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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2020

This study has two purposes. Firstly, it aims to investigate whether self-efficacy constitutes one of the mechanisms by which transformational leadership impacts on…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study has two purposes. Firstly, it aims to investigate whether self-efficacy constitutes one of the mechanisms by which transformational leadership impacts on employee positivity in reacting to change. Secondly, it aims to investigate whether the extent of change moderates the relationship between transformational leadership, self-efficacy and reactions to change. This study also explores the possibility that when the extent of change is higher, the effectiveness of transformational leadership may be lower.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a sample of employees where the organization was going through significant change. Employee ratings on specific scales were used to measure transformational leadership, self-efficacy, affective commitment to organizational change, and intention to support change. A cumulative change index was used to assess the number of changes employees had experienced during the change process.

Findings

The results confirmed hypothesis 1 that transformational leadership was related to affective commitment and intention to support change and this was to a high level of statistical significance. Testing hypothesis 2 that self-efficacy mediated the effect of transformational leadership on commitment and intention to support change indicated that self-efficacy did mediate in this relationship confirming both hypothesis 2a and 2 b. The results did not support hypothesis 3a, with no significant interaction effect showing that the interaction between transformational leadership and self-efficacy did not differ between low versus high extent of change. However, the results did support hypothesis 3 b with the strength of the positive relationship between self-efficacy and reactions to change differing across high versus low extent of change. For both affective commitment and intention to support change, the interaction of self-efficacy and change index was significant.

Research limitations/implications

Current weaknesses in the transformational leadership research include: a bias towards heroic leadership and away from collective and shared process of leadership, the underlying processes have not been clearly identified, lack of precision about situational variables that may impact on these processes. This paper does not address the first weakness.

Practical implications

Self-efficacy gains importance when the extent of change is high. The results suggest that change managers should adopt a transformational style of leadership to enhance recipients’ self-efficacy to generate positive attitudes and behaviours during change. They also suggest the selection and training of managers in transformational leadership attributes and also the inclusion of this in the monitoring of managers’ behaviours in post. The research outlined in this paper makes a significant contribution to an organization’s capacity to achieve change, particularly when the extent of change is high.

Social implications

This research provides ways in which organizations can better achieve change through positive processes.

Originality/value

Transformational leadership can create a vision of the future and inspire followers to work to achieve it and to build hope and confidence for the future. This can prevent or overcome resistance to or reluctance about change. Lack of alignment of values between employees and the organization can result in change failure. This paper provides original insight into how change can be achieved by transformational leadership building self-efficacy.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2016

Pamala J. Dillon and Charles C. Manz

We develop a multilevel model of emotional processes grounded in social identity theory to explore the role of emotion in transformational leadership.

Abstract

Purpose

We develop a multilevel model of emotional processes grounded in social identity theory to explore the role of emotion in transformational leadership.

Methodology/approach

This work is conceptual in nature and develops theory surrounding emotion in organizations by integrating theories on transformational leadership, emotion management, and organizational identity.

Findings

Transformational leaders utilize interpersonal emotion management strategies to influence and respond to emotions arising from the self-evaluative processes of organizational members during times of organizational identity change.

Research limitations/implications

The conceptual model detailed provides insight on the intersubjective emotional processes grounded in social identity that influence transformational leadership. Future research into transformational leadership behaviors will benefit from a multilevel perspective which includes both interpersonal emotion management and intrapersonal emotion generation related to social identity at both the within-person and between-person levels.

Originality/value

The proposed model expands on the role of emotions in transformational leadership by theoretically linking the specific transformational behaviors to discrete emotions displayed by followers. While previous empirical research has indicated the positive outcomes of transformational leadership and the role of emotion recognition, work has yet to be presented which explicates the role of discrete emotions in the transformational leadership process.

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Cailing Feng, Xiaoyu Huang and Lihua Zhang

Based on dual organizational theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative behavior in groups. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

Based on dual organizational theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between transformational leadership and innovative behavior in groups. The authors proposed that group innovative behavior was influenced by transformational leadership as a group-level construct which was moderated by dual organizational change that represent organization-level resources. Furthermore, the authors identified two organizational change-related situational variables-radical change and incremental change and examined their effects on group innovative behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data from full-time employees working in groups in 43 companies, located in five cities in China including Beijing, Yantai, Chengdu, Xi’an, and Chengde. These enterprises were from a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, financing, information technology, and geological exploration. The authors chose a middle- or senior-level manager from each company to act as chief survey respondent, who were asked to contact managers and employees from a list they had provided and invite them to participate in a web-based survey (via an e-mailed link) or a paper-and-pencil survey. A total of 192 managers and 756 direct subordinates from 112 groups completed the survey.

Findings

Results found that transformational leadership was positively related to group innovative behavior, and this relationship was moderated by radical change, but not incremental change; radical change and incremental change were also positively related to group innovative behavior.

Research limitations/implications

This study adopts a cross-sectional study design, which is insufficient for deriving causal inferences. Future research may adopt a longitudinal study design to investigate causal impacts. Besides, some unmeasured variables could be related to transformational leadership and innovative behavior.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for adopting appropriate leadership style to motivate innovative behavior, promoting dual organizational change to boost innovative behavior, and generating greater innovative behavior for transformational leaders in times of radical change.

Originality/value

This cross-level study contributes to the relationship between transformational leadership and group innovative behavior in the context of dual organizational change.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

Abdul Halim Busari, Sajjad Nawaz Khan, Siti Mariam Abdullah and Yasir Hayat Mughal

This study aims to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership style and factors of employees’ reactions towards organizational change in the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership style and factors of employees’ reactions towards organizational change in the telecommunication sector of Pakistan. Furthermore, to understand the importance of followership it has been analyzed as a moderating variable in the relationship between transformational leadership style and factors of employees’ reactions.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed methods study design was applied to investigate the factors underlying the phenomenon of transformational leadership and organizational change. A quantitative research design was followed by qualitative research questions to get more in-depth insights into the used relationships. The primary purpose of the qualitative study design was to support and strengthened the results of the main quantitative research design.

Findings

The results of the study showed that transformational leadership style was positively related to all three factors of employees’ reactions (frequency of change, trust in management and employees’ participation) towards organizational change. Moreover, followership has a significant effect on the relationship between transformational leadership style and factors of employees’ reaction.

Practical implications

This study suggests that for successful implementation of change in organizations, the employees play an important role and that managers with transformational leadership behaviour play a critical role in shaping positive change reactions. This study also highlights that both transformational leadership and followership are essential elements in shaping recipients’ reactions, with active followers contributing to the role of leadership in the change process.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt specifically in Asian context to highlight the role of followership as a moderating variable in leadership theory in the organizational change context.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2020

M. Nazmul Islam, Fumitaka Furuoka and Aida Idris

The research aims to investigate the impact of transformational leadership on employee championing behavior and to determine the mediating effect of work engagement in the…

1072

Abstract

Purpose

The research aims to investigate the impact of transformational leadership on employee championing behavior and to determine the mediating effect of work engagement in the context of organizational change.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a quantitative approach, which is based on cross-sectional data. In total, 300 available cases are processed through structural equation modeling in order to infer the results.

Findings

The results indicate that transformational leadership is significantly related to championing behavior during organizational change. Moreover, work engagement fully mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and championing behavior in the context of organizational change.

Practical implications

Managers should emphasize the practice of the transformational leadership approach, as well as should stress the antecedents of work engagement in order to foster the employee championing behavior in the context of organizational change.

Originality/value

The research contributes to the change management and human resource management literature by providing a plausible explanation of the mediating role of work engagement in connecting transformational leadership and employee championing behavior in the context of organizational change.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2022

Anggia Sari Lubis, Prihatin Lumbanraja, Yeni Absah and Amlys Syahputra Silalahi

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of factors that affect human resource competency (HRC) 4.0, employee readiness for transformational change as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of factors that affect human resource competency (HRC) 4.0, employee readiness for transformational change as well as analyzing the mediating and moderating factors that influence the relationship of factors such as soft skills training and individual characteristics on employee readiness for transformational change and HRC 4.0.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is a quantitative research with descriptive statistics. The analytical tool used is a structural equation model of partial least squares (PLS). This research was conducted at five Bank Indonesia Offices in Aceh and North Sumatra Provinces. Using a proportional random sampling technique, 200 respondents of employees were selected.

Findings

The results of this study are as follows: (1) both soft skill training and individual characteristics have a significant effect on HRC 4.0; (2) HRC 4.0, soft skill training and individual characteristic have a significant on employee readiness for transformational change; (3) soft skill training has significant effect on employee readiness for transformational change through HRC 4.0; (4) individual characteristic has a significant effect on employee readiness for transformational change through HRC 4.0; (5) the effect of HRC 4.0 on employee readiness for transformational change moderates by transformational leadership; (6) the effect of HRC 4.0 on employee readiness for transformational change moderates by employee commitment to change.

Originality/value

This research contains valuable novelty, which is a new concept of HRC 4.0 that is linked to soft skill training and individual characteristics variables, and employee readiness for transformational change. Furthermore, transformational leadership and employee commitment variables have significant effect in moderating the influence off HRC 4.0 on employee readiness for transformational change.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Peng Liu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of transformational school leadership on teachers’ commitment to change and the effects of organizational and teachers…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of transformational school leadership on teachers’ commitment to change and the effects of organizational and teachers’ factors on teachers’ perception of transformational school leadership in the Chinese urban upper secondary school context.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper mainly uses quantitative methods to explore the relationships between different constructs. The author asks: to what extent can transformational school leadership practices in the urban upper secondary schools of a particular Chinese city explain the variation in teachers’ commitment to change during curriculum reform? What are the effects of organizational and teachers’ factors on teachers’ perceptions of transformational school leadership?

Findings

The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the effect of transformational school leadership was moderate when transformational school leadership and teachers’ commitment to change were treated as single variables. Four dimensions of transformational leadership practice together explained the moderate effects on four dimensions of teachers’ commitment to change, among which the effect of managing the instructional program was the most prominent. The results of multiple regression analysis also revealed that variables like culture, strategy, environment, and teachers’ age had significant relationships with teachers’ perceptions of transformational school leadership. Culture, environment, strategy, structure, and teachers’ factors such as age and grade taught had moderate effects on different dimensions of teachers’ perceptions of transformational school leadership.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to explore the effects of transformational school leadership on teachers’ commitment to change in the Chinese urban upper secondary school context. The findings contribute to educational management in China and similar contexts, and this study advances knowledge and furthers the understandings of the transferability of theories to different contexts.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 53 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Carolin Abrell-Vogel and Jens Rowold

Followers’ affective commitment to change has been found to constitute a strong predictor of the success of change initiatives in organizations. Several studies have yet…

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Abstract

Purpose

Followers’ affective commitment to change has been found to constitute a strong predictor of the success of change initiatives in organizations. Several studies have yet shown positive effects of transformational leadership on followers’ commitment to change. However, up to date there is no study examining the direct effects of different transformational leadership behaviors on followers’ commitment to change and the moderating impact of leaders’ commitment to change on these relationships. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a cross-sectional, multilevel design based on multisource date from 38 teams from different organizations with a total of 177 participating team members. Data of leaders’ and followers’ commitment to change as well as ratings of transformational leadership behavior were captured applying a quantitative approach.

Findings

Results show a significant positive effect of the transformational leadership behavior “individual support” on followers’ affective commitment toward change. Moreover, the transformational leadership behavior “providing an appropriate model” was shown as only positively contributing to followers’ commitment to change when leaders’ own commitment toward change was high.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the multilevel and multisource data, the sample is relatively small which limits the external validity of findings. Also, future studies should invest in longitudinal replication of relationships. Research on leaders’ and followers’ commitment to change should continue to develop more complete models of interacting influence factors.

Practical implications

For team leaders and organizations, results underline the importance of individual support of team members. Thus, leaders need to be enabled to invest individual leadership in the long run. Also, leaders need to become aware of their own commitment toward the change and, going beyond, need to develop a positive bond to the change if they want to be able to act as successful role models.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to existing literature by offering a more detailed insight for researchers and practitioners into the effectiveness of transformational leadership in change by exploring the impact of different transformational leadership behaviors effecting followers’ commitment to change. Moreover, it provides important knowledge about the relevance of leaders’ own commitment to change as a moderator of effective leadership in change.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2018

Mandus Frykman, Robert Lundmark, Ulrica von Thiele Schwarz, Karin Villaume and Henna Hasson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate line managers’ influence on employee usage of a web-based system for occupational health management.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate line managers’ influence on employee usage of a web-based system for occupational health management.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires were used to measure line managers’ transformational leadership at baseline and their change-supportive managerial activities during weeks 16–52. Employee initial (weeks 16–52) and sustained (weeks 53–144) use of the web-based system was measured by extracting their frequency of logins to the system from electronic records. Data were collected from six white-collar organizations from 2011 through 2013. Mixed Poisson regressions were used to analyze the influence of transformational leadership and change-supportive managerial activities on employee usage.

Findings

As predicted, line managers’ change-supportive activities influenced the employees’ initial and sustained use of the system. Line managers’ transformational leadership had no direct effect on employees’ use of the system, however transformational leadership was indirectly associated with employees’ initial and sustained use of the system through line managers’ change-supportive activities.

Originality/value

The study adds to the understanding of the role line managers’ play during the implementation of occupational health interventions. The findings suggest that the line managers’ change-supportive activities directed toward the intervention are important for employees’ initial and sustained use of the system. The influence of transformational leadership was indirect, suggesting that line managers may need to direct their leadership behaviors toward the intervention to facilitate implementation.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Claire Mason, Mark Griffin and Sharon Parker

This paper aims to investigate whether leaders whose transformational leadership behavior improves after training exhibit different psychological reactions compared to…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether leaders whose transformational leadership behavior improves after training exhibit different psychological reactions compared to leaders whose leadership behavior does not improve.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors followed 56 leaders taking part in a transformational leadership training program. Questionnaire measures of leaders’ self-efficacy, positive affect, perspective taking, and transformational leadership behavior were obtained pre- and post-training.

Findings

Leaders whose self-efficacy, perspective taking and positive affect increased over the training period also reported improvements in their transformational leadership behavior. In addition, leaders whose positive affect increased were more likely to receive improved transformational leadership behavior ratings from their supervisors, team members and peers.

Research limitations/implications

The study supports the proposition, derived from social cognitive theory that change in transformational leadership behavior is related to change in leaders’ psychological attributes. Further research is required to establish the direction of this relationship and whether leaders’ psychological reactions represent a means through which the effectiveness of leadership interventions can be improved.

Practical implications

Leaders’ psychological reactions should be monitored and supported during developmental interventions. Effective leadership training interventions are important not only to achieve change in behavior, but to avoid negative psychological outcomes for leaders.

Originality/value

The study is unusual because it explores the relationship between leader attributes and leadership behavior longitudinally, in a training context. The longitudinal analysis, focussing on change in leaders’ psychological attributes, allowed us to explain more variance in leaders’ reactions to training.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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