction: Just as the tourism event begins with the human element, it again ends with the human element. Therefore, the existence, behaviours and attitudes of the…
Introduction: Just as the tourism event begins with the human element, it again ends with the human element. Therefore, the existence, behaviours and attitudes of the human factor is an issue that should be prioritised much more when compared to other sectors. Consumer behaviour involves certain decisions, activities, ideas or experiences that meet the needs and desires of the consumer. Prior to these actions, consumer behaviour is concerned with all the activities directly related to the attainment, consumption and disposition of the products and services. In this chapter, touristic consumer behaviour, consumer choice and behaviour of the relevant destination, and the management of the destination choice process are presented.
Aim: The chapter aims to reveal how important it is to know the consumer’s destination choice behaviour in both ensuring that the consumer has had a satisfied holiday during the holiday process, and that employers and employees, as service providers, experience the peace and pride of providing a good and quality service. Knowing the behaviour patterns of potential consumers and developing their marketing activities accordingly will provide great convenience to service marketers in the future.
Method: To do this a literature review has been carried out on the issues of destination choice behaviour and tourist travel behaviour.
Result: Tourist behaviour is the most significant indicator or predictor of future tourist behaviour. Considering the social role of the tourist, the behaviour of a tourist can also be an indicator of the behaviour of others. With their behaviours, tourists determine the norms of social behaviour within the context of tourism. These norms are also followed by other consumers such as engaging in tourist behaviour, as well as those who have not travelled yet. Tourist behaviour is the context of the consumer behaviour in the purchasing and abandoning the tourist services.
Implication: The characteristics of the consumer, their past experiences, the level of influence from other consumers, etc. In the future, knowing the behaviour patterns of potential consumers and developing their marketing activities in this direction will provide great convenience to service marketers.
Originality of Study: In the study, it is desired to draw attention to the importance of knowing consumer behaviours in their destination selection. Therefore, this study is thought to be useful in future studies, especially in terms of shedding light on the consumer behaviours and roles that play a role in determining the factors that play a role in destination selection.
The purpose of this study is to examine the drivers and barriers of travel behavior associated with tourist behavior during/post-COVID-19 pandemic to provide a knowledge…
The purpose of this study is to examine the drivers and barriers of travel behavior associated with tourist behavior during/post-COVID-19 pandemic to provide a knowledge base as well as an agenda for future research.
The authors utilized the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) technique for searching the articles published in Web of Science (WOS) and Scopus, to identify the main drivers and barriers affecting the tourist behavior during/post-COVID-19 pandemic. Eventually, 47 articles were chosen for the final analysis.
The findings are reported in three sections, (1) quantitative research profile, (2) qualitative synthesis and (3) future agenda. This study addresses the nuanced questions regarding the significant change in tourist travel behavior, emotional dynamics and a detailed understanding of mechanisms, such as which drivers and barriers affect tourist behavior in a particular destination. Drivers and barriers to tourist travel behavior were characterized in personal-related, destination-related, and health-related factors. Moreover, this study provides thought-provoking ideas in theory, policy and practice in the field of tourism and hospitality.
This study has three limitations, as follows. First, the authors searched only two databases, Scopus and Web of Science, due to which the authors might be missing some related studies existing on the other databases. Although these databases provide an extensive range of academic literature, further studies could extend the data collection from the other databases (e.g. via Taylor & Francis). However, our systematic literature review (SLR) coverage is quite extensive, since journals are listed on these three main databases. Second, the authors followed a main study search protocol based on the synonyms and related keywords, however, some of the studies that may be related to the tourist behavior towards the destination are missing on account of the lack of our keywords in there, title, author, keyword and abstract. Furthermore, future research could endeavor to add other keywords to expand the results of studies. Third, although the accurate analysis was conducted to reduce subjectivity in identifying themes for drivers and barriers of tourist behavior, future studies on categorization could work to ensure that other sub-themes categorize.
The recent study has some key practical implications. First, this study is valuable for all the stakeholders in a unique way, including destination managers, academicians and policymakers, because it provides insight into barriers and drivers that influence the development of tourist behavior towards the destination. Second, the current study also offers practical implications for people involved in tourism service industries including governments and private businesses. Policymakers and other leaders are increasingly interested in harnessing the economic potential of tourism. Therefore, identifying the barrier which is inhibiting the tourist traffic towards the destination is beneficial to understand and effectively develop strategies to minimize the effect of such factors. Moreover, drivers and barriers of tourist behavior towards the destination in the COVID-19 pandemic situation towards the destination may help to create a framework for the development of destinations according to the current vulnerable situation. Third, current findings suggest that tourism marketers understand the drivers and barrier constructs found in this study and tailor their marketing strategies for attracting existing and new tourists. For instance, marketers should understand the drivers and barriers of tourist behavior for effective strategy development to increase the positive effect of drivers and to reduce the negative effect of barriers.
This is the first systematic literature review on the impact of drivers and barriers of tourist travel behavior. This paper analyses the methods and approaches that have been used in the previous literature to examine the drivers and barriers of tourist travel behavior. The paper ends with the research implication and limitations of the studies.