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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2010

Michael Leimbach

The purpose of this paper is determine what direct evidence is available that demonstrates the tangible benefit of learning transfer activities to improve the transfer of

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is determine what direct evidence is available that demonstrates the tangible benefit of learning transfer activities to improve the transfer of training. Further, this research creates an application framework for implementing the most effective solutions to increase the effectiveness of human resource development initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

A targeted meta‐analysis process, focused on research that compared training alone with training plus transfer activities, is used. “Difference scores”, representing the percentage of improvement the transfer activities created over training alone, are computed.

Findings

Results indicate that there are 11 specific learning transfer activities showing tangible impact and evidence of effectiveness. In total, 32 studies are found that made this type of comparison. While this may be too narrow to draw specific conclusions, it provides a good basis for development of a learning transfer framework.

Research limitations/implications

The results indicate that there is a great need for more research that directly compares training alone with training plus transfer activities.

Practical implications

Nonetheless, the research may help to simplify the complex models of learning transfer presented by others and provide a framework that is more likely to be implemented than previous frameworks and theories.

Originality/value

This is the first ever effort, according to the author, to assess the direct impact of learning transfer activities on performance improvement.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Somashekhar Krishnamani and Yasmeen Haider

The purpose of the paper is to empirically investigate transfer of learning and its relationship with the training super-system. Specifically, this paper looks at…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to empirically investigate transfer of learning and its relationship with the training super-system. Specifically, this paper looks at motivation to transfer as an indicator of a transfer condition. The paper will also provide information on individual factors, work place factors and design factors of training programs that facilitate transfer of learning. This study will also attempt to recommend a procedure for design and delivery of executive education programs that will facilitate transfer of learning by identifying variables that were hitherto not identified.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a descriptive and exploratory. Sample for this study has been drawn from learners who participated in executive education programs delivered by Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai. Respondents completed a questionnaire developed on the HRD Evaluation Research and Measurement model, Theory of Planned Behavior and the Learning Transfer System Inventory model. Variables were reduced by EFA. The researcher also met a few HR and L & D practitioners for one-on-one discussion. The ideas generated were bounced with subject matter experts and with faculty who were designing/teaching executive education programs.

Findings

The research findings are consistent with earlier studies like the Holton research (1996), (2001). Discussion also brought out the role of motivation in enhancement of skills, behaviors and knowledge. Many researchers have agreed that individual motivation factors play an important role for knowledge transfer. If the learners are not motivated about the positives arising from the training program, they would lose interest which would affect their self-efficacy and thereby the transfer of learning. The primary role of motivation to transfer comes out distinctly. Additionally, the relationship between motivation to transfer and learner readiness and performance self-efficacy is established.

Research limitations/implications

The research was done with the intent of doing a pilot study on the thesis topic that the researcher has chosen for his doctorate program and hence has methodological limitations of a one-time survey questionnaire. The study has a small sample size of 30 and could have a high risk of generalization findings. Additionally, data collection is based on self-responses collected during focused group interview which is based on the “perception” of the respondents and therefore limited to self-report data. The respondents are all from executive education of a Chennai-based Institute which means that the same survey done on another set of respondents could probably throw up very different results. Participants had undergone multi-phase leadership development program in small cohort. The results could vary if participants from open-enrollment programs participated. Use of interviews and/or observation of participants could have provided more rich data.

Practical implications

In practical terms, the foundation result will help L & D managers and executive education designers to understand the factors that play an important role in transfer of learning specific to Indian context. The research paper also conceptually explains the central role of “motivation to transfer”. The recommendations provided therein will help practitioners with a structured approach toward design and delivery of executive education programs. The recommended approach to design and delivery will help practitioners to come up with training programs that will provide more buck for every dollar spent.

Social implications

Return on investment on learning has always been a contentious issue. Clear understanding of critical success factors in executive education can help focused design, post-training support to ensure better knowledge transfer.

Originality/value

The study expands the knowledge base, regarding transfer of learning specific to India, by focusing on executive education programs which are rapidly growing and receiving great attention in the workplace. This paper is an original research initiative of the research scholar done as part of a pilot study on his PhD thesis on transfer of learning.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2019

Hanna Moon, Doam Ryu and Dongwon Jeon

Industry skills council (ISC) in Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of its formation and incubation. As a governance model similar to sector councils in Canada and UK…

Abstract

Purpose

Industry skills council (ISC) in Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of its formation and incubation. As a governance model similar to sector councils in Canada and UK, it still requires training and development of talents who work for ISCs. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of training programs that are currently provided to personnel of the ISC to foster their learning systematically and to develop measures for effectiveness of the training programs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study evaluated the training program for the staff of the ISC secretariat as a tool to activate the councils’ main functions. In terms of methodology, we developed an effective training model to measure the training transfer and used it as an analytical framework for evaluation. Success case method was applied to identify the best case of training transfer that reinforces the role and function of ISC.

Findings

Learning transfer can help not only the transfer of the learning contents but also the role of the organization that the members belong to and strengthen the function of the ISC. By transferring the content matter of the learning, it can help strengthen the capacity of members to carry out the roles and functions of the ISC, and further strengthen the functions of the council and the role of key players in labor markets.

Research limitations/implications

An effective training model for the personnel of national sectoral bodies or non-profit organization can be further investigated.

Practical implications

The learning transfer evaluation model for ISC staff has unique characteristics that are different from previous studies. ISC has the characteristics of public goods that are established with government support and are active in developing human resources in each industry sector.

Originality/value

Incubating ISC in South Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of research and policy practice. The research findings in this study lay the foundations for further empirical explorations.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 43 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Ellen F. Goldman, Marilyn Wesner, Margaret M. Plack, Nisha N. Manikoth and Yolanda Haywood

– This paper aims to explore the impact leadership development program graduates had on their workgroup, the nature of that impact and how that impact occurred.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the impact leadership development program graduates had on their workgroup, the nature of that impact and how that impact occurred.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was conducted at three sites using a qualitative interview methodology with thematic data analysis. Techniques to ensure trustworthiness included purposive sampling, triangulation of researchers, member checks and code checking.

Findings

Analysis of the data revealed secondhand learning as specific changes in practices, behaviors and attitudes, transferred by program graduates to their peers and supervisors. The transfer of learning was described as both intentional and informal learning during episodes of varying duration, and occurred through a variety of dyadic and group interactions in a manner generally consistent with the 4I framework of organizational learning.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to medical educators. Recommendations for supervisors and organizations to maximize training transfer are identified. These suggestions advocate for actively encouraging graduates in departmental leadership and faculty development; focusing transfer on specific practices, behaviors and attitudes; and considering both short- and long-term outcomes.

Originality/value

This paper makes an original contribution to the literature by describing the process of secondhand learning from leadership development program graduates. The paper also expands our understanding of the nuances in transfer methods and associated learning episodes in the context of an educational environment. Finally, the research illustrates how qualitative methods can be used to expose secondhand learning.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Ruth Belling, Kim James and Donna Ladkin

This paper explores how organisations can become more sophisticated at supporting transfer of learning, by identifying the perceived barriers and facilitators to transfer

Abstract

This paper explores how organisations can become more sophisticated at supporting transfer of learning, by identifying the perceived barriers and facilitators to transfer of learning, by examining a range of individual characteristics and workplace features associated with these barriers and facilitators and then relating these to the type of programme that managers undertake. The longitudinal survey methodology and programme typology used in the research are described. Findings highlight 26 perceived barriers and 17 facilitators to the transfer of learning, significant associations are shown with particular features such as mentoring and personal values. The paper goes on to identify the characteristics associated with a lack of transfer and suggests a tentative model of perceived influences on transfer of learning. Based on this research, it is concluded that it is important to take programme learning design into account when considering support for transfer of learning from management development programmes back to the workplace.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Fredrick Muyia Nafukho, Mary Alfred, Misha Chakraborty, Michelle Johnson and Catherine A. Cherrstrom

The primary purpose of this study was to predict transfer of learning to workplace among adult learners enrolled in a continuing professional education (CPE) training…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this study was to predict transfer of learning to workplace among adult learners enrolled in a continuing professional education (CPE) training program, specifically training courses offered through face-to-face, blended and online instruction formats. The study examined the predictive capacity of trainee characteristics, training design and work environment on transfer of learning among the study respondents.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional online survey design was used to collect data from the study respondents, three months after CPE training. Two hundred ninety-seven trainees participated in this study. Data from 46 participants were incomplete and therefore excluded in the preliminary analysis, resulting in 251 valid responses and participants for the data analysis, 43 males (17.1 per cent), 201 females (80.1 per cent) and 7 (2.8 per cent) who did not indicate their gender. To answer the study’s research questions, factor analysis and multiple hierarchical regressions were performed.

Findings

The results of the study revealed training efficiency and relevance were critical in the transfer of learning among the study participants. The findings of the study showed combined training efficiency and training relevance enabled training participants to acquire knowledge and skills for application in the workplace and had significantly positive influence in transfer of learning. The work environment, measured by work variability (or flexibility) and work complexity, and the trainee motivation to participate, measured by learning-conducive workplace features, had a positive influence in transfer of learning.

Research limitations/implications

Because the majority of participants were females (80.1 per cent), this could be one of the limitations to this study. Research has identified that, because of the broad expectations based on sex and different family and occupational roles, men and women differ in their social network communication, participation in CPE, personality traits, gender-related occupational preferences, learning preference and methods of handling workplace conflict. The second limitation is related to the study design. The researchers did not have a control group because of practicality issues. This being a cross-sectional online survey study, all extraneous variables were not controlled such as in the case of a true randomized control study. This study is relying on the information obtained from a self-report training transfer instrument completed by the study participants. The accuracy of the obtained data is dependent on the honesty of the participants and their commitment in providing correct responses.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence pertaining to the transfer of learning among adult learners engaged in a continuing professional development training program. The study examines factors related to training design, training delivery, trainee motivation and the workplace environment and how these factors determine transfer of learning among trainee respondents who participated in the study. The findings of the study have practical implications for the design and successful delivery of continuing professional training among adult learners. The study could be replicated at a national level and in international settings.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Teresa G. Weldy

This study aims to explore a relationship between the learning organization and transfer of training as strategies for learning and managing knowledge to make performance…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore a relationship between the learning organization and transfer of training as strategies for learning and managing knowledge to make performance improvements and gain or maintain a competitive advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

Various similarities are identified in the literature that are indicative of a relationship between the learning organization and transfer of training such as: emphasis on both as strategies for a competitive advantage, focus on learning and knowledge, emphasis on taking action to improve performance, link between individual learning and organizational learning, and the focus of previous studies. This paper proposes a positive relationship suggesting that learning organizations are more likely to practice transfer of training.

Findings

The importance placed on the learning organization and transfer of training as critical factors for improving performance and gaining a competitive advantage necessitate that both areas be further investigated. Any relationship between the learning organization and transfer of training could lead to performance improvements and maximize the benefits gained and enable organizations to remain competitive in the face of global competition, a constantly changing environment, and unstable economic conditions.

Originality/value

This paper introduces an important stream of research relevant to a relationship between the learning organization and transfer of training as strategies for facilitating learning and knowledge management. Although numerous similarities are identified in the literature, no theoretical or empirical studies have been conducted.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Rita Alvelos, Aristides I Ferreira and Reid Bates

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of factors that affect training effectiveness. According to the literature, social support, perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of factors that affect training effectiveness. According to the literature, social support, perceived content validity, transfer design, the motivation to improve work through learning and positive transfer, contribute to the effectiveness of training.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample used consisted of 202 employees with ages between 18 and 60 years, working for an insurance company where they had training for a period of three months.

Findings

The results show a relationship between perceived content validity and transfer design, as well as with the motivation to improve work through learning. A mediating role of social support was also evident in this relationship. Finally, the authors highlight the findings of the relationship between motivation to improve work through learning and positive transfer.

Originality/value

These findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating how the role of social support can increase training effectiveness in organizations.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Melvin Prince, David Burns, Xinyi Lu and Robert Winsor

– This paper aims to use goal-setting theory to explain the transfer of knowledge and skills between master of business administration (MBA) and the workplace.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use goal-setting theory to explain the transfer of knowledge and skills between master of business administration (MBA) and the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained by an online survey of MBA students enrolled in at four US graduate business schools. These were a public and private institution in the Northeast region, a private sectarian institution in the Midwest region and a private institution in the Pacific region. All students worked while attending the university. The sampling frame consisted of each school’s MBA enrollees. Questionnaires were distributed to a random cross-section of part-time students at each graduate school of business representative of returned by 144 students. The profiles of responders were consistent with parameters for the entire MBA student population.

Findings

The research shows that multiple goals of reciprocal knowledge and skills transfer may be in harmony and mutually reinforcing. In principle, each goal is more likely to be attained with greater economy of effort than might be surmised. Additionally, the same forces may act similarly to facilitate attainment of two well-integrated goals, in this case transfer between MBA studies and work, as well as between work and MBA studies.

Research limitations/implications

The present study involved participants from part-time public and private MBA granting institutions in the USA. The study tested and extended goal-setting theory and introduced the innovative concept of reciprocal transfer. Future studies should seek to generalize the findings to a broader population of part-time MBA students, especially from other nations. Despite its strengths, the findings of this study need to be interpreted in the perspective of some limitations. The current study did not measure transfer climates in either the organization or university settings. Transfer climates undoubtedly have an important bearing on transfer outcomes.

Practical implications

Review of the present study suggests that a positive MBA environment is needed to influence motivation to learn and perceptions of the MBA program’s utility, thereby promoting transfer of knowledge and skills to MBA studies from the workplace. A supportive work-to-MBA-studies transfer climate will lead to more active learning of course content that has greater relevance for achieving career goals. Potentially generalizable from the organizational transfer climate literature (Rouiller and Goldstein 1990; Rouiller and Goldstein 1993), positive transfer from work to MBA studies will occur when appropriate situational cues and consequences are present in the program.

Social implications

A constructive implication suggested by the findings of this study would be the intervention and transfer management by educators to structure and strengthen the university transfer climate of their part-time MBA programs. Traditionally, the concept of transfer climate has been primarily applied to employee workplace training activity and job performance. The university culture of the MBA student might emphasize and reward continuous learning from workplace experiences. Opportunities at the university should be provided for the exercise of newly acquired workplace skills that reinforce MBA learning experiences.

Originality/value

This is the first study that shows how learning goals and performance goals are integrated in the context of a new concept, i.e. reciprocal transfer of knowledge and skills between MBA and workplace settings. It also demonstrates, for the first time, the impact of learning and motivation for MBA studies and perceived utility of MBA program on the extent of transfer of learning and skills from the workplace to the university setting.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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