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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

William A. Kerr

Given the rapid rates of technological improvements possible, using modern biotechnology, the product life cycle of new genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is likely to…

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Abstract

Given the rapid rates of technological improvements possible, using modern biotechnology, the product life cycle of new genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is likely to be short and, hence, those investing in their development will desire access to the widest international market possible. There is, however, considerable consumer scepticism regarding GMOs, which is being translated into both government policy responses and actions by firms who are near the consumer end of the supply chain. As the licensing of GMOs is likely to vary from country to country and regulatory regimes will differ, firms involved in international supply chains for food products will be affected by the interplay of trade policy and consumer scepticism. All firms, even those not handling GMO products, will be affected because costly new monitoring procedures will be required. These additional monitoring costs suggest that competitive advantage is likely to be conferred on those supply chains which exhibit superior vertical co‐ordination.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2019

Jintao Zhan, Yubei Ma, Xinye Lv, Meng Xu and Mingyang Zhang

Some researchers argue that consumers’ lack of knowledge is an important factor increasing risk for a new product derived from emerging agricultural technology. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Some researchers argue that consumers’ lack of knowledge is an important factor increasing risk for a new product derived from emerging agricultural technology. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential impacts and the differential effects of subjective and objective perceptions on Chinese consumers’ preferences for the application of a novel biotechnology.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking transgenic technology as an example and employing data from a survey of 1,000 consumers in Jiangsu Province, the authors develop a mixed-process regression model based on Fishbein’s multiple attributes attitude model.

Findings

The results suggest that there are apparent differences between Chinese consumers’ subjective perceptions and objective perceptions concerning transgenic technology and genetically modified (GM) food, and there exists certain selective perceptions of the emerging biotechnology. Having a subjective perception concerning transgenic technology has a positive effect on consumers’ overall attitudes, whereas subjective and objective perceptions concerning GM foods have a negative effect on consumers’ overall attitudes. Self-identification generated from subjective perception occupies a dominant position in determining consumers’ attitudes.

Originality/value

Consumers’ attitudes regarding an agricultural product depend on their perception of the attributes of the technology used to produce such a product. This study attempts to distinguish and empirically test urban consumers’ subjective perceptions (self-assessed or perceived) and objective perceptions (obtained from a test) about transgenic technology and GM foods and the impact of these four types of perception on the consumers’ attitudes regarding the application of transgenic technology. In this paper, the authors construct a mixed-process regression model to address the possible endogeneity of the perception variables.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Alejandro Barragán-Ocaña, Gerardo Reyes-Ruiz, Samuel Olmos-Peña and Hortensia Gómez-Viquez

Transgenic crops have been increasingly adopted, produced and commercialized throughout the world. Correspondingly, the management of intellectual property rights…

Abstract

Purpose

Transgenic crops have been increasingly adopted, produced and commercialized throughout the world. Correspondingly, the management of intellectual property rights concerning transgenic crops has gained importance. In this context, it is necessary to understand the status quo of transgenic crop production, especially in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general scenario of transgenic crops and their growth around the world, especially in Latin America.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was carried out to determine the status of intellectual property protection, production and commercialization of transgenic crops.

Findings

Opinions concerning the risks and benefits of adopting transgenics are markedly divided. Its presence in the agricultural sector has undoubtedly taken a firm hold in different parts of the world. Nevertheless, there are some areas of the international transgenics industry that need further and ongoing discussion and assessment, such as biosafety, intellectual property, regulation and legislation, among others. Additionally, in developing countries, and especially in the case of Latin America, other relevant issues to be addressed are associated with the conservation of local plant varieties and the preservation of cultural values, as well as the development of endogenous technology to solve local problems and the integration of farmers and the society at large and their interests into the discussion.

Research limitations/implications

The most significant limitation of the present study was the lack of available data. Future studies using larger data sets will allow for more robust statistical analyses. Additionally, country-specific studies focused on the most important crops, those that each country grows intensively, are necessary for a better insight into the global dynamics of the sector; these studies must stress the intellectual property mechanisms used and address biosafety and regulatory issues, among other areas.

Originality/value

The present study represents a starting point for establishing schemes to facilitate the proper development and management of transgenic technology based on regional interests and the guiding principles of ethics and biosecurity.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Robert W. Herdt and Rebecca Nelson

The products of transgenic technology have captured the attention of enthusiasts and detractors, but transgenics are just one tool of agricultural biotechnology. Other…

Abstract

The products of transgenic technology have captured the attention of enthusiasts and detractors, but transgenics are just one tool of agricultural biotechnology. Other applications enable scientists to understand biodiversity, to track genes through generations in breeding programs, and to move genes among closely related as well as unrelated organisms. These applications all have the potential to lead to substantial productivity gains.

In this chapter we provide an introduction to basic plant genetic concepts, defining molecular markers, transgenic and cisgenic techniques. We briefly summarize the status of commercialized biotechnology applications to agriculture. We consider the likely future commercialization of products like drought tolerant crops, crops designed to improve human nutrition, pharmaceuticals from transgenic plants, biofuels, and crops for environmental remediation. We identify genomic selection as a potentially powerful new technique and conclude with our reflections on the state of agricultural biotechnology.

Research at universities and other public-sector institutions, largely focused on advancing knowledge, has aroused enormous optimism about the promise of these DNA-based technologies. This in turn has led to large private-sector investments on maize, soybean, canola, and cotton, with wide adoption of the research products in about eight countries. Much has been made of the potential of biotechnology to address food needs in the low-income countries, and China, India, and Brazil have large public DNA-based crop variety development efforts. But other lower income developing countries have little capability to use these tools, even the most straightforward marker applications. Ensuring that these and other applications of biotechnology lead to products that are well adapted to local agriculture requires adaptive research capacity that is lacking in the lowest income, most food-insecure nations. We are less optimistic than many others that private research will fund these needs.

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2018

Anna Kristina Edenbrandt

The purpose of this paper is to explore the consumer acceptance of foods that are pesticide-free while obtained by cisgenics, a form of genetic modification that only…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the consumer acceptance of foods that are pesticide-free while obtained by cisgenics, a form of genetic modification that only allows gene transfers between sexually compatible species. Potential differences in acceptance between conventional and organic consumer segments are explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a survey, including a choice experiment, which was distributed to a consumer panel in Denmark. Survey responses were combined with actual purchase data among the same respondents and thereby providing information about the respondents’ share of organic consumption.

Findings

No consumer segment differentiated between pesticide-free, cisgenic bread and conventional alternatives. Conventional consumers preferred cisgenics over transgenics, while pesticide-free is not highly valued. Frequent organic consumers were having willingness-to-pay (WTP) a large premium for organic, indicating that they will continue to purchase such products even if cisgenic, pesticide-free products are introduced.

Originality/value

This paper provides insights on the potential reception of cisgenic food, and if there is a positive willingness to pay for a pesticide-free label if this is cisgenics. Moreover, the possibility to allow new breeding techniques in the organic requirements has been discussed, and this paper contributes with insights on the organic consumers’ preferences on this matter.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 October 2014

Julian Witjaksono, Xiaowen Wei, Suchun Mao, Wankui Gong, Yabing Li and Youlu Yuan

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the economic performance of genetically modified (GM) cotton worldwide based on a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the economic performance of genetically modified (GM) cotton worldwide based on a wide range of data and source from available literature, and second to assess yield gain and economic performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review was captured to provide the evidence of potential benefits of GM cotton. A country-specific analysis was conducted in order to compare economic indicators and employed meta-analysis to find out the significance of the different of GM cotton over its counterpart.

Findings

This paper depicts positive impact of commercialized GM cotton in terms of net revenue, and the benefits, especially in terms of increased yields, are greatest for the mostly farmers in developing countries who have benefitted from the spill over of technology targeted at farmers in industrialized countries.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the variability of the data which came from different methodologies, it is difficult to determine the differences of the performances each individual study.

Practical implications

This, it is believed that results from this study can be useful for operations of all sizes as the authors think about what needs to be focussed on for long-term producers survival.

Originality/value

The paper clearly indicates that China is the highest cotton yield of GM cotton, the lowest cost of GM seed and the lowest cost of chemical spray compare to any other countries. Therefore, this is the fact that the adoption of GM cotton has been widely spread among the farmers across the regions in China.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Osval A. López Montesinos, Emeterio Franco Pérez, Eric Eduardo Santos Fuentes, Ignacio Luna-Espinoza and Flavio Aragón Cuevas

The purpose of this paper is to measure Mexicans’ perceptions and attitudes about the production and consumption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure Mexicans’ perceptions and attitudes about the production and consumption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire with 63 questions that encompassed 11 latent factors was used to obtain information. The questionnaire was administered to 14,720 people in Mexico’s urban areas.

Findings

The results revealed important similarities and differences with studies in other countries, showing mainly that the respondents did not have sufficient information about GMOs, they have low level of knowledge about GMOs (31.28 percent), are highly distrustful of GMOs, perceive high risk regarding GMOs (59.13 percent), want transgenic products to be labeled (93.59 percent) and do not perceive GMOs’ social values and positive health effects beyond increasing agricultural productivity. Also, it was observed that the higher the educational level of individuals, the lower the acceptance of GMOs.

Research limitations/implications

The authors conclude that it is necessary to generate and provide scientifically accurate information on GMOs, so that people are better informed and can give a critical opinion on the use of GMOs.

Practical implications

The major practical contribution of this research is that it provides empirical knowledge about the perceptions and attitudes toward the production and consumption of GMOs among the Mexican’s urban society, which can be of great help for the Mexican government to rethink if it is an appropriate moment to completely open the doors to international companies to cultivate crops like maize and others that have been postponed due to pressure from the environmental groups, farmers and other sectors of the society.

Social implications

This is especially important in the context of maize as it is part of the cultural heritage of Mexico since ancient times. However, it is not clear what the overall perception is in the Mexican society on the use of GMOs for cultivation.

Originality/value

Southern regions of Mexico are the center of origin of several cultivated plants such as maize and legumes. The introduction of GMOs, called transgenics, in agriculture and food continues to cause enormous controversy in the perceptions and attitudes mainly among environmental groups and farmers in Mexico.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2013

Bettina Lange

This article starts from the assumption that economic sociology, including Karl Polanyi’s work, can contribute fresh perspectives to regulation debates because it opens up…

Abstract

This article starts from the assumption that economic sociology, including Karl Polanyi’s work, can contribute fresh perspectives to regulation debates because it opens up new understandings of the nature of economic activity, a key target of legal regulation. In particular this article examines Polanyi’s idea that society drives regulation. For Polanyi the “regulatory counter-movement” is society’s response to the disembedding – in particular through the proliferation of markets – of economic out of social relationships. Section One of the article identifies three key challenges that arise from this Polanyian take on regulation for contemporary regulation researchers. First, Polanyi focuses on social norms restraining business behavior, but neglects social norms embedded in law as also shaping regulation. Second, he seems to imply a clear-cut conceptual distinction between “economy” and “society.” Third, his analysis sidelines the role of interest politics in the development of regulation.

Addressing the first of these three key challenges, Section Two of this article therefore argues that a Polanyian vision of “socialized” legal regulation should build on contemporary accounts of responsive law and regulation, which focus attention on social norms informing legal regulation. Section Three of this article tackles the second key challenge raised by Polanyi’s work for contemporary regulation researchers, that is, how to transcend a modernist perspective of “economy” and “society” as clearly demarcated, distinct fields of social action. It argues that discourse theory is an important alternative theoretical resource. Drawing on Laclau and Mouffe, the article suggests that understanding “economy” and “society” as performed by open and relationally constructed discourses helps to capture interconnections between “economy” and “society” that become particularly visible when we analyze how specific regulatory regimes work at a medium- and small-scale level. These points are further brought to life in Section Four through a discussion of the European Union (EU) regulatory regime for trade in risky, transgenic agricultural products, and in particular the current reform debates about the consideration of the “socioeconomic impacts” of such products.

Details

From Economy to Society? Perspectives on Transnational Risk Regulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-739-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2015

Prithviraj Lakkakula, Dwayne J. Haynes and Troy G. Schmitz

This chapter analyzes the economic implications of genetic engineering for food security. We discuss the asynchronous nature of genetically modified (GM) crop regulation…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter analyzes the economic implications of genetic engineering for food security. We discuss the asynchronous nature of genetically modified (GM) crop regulation and labeling requirements among countries, associated politics, and consumer perceptions of GM crops.

Methodology/approach

We perform an ex-ante analysis of the introduction of a GM rice variety in major rice exporting and importing countries (including potential producer and consumer impacts) within the framework of a partial equilibrium trade model.

Findings

Although the introduction of a GM rice variety that increases global yield by 5% could result in a consumer gain of US$23.4 billion to US$74.8 billion, it could also result in a producer loss of US$9.7 billion to US$63.7 billion. The estimated net gain to society could be US$11.1 billion to US$13.7 billion. Overall, we find a positive economic surplus for major exporters and importers of rice based on a 5% supply increase with a GM rice variety.

Practical implications

The adoption of transgenic (GM) rice varieties would have a far greater impact on rice prices for poorer counties than for richer countries. Therefore, GM rice may help ensure that more people throughout the world would have food security.

Details

Food Security in an Uncertain World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-213-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Virginia Sarno and Rosa Malgeri Manzo

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are a consolidated reality. While consumers are opposed to the introduction of GMOs in Italy, little or nothing is known about the…

Abstract

Purpose

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are a consolidated reality. While consumers are opposed to the introduction of GMOs in Italy, little or nothing is known about the companies’ attitude. For this reason, this work is focused on companies. This research aims to understand the problems, the possible solutions and the opinions of farms on the role of GMOs to arrive at a judgement based on the representation of various positions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper was made possible thanks to a direct survey on the field. In particular, the work provides a significant number of interviews directed to livestock farms; a logical sequence of questions that allow you to understand the attitude and the willingness of companies and if there is a future propensity to transgenic cultivation; and the creation of an ad hoc analysis on the behaviour of farmers.

Findings

Thematic analysis revealed that GMOs are the only valid research to the advancement of agriculture, able to guarantee our companies productivity improvements. This technique could solve many problems related to agriculture, such as the possibility of future saving on crops.

Originality/value

There is a lot of research on GMOs. The research behind this paper is different, because it is a research carried out throughout all the country, from the point of view of businesses.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

1 – 10 of 291