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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2003

Michael Doane, Kenneth Hendricks and R.Preston McAfee

The Internet has enabled consumers to act as their own travel agents and to verify independently the accuracy of the information provided by airlines through the CRSs and…

Abstract

The Internet has enabled consumers to act as their own travel agents and to verify independently the accuracy of the information provided by airlines through the CRSs and travel agents. As a result, the relationships between consumers and the suppliers of air-travel information have been radically altered, and we document these changes. We identify the relevant market for air-travel information, which includes CRSs, online travel agencies, and the websites and call centers of individual carriers. We determine market concentration and market shares using the Herfindhal-Hirschman Index. Based on our analysis, we argue that there is no longer any need to regulate independent CRSs. However, airlines that own CRSs continue to have an incentive to withdraw their flight and fare information from rival CRSs and, to prevent this from happening, the mandatory participation rule adopted in 1992 should be maintained.

Details

Organizing the New Industrial Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-081-4

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Volodymyr Bilotkach and Marija Pejcinovska

The vertical relationships literature has considered situations where both producers and retailers have a degree of market power. On one hand, retailers may have certain…

Abstract

The vertical relationships literature has considered situations where both producers and retailers have a degree of market power. On one hand, retailers may have certain freedom in deciding what price to charge to the final consumers. On the other hand, large retailers may also pressurize producers (Wal-Mart is a classic example; see also Comanor and Rey (2000) for a formal treatment of this topic). At the same time, producers may pressurize retailers via resale price maintenance. The interplay of producers' and retailers' bargaining power, in addition to the structure (both horizontal and vertical) of product and distribution markets, eventually determine the sticker price faced by an unsuspecting consumer.

Details

Pricing Behavior and Non-Price Characteristics in the Airline Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-469-6

Book part
Publication date: 31 January 2015

Chenfeng Xiong, Xiqun Chen and Lei Zhang

This chapter explores a descriptive theory of multidimensional travel behaviour, estimation of quantitative models, and demonstration in an agent-based microsimulation.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter explores a descriptive theory of multidimensional travel behaviour, estimation of quantitative models, and demonstration in an agent-based microsimulation.

Theory

A descriptive theory on multidimensional travel behaviour is conceptualised. It theorizes multidimensional knowledge updating, search start/stopping criteria, and search/decision heuristics. These components are formulated or empirically modelled and integrated in a unified and coherent approach.

Findings

The theory is supported by empirical observations and the derived quantitative models are tested by an agent-based simulation on a demonstration network.

Originality and value

Based on artificially intelligent agents, learning and search theory, and bounded rationality, this chapter makes an effort to embed a sound theoretical foundation for the computational process approach and agent-based microsimulations. A pertinent new theory is proposed with experimental observations and estimations to demonstrate agents with systematic deviations from the rationality paradigm. Procedural and multidimensional decision-making are modelled. The numerical experiment highlights the capabilities of the proposed theory in estimating rich behavioural dynamics.

Details

Bounded Rational Choice Behaviour: Applications in Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-071-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Ahmed Mohamed Elbaz, Gomaa Mohamed Agag and Nasser Alhamar Alkathiri

This study aims to examine the influence of the three dimensions of travel agents’ manager competencies – ability, motivation and opportunity seeking – on knowledge…

1483

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the influence of the three dimensions of travel agents’ manager competencies – ability, motivation and opportunity seeking – on knowledge transfer and travel agents’ performance. In addition, the study investigates how employee’s absorptive capacity moderates the effects of managers’ competencies on knowledge received by the employees and moderates the effects of knowledge received by the employees on travel agents’ performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A positivist research philosophy was adopted with a quantitative approach, in which quantitative data were gathered based on questionnaires to tackle different stages of the study. To test the hypotheses, a self-administrated face-to-face survey of about 42 questions, launched on November 7, 2016, was used to compile response from top and medium management Category A travel agents operating in Egypt.

Findings

Based on a sample of 577 travel agents’ frontline employees, the results showed that the three dimensions of travel agents’ competencies have a positive effect on knowledge received by the employee. Findings further indicated that knowledge received by employee mediates the link between these three competencies and travel agents’ performance. The link between the competencies and knowledge received by the employee was found to be positively moderated by employee absorptive capacity. Moreover, these findings suggested that the relationship between knowledge received and travel agents’ performance is stronger when employees’ absorptive capacity is greater.

Research limitations/implications

This study is bound by certain limitations that also provide fertile grounds for further research. First, the study examined how an employee’s absorptive capacity moderates the effects of managers’ competencies on knowledge received by the employees and moderates the effects of knowledge received by the employees on travel agents’ performance. However, innovation as a dependent variable can be investigated. Second, one limitation is that the study is restricted to Category A travel agents only in Greater Cairo. Third, examining the antecedents of ability, motivation and opportunity seeking to transfer knowledge is also important.

Practical implications

It is important for travel agents, owners, managers and employees to acknowledge absorptive capacity as a critical component for organizations to sustain, grow and compete. Travel agents can also take steps to develop their employees’ absorptive capacity. Doing so would further enhance the success of knowledge, employees and travel agents’ performance. Also, travel agents’ top management has to ensure their employees’ absorbing knowledge, identifying and recognizing external knowledge, processing and understanding it, combining it with existing knowledge and applying the new knowledge to commercial ends. Hence, the development of absorptive capacity contributes to a travel agent’s achievement of competitive advantage.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by expanding the extant literature on knowledge transfer and absorptive capacity by investigating the influence of travel agents’ manager competencies – ability, motivation and opportunity seeking – for knowledge transfer in the Egyptian context. In addition, it investigates the direct effects of the three dimensions of travel agents’ manager competencies – ability, motivation and opportunity seeking – for knowledge transfer. Finally, the paper investigates how employee’s absorptive capacity moderates the effects of managers’ competencies on knowledge received by the employees and moderates the effects of knowledge received by the employees on travel agents’ performance

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Hanqin Qiu Zhang

China's travel agent industry started becoming a service industry after China opened its doors to the outside world in 1978. During the process of economic reform and…

4194

Abstract

China's travel agent industry started becoming a service industry after China opened its doors to the outside world in 1978. During the process of economic reform and marketization, the industry has become much more mature than 25 years ago. With China's accession to World Tourism Organization, the travel service industry will open its market for competition between foreign travel agents and the ones in China. Through studying and investigating the developing history and the current operating condition of the travel agents, this paper analyzes opportunities and challenges facing China's travel agents upon China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Shengliang Deng, Rob Lawson and Luiz Moutinho

Presents an exploratory study on travel agents’ attitudes towards automation. Surveys 167 travel agents from both Canada and New Zealand. Shows that there are four…

1368

Abstract

Presents an exploratory study on travel agents’ attitudes towards automation. Surveys 167 travel agents from both Canada and New Zealand. Shows that there are four distinct groups of agents whose attitudes towards automation differ quite substantially and that these attitudes are related not so much to current use of technology but more to perceived future usage.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 January 2018

Cansu Yildirim, Bengu Sevil Oflaç and Oznur Yurt

The purpose of this paper is to explore the doer effect of service failure (SF), good prior experience (GPE) and recovery on overall customer satisfaction and repurchase…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the doer effect of service failure (SF), good prior experience (GPE) and recovery on overall customer satisfaction and repurchase intentions for multi-agents in tourism service supply chain (TSSC). It specifically focuses on internal and external failure and recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs a 2×2×3 between-subjects experimental design with 12 diverse scenarios. It aims to examine the main effects of GPE and the interaction effects of SF and recovery on overall customer satisfaction and repurchase intentions.

Findings

The main findings show that consumers do not show favorable behavioral outcomes when they have GPE with an affiliated party. Results of the experiments demonstrate that for hotels, there is no interaction effect between failure and recovery regarding overall customer satisfaction and repurchase intentions; however, for travel agencies, an interaction effect has been found. This indicates that an internal failure (by travel agency) should be recovered internally to increase the behavioral outcomes for travel agency. However, if there is an external failure (by hotel) then the essential thing is providing a recovery.

Originality/value

Although the service literature covers failure and recovery in diverse contexts, these concepts are rarely studied from a multi-agent perspective in the service supply chain literature. In such a chain, a failure by a different party may remain unresolved, and this may create a positive effect on another party, if they provide recovery for the failure. This means that the doer of the failure and/or recovery (the party responsible from the failure and/or recovery) may have an impact on behavioral outcomes. However, previous literature has neglected to focus on the important issue of which entity/party performs the failure and/or recovery, and the effect on behavioral outcomes. By focusing on a principal-agent relationship in a TSSC, the study aims to address this research gap.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Vasiliki Vrana and Costas Zafiropoulos

The purpose of this paper is to adopt a total view on the issue of usage and attitude of travel agents towards internet technology. Many aspects are being investigated…

5279

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to adopt a total view on the issue of usage and attitude of travel agents towards internet technology. Many aspects are being investigated, such as agents' attitudes towards internet applications, the current state of internet use, the relative maturity of the web sites, and internet marketing by Greek tourist agencies.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted. Greek Travel Pages (GTP), notified travel agents via e‐mail sent about the online questionnaire web site. Travel agents willing to participate visited a tailor made web site replied to the questionnaire and the data were recorded to a database. A total of 117 questionnaires were answered. The questionnaire used included five sections and questions were adopted from previous researches.

Findings

Facilitation of global marketing and completion of online services are the most important reasons for using internet practices according to tourism agents. Travel agencies generally do not use internet practices effectively as a relatively small number of transactions are completed on line. The web pages are merely used as another means to exhibit their static information. Security difficulties and the need for social interaction are the main barriers to marketing over the internet

Research limitations/implications

This is an exploratory study addressed to agents on‐line. Further research and studies are needed by a broader range of travel agencies

Practical implications

Provides suggestions for good practices to tourism agents along with an understanding of their attitudes on internet use

Originality/value

Enables travel agents to recognize the pros and cons of using internet and to make technology an essential part of the company.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 18 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2010

John Kracht and Youcheng Wang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution and transformation of tourism distribution channels, focusing on the role the internet has played in such a process…

12103

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution and transformation of tourism distribution channels, focusing on the role the internet has played in such a process. It attempts to graphically illustrate, in a temporal manner, the evolving complexity of the tourism distribution systems.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides insights into the change of the structure of tourism distribution that has not been extensively explored. Indeed, the complexity of the tourism distribution structure has been diagrammatically depicted multiple times by previous researchers and each depiction has contributed to a fuller understanding of the body of knowledge by focusing on different aspects of that structure. This paper builds upon those valuable knowledge contributions by focusing on the evolution of the structure over time, systematically and diagrammatically revealing the progressively larger number of intermediation layers, in spite of concurrent disintermediation and reintermediation activity. This paper does not focus on every action of every participant in detail, but rather focuses on categories of intermediaries, looking at pioneering examples of each. Likewise, the comparative rates of technology adoption in different regions of the world are not investigated.

Findings

The complex network proposed in this paper indicates that the advance of information and communication technology has not reduced the number of intermediaries in the distribution channel, but rather resulted in an increasingly complex array of intermediaries. The structure of the tourism industry has taken the form of a complex global network. In the struggle to prosper in this environment, participants at various levels will continue to compete, cooperate, merge, form partnerships, and change relationships on a regular basis.

Originality/value

The extant literature has covered many aspects of intermediation, disintermediation, and reintermediation, albeit with differing terminologies. Most of these studies have adopted a static and cross‐sectional approach in examining the structure and use of tourism distribution channels. This paper examines the historical evolution and progression of tourism distribution channels which is not only important in understanding where we are now as an industry, but also where we came from and where we are heading to.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2009

David H. Brown and Laddawan Kaewkitipong

The research documented in this paper aims to explore e‐business uses in small and medium‐sized tourism enterprises compared with their larger counterparts.

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Abstract

Purpose

The research documented in this paper aims to explore e‐business uses in small and medium‐sized tourism enterprises compared with their larger counterparts.

Design/methodology/approach

Five case studies were conducted with Thai tourism SMEs to investigate their technology adoption and use experiences. For large‐sized enterprises, an extensive review of industry's practice was conducted. A comparison was then carried out based on the scope of the technology, namely inter‐organisation, intra‐organisation, and front‐end side linking to customers.

Findings

In terms of e‐business use, it is not surprising that Thai SMEs remain less advanced in utilising e‐business technology. However, size is found to be a significant factor in determining SME behaviour not only in comparison to larger travel agencies or hotels, but also with the SME sector itself. Associated with this is application complexity that is again significant and linked to relative size. Finally, the choices made by small hotels and travel agents are shown to be influenced by the technology providers.

Research limitations/implications

The main research limitation is a limited generalisibility. Future research on SMEs in developing countries would make the comparison more sound and increase generalisability.

Practical implications

SMEs should pay more attention on strategic use of IT in order to compete with their larger competitors. At the policy level, more education on IT development skills and business potentials of IT are needed.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the literature on IT adoption in SMEs particularly with respect to size within the SME sector, the importance of complexity and the role of technology provider.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 22 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 15000