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In this paper the main objectives of transfer pricing are discussed as well as methods that have been suggested for each objective to be achieved. Also investigated are…
In this paper the main objectives of transfer pricing are discussed as well as methods that have been suggested for each objective to be achieved. Also investigated are the interrelationships among transfer pricing objectives, methods, and circumstances under which companies operate
This article sheds light on MNC product transfers to subsidiaries– whether from the US or from third‐party markets – and onpromotion transfers. Findings indicate that…
This article sheds light on MNC product transfers to subsidiaries – whether from the US or from third‐party markets – and on promotion transfers. Findings indicate that consumer goods subsidiaries have product mixes with heavy US orientations, but that this orientation diminishes over time. Promotion synergies are also shown to decrease with time. Overall, this research confirms the Levitt thesis that US products can in many cases be globalised, and that MNCs perceive inter‐market similarities to be more important than differences in their formulating of international product strategies.
This article aims to quantify the emerging transfer market for internet protocol (IPv4) numbers and provides an initial assessment of factors and policies impacting those…
This article aims to quantify the emerging transfer market for internet protocol (IPv4) numbers and provides an initial assessment of factors and policies impacting those transactions.
The research draws on Regional Internet Registry records and conducts basic analysis of stocks, flows and proportions to assess the nature of this emerging market for IP number blocks and explore some of its implications for internet governance.
There is a thriving and growing market for IPv4 number blocks. The market is improving the efficiency of IPv4 address allocation by moving numbers from unused or under-utilized holders to organizations that need them more. Buyers willingly pay for number blocks they could get for free in order to benefit from more liberal needs assessments and stronger property rights.
Information about prices is not available and some transfers may take place through leasing arrangements, which are not covered by this paper. Future research should continue to investigate the transfer market, including activity skirting or occurring outside the current RIR policy environment.
RIRs should liberalize needs assessments and remove other sources of friction to the transfer market.
No known prior assessment of the transfer market has been conducted. The research has value for policymakers and industry decision makers.
Investigates the level of transfer of marketing technology to Chinavia a content analysis of leading marketing and marketing‐relatedjournals in China. Based on the…
Investigates the level of transfer of marketing technology to China via a content analysis of leading marketing and marketing‐related journals in China. Based on the findings, suggests that parts in the transfer process should: adopt a more “international” perspective; pay more attention to the customer orientation; and make a stronger commitment in actualizing the transfer exercise.
The rising opportunities in emerging countries have attracted numerous multinational corporations to invest in the new regimes. Knowledge management between headquarters…
The rising opportunities in emerging countries have attracted numerous multinational corporations to invest in the new regimes. Knowledge management between headquarters and their foreign subsidiaries, thus, becomes particularly crucial in navigating host country environmental uncertainties. Despite its criticality, how foreign subsidiaries can benefit from effectively managing knowledge remains unclear. This study examines the extent to which market and technological turbulences influence two specific knowledge management platforms, knowledge transfer and knowledge codification, and subsequently, market responsiveness of foreign subsidiaries. Results from a survey of 140 foreign subsidiaries in China show that knowledge transfer and knowledge codification serve as two important platforms to mitigate the effects of environmental turbulence on local market responsiveness.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
This paper produces a comprehensive assessment of income redistribution to the working-age population, covering OECD countries over the last two decades. Redistribution is…
This paper produces a comprehensive assessment of income redistribution to the working-age population, covering OECD countries over the last two decades. Redistribution is quantified as the relative reduction in market income inequality achieved by personal income taxes (PIT), employees’ social security contributions, and cash transfers, based on household-level micro-data. A detailed decomposition analysis uncovers the respective roles of size, tax progressivity, and transfer targeting for overall redistribution, the respective role of various categories of transfers for transfer redistribution; as well as redistribution for various income groups. The paper shows a widespread decline in redistribution across the OECD, both on average and in the majority of countries for which data going back to the mid-1990s are available. This was primarily associated with a decline in cash transfer redistribution while PIT played a less important and more heterogeneous role across countries. In turn, the decline in the redistributive effect of cash transfers reflected a decline in their size and in particular by less redistributive insurance transfers. In some countries, this was mitigated by more redistributive assistance transfers but the resulting increase in the targeting of total transfers was not sufficient to prevent transfer redistribution from declining.
The objective is to determine if there are groups of subsidiaries that are different in regard to the implementation of strategies, structures, and processes and the…
The objective is to determine if there are groups of subsidiaries that are different in regard to the implementation of strategies, structures, and processes and the transfer of marketing knowledge in emerging markets.
A survey with 101 largest foreign subsidiaries located in Brazil was conducted. The data collection process was conducted online and by telephone.
Three subsidiary groups based on the configuration of their international marketing activities were characterized: Cluster 1, called “Subsidiary with Knowledge Marketing Activities”; Cluster 2, called “Subsidiaries with Global Marketing Activities”; and Cluster 3, called “Subsidiaries with Local Marketing Activities.” Compared to the two other groups, Cluster 1 is the group with the minor number of companies, but it has a better strategic performance than other clusters.
This study was developed in only one emerging country, Brazil, and with 101 subsidiaries from MNCs. This could be extended to other countries, such as China, Russia, India, and Turkey and with more subsidiaries. Related to the construct measurements, one limitation is the qualitative measure of performance.
Subsidiaries that work with global marketing should pool their efforts to create and transfer marketing knowledge to improve their performance. Subsidiaries with local marketing activities may even perform more satisfactorily in the short term, but they should concern to contribute to the overall competitive edge of the corporation.
The discussion about marketing in emerging markets and the way in which the transfer of marketing knowledge can be reflected in the performance.
Mostafa reviews seven studies in the UK which were conducted during the period 1967 to 1976 and thirteen undertaken in the United States between 1965 and 1979. The UK…
Mostafa reviews seven studies in the UK which were conducted during the period 1967 to 1976 and thirteen undertaken in the United States between 1965 and 1979. The UK surveys concentrated mainly on the domestic market whereas in the United States some of the studies were extended to take account of international markets. Several conclusions were drawn from the review:
Introduction The growth and development of an individual business may take several forms, from internal growth to acquisition and merger. If development reaches the stage of a multi‐national corporation then complex central or divisional organisational structures will be formed to provide a suitable basis for management control. When a company uses decentralisation of power through a divisional structure they seek the advantages of being large at the centre and small at the divisional level.