Search results

1 – 10 of over 122000
Article
Publication date: 21 October 2022

Longxiao Zhang and Ting Xie

The purpose of this paper is to explore the geometric parameter difference of the terrace-like structural transfer film under different working parameters [pressure and…

18

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the geometric parameter difference of the terrace-like structural transfer film under different working parameters [pressure and velocity (PV) values] and filled particle types (three fillers: SiO2, TiO2 and ZnO), and find the geometric parameter related to the wear of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-based composites.

Design/methodology/approach

PTFE composites were filled with SiO2, TiO2 and ZnO particles, and the morphology parameter of the PTFE composite transfer film under different PV values obtained from the rotary reciprocating pin-on-disk frictional tester was quantified by using a three-dimensional laser scanning microscope.

Findings

The results showed that the effective layer coverage rate and effective thickness of the transfer film had a good relationship with the wear of the three PTFE composites. On the whole, increasing the speed or load was helpful to increase the effective thickness of the three PTFE composite transfer films, but reduced the effective layer coverage rate. The greater the effective layer coverage rate and effective thickness of the transfer film, the better the wear resistance of the PTFE composites in the entire speed and load range.

Originality/value

This work will promote further understanding of the transfer film and lay a foundation for realizing its morphology regulation and improving the wear of the PTFE composites.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2022

Rongrong Li, Yanguo Yin, Kaiyuan Zhang, Ruhong Song and Qi Chen

This paper aims to investigate how ball milling (BM) and load influence transfer film on counterbody and the correlation between transfer film and tribological properties…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how ball milling (BM) and load influence transfer film on counterbody and the correlation between transfer film and tribological properties of copper-based composites.

Design/methodology/approach

The copper-based mixed powders preprocessed by BM for different times were used to manufacture sintered materials. Specimens were tested by a custom pin-on-flat linear reciprocating tribometer and characterized prior and after tests by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Image J® and Taylor-hobson-6 surface roughness meter were used to quantify the coverage and thickness of the transfer film.

Findings

Main results show that an appropriate amount of BM time and applied load can contribute to the formation of the transfer film on counterbody and effectively improve the tribological properties of the copper-based material. The transfer film coverage is linearly related to the friction coefficient, thickness of transfer film and wear volume. As the transfer film coverage increases, the coefficient of friction decreases. As the thickness of the transfer film increases, the amount of wear increases.

Originality/value

This work intends to control and optimize the formation of transfer film, thereby helping improve the tribological properties of materials and providing a reference to guide the preparation of Cu-based composites with excellent tribological properties.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 74 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 December 2022

Damodara Priyanka, Pratibha Biswal and Tanmay Basak

This study aims to elucidate the role of curved walls in the presence of identical mass of porous bed with identical heating at a wall for two heating objectives…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to elucidate the role of curved walls in the presence of identical mass of porous bed with identical heating at a wall for two heating objectives: enhancement of heat transfer to fluid saturated porous beds and reduction of entropy production for thermal and flow irreversibilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Two heating configurations have been proposed: Case 1: isothermal heating at bottom straight wall with cold side curved walls and Case 2: isothermal heating at left straight wall with cold horizontal curved walls. Galerkin finite element method is used to obtain the streamfunctions and heatfunctions associated with local entropy generation terms.

Findings

The flow and thermal maps show significant variation from Case 1 to Case 2 arrangements. Case 1 configuration may be the optimal strategy as it offers larger heat transfer rates at larger values of Darcy number, Dam. However, Case 2 may be the optimal strategy as it provides moderate heat transfer rates involving savings on entropy production at larger values of Dam. On the other hand, at lower values of Dam (Dam ≤ 10−3), Case 1 or 2 exhibits almost similar heat transfer rates, while Case 1 is preferred for savings of entropy production.

Originality/value

The concave wall is found to be effective to enhance heat transfer rates to promote convection, while convex wall exhibits reduction of entropy production rate. Comparison between Case 1 and Case 2 heating strategies enlightens efficient heating strategies involving concave or convex walls for various values of Dam.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 October 2022

Raphael Papa Kweku Andoh, Emmanuel Afreh Owusu, Elizabeth Cornelia Annan-Prah and Georgina Nyantakyiwaa Boampong

This study aims to examine the web of relationships among training value, employee internal states (psychological empowerment, employee engagement and motivation to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the web of relationships among training value, employee internal states (psychological empowerment, employee engagement and motivation to transfer) and training transfer.

Design/methodology/approach

Data is obtained from different categories of employees a few months after attending different training programs organized by their organization. Structural equation modeling is used to analyze the data. Bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) confidence intervals are used to determine the significance of the hypothesized paths.

Findings

This study finds that training value relates to motivation to transfer, psychological empowerment and employee engagement. Motivation to transfer also relates to training transfer and employee engagement. Again, psychological empowerment relates to motivation to transfer, employee engagement and training transfer. Concerning the mediated relationship, psychological empowerment and motivation to transfer fully mediate the relationship between training value and training transfer.

Practical implications

Internal states must be the focus of human resource department (HRD) scholars in their quest to discover training transfer improvement mechanisms. HRD practitioners and organizations generally should also prioritize the enhancement of the internal states of employees to aid training transfer.

Originality/value

In this study, training transfer facilitating factors particularly employee internal states are explored by examining the web of relationships comprising training value, motivation to transfer, psychological empowerment, employee engagement and training transfer in a pentagonal model using a homogeneous sample with a common understanding of training transfer due to the similarities in their training as well as job conditions.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2022

Ahmed A.F.M. Hassan and Johann Fortwengel

The transfer of organizational practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs), typically from the headquarters to foreign subsidiaries, has been a key theme in…

Abstract

Purpose

The transfer of organizational practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs), typically from the headquarters to foreign subsidiaries, has been a key theme in international business (IB) literature. Research on this topic increasingly acknowledges the important role of organizational actors external to the focal MNE. Furthermore, there is a growing interest in the microfoundational underpinnings of practice transfer as an important phenomenon in IB. This paper aims to bring together these two emerging research trends to outline an exciting and important avenue for further research.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper. This paper builds on prior empirical research to theorize different types of involvement of external organizational actors in the transfer process. This study further identifies specific mechanisms that lead to transfer outcomes in terms of practice adaptation.

Findings

The authors develop conceptual arguments regarding the role of external actors in the microfoundations of transfer. The involvement of external organizational actors can be either direct or indirect, and it can occur in the initiation stage at headquarters level and/or in the implementation stage at subsidiary level. The authors theorize how the involvement of external organizational actors in the transfer process shapes practice adaptation as a key outcome. This study summarizes the theorization with the help of propositions, and this study also identifies a set of research questions that can guide future research on this increasingly important topic.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by developing a research agenda to open up the black box regarding the role of external actors in the microfoundations of practice transfer in MNEs.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2022

Zhiguo Tang, Feng Deng, Yongtao Ji and Jianping Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to improve the overall heat transfer performance and the temperature uniformity of the heat sink and to explore the effects of the jet…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the overall heat transfer performance and the temperature uniformity of the heat sink and to explore the effects of the jet Reynolds number and the nanoparticle volume fraction of the nanofluids on the flow and heat transfer performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A heat sink with discontinuous arc protrusions in the wall jet region is proposed for confined slot jet impingement. A sloping upper cover plate is added to improve the heat transfer effect in this area. An Al2O3–water nanofluid is selected as the working fluid of the jet for better heat transfer. The Standard k-e turbulence model is used for numerical calculation. The key structural parameters of the heat sink are optimized by the response surface method and a genetic algorithm. The effects of the jet Reynolds number (Re) and the nanofluid concentration (ϕ) on the flow and heat transfer performance of the optimized heat sink are investigated.

Findings

The average Nusselt number of the optimal heat sink is 8.2% higher and the friction resistance is 5.9% lower than that of the initial flat plate heat sink when ϕ = 0.02 and Re = 8,000. The discontinuous arc protrusions and the sloping upper cover plate substantially enhance the heat transfer in the later stage of jet development, improving the temperature uniformity of the heat sink. The maximum temperature difference of the optimal heat sink is 28.1% lower than that of the flat plate heat sink at the same nozzle height. As the jet Reynolds number and the nanofluid particle concentration increase, the Nusselt number of the optimized heat sink and the friction coefficients increase, resulting in a decrease in the evaluation coefficient. However, the overall temperature uniformity of the heat sink is improved under all conditions.

Originality/value

The novel heat sink structure provides a new way to enhance the heat transfer and temperature uniformity of confined slot jet impingement. The flow and heat transfer performance of the heat sink impinged by confined slot jet of nanofluids are obtained. The combination of response surface method and genetic algorithm can be applied to the multi-objective optimization of heat resistance and flow resistance of heat sink.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2022

Valentina Cucino, Nicola Del Sarto, Giulio Ferrigno, Andrea Mario Cuore Piccaluga and Alberto Di Minin

This study investigates the role of “soft” factors of total quality management – in terms of empowerment and engagement of employees – in facilitating or hindering…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the role of “soft” factors of total quality management – in terms of empowerment and engagement of employees – in facilitating or hindering organizational performance of the university technology transfer offices.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), multiple regression model to test if empowerment and engagement affect organizational performance of the university technology transfer offices.

Findings

The authors found that “soft” factors of total quality management – in terms of empowerment and engagement – facilitate the improvement of organizational performance in university technology transfer offices.

Practical implications

The authors’ analysis shows that soft total quality management practices create the conditions for improving organizational performance. This study provides practical implications by showing that, in the evaluation of the technology transfer office, not only the “hard” variables (e.g. number of employees and employee experience) but also the “soft” one (e.g. empowerment and engagement) matter. Therefore, university technology transfer managers or university technology transfer delegates should take actions to promote not only empowering employees but also create a climate conducive to employees' engagement in the university technology transfer offices.

Originality/value

With regards to the differences in organizational performances of university technology transfer offices, several studies have focused their attention on technology transfer professionals in technology transfer offices, but only a few of them have examined the “soft side” of total quality management. Thus, this study examines the organizational goals of technology transfer offices through “soft” factors of total quality management in terms of empowerment and engagement employees.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2022

R.S. Ransing

This study aims to understand the difference between irreversibility in heat and work transfer processes. It also aims to explain that Helmholtz or Gibbs energy does not…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the difference between irreversibility in heat and work transfer processes. It also aims to explain that Helmholtz or Gibbs energy does not represent “free” energy but is a measure of loss of Carnot (reversible) work opportunity.

Design/methodology/approach

The entropy of mass is described as the net temperature-standardised heat transfer to mass under ideal conditions measured from a datum value. An expression for the “irreversibility” is derived in terms of work loss (Wloss) in a work transfer process, unaccounted heat dissipation (Qloss) in a heat transfer process and loss of net Carnot work (CWnet) opportunity resulting from spontaneous heat transfer across a finite temperature difference during the process. The thermal irreversibility is attributed to not exploiting the capability for extracting work by interposing a combination of Carnot engine(s) and/or Carnot heat pump(s) that exchanges heat with the surrounding and operates across the finite temperature difference.

Findings

It is shown, with an example, how the contribution of thermal irreversibility, in estimating reversible input work, amounts to a loss of an opportunity to generate the net work output. The opportunity is created by exchanging heat with surroundings whilst transferring the same amount of heat across finite temperature difference. An entropy change is determined with a numerical simulation, including calculation of local entropy generation values, and results are compared with estimates based on an analytical expression.

Originality/value

A new interpretation of entropy combined with an enhanced mental image of a combination of Carnot engine(s) and/or Carnot heat pump(s) is used to quantify thermal irreversibility.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2010

Michael Leimbach

The purpose of this paper is determine what direct evidence is available that demonstrates the tangible benefit of learning transfer activities to improve the transfer of

3662

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is determine what direct evidence is available that demonstrates the tangible benefit of learning transfer activities to improve the transfer of training. Further, this research creates an application framework for implementing the most effective solutions to increase the effectiveness of human resource development initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

A targeted meta‐analysis process, focused on research that compared training alone with training plus transfer activities, is used. “Difference scores”, representing the percentage of improvement the transfer activities created over training alone, are computed.

Findings

Results indicate that there are 11 specific learning transfer activities showing tangible impact and evidence of effectiveness. In total, 32 studies are found that made this type of comparison. While this may be too narrow to draw specific conclusions, it provides a good basis for development of a learning transfer framework.

Research limitations/implications

The results indicate that there is a great need for more research that directly compares training alone with training plus transfer activities.

Practical implications

Nonetheless, the research may help to simplify the complex models of learning transfer presented by others and provide a framework that is more likely to be implemented than previous frameworks and theories.

Originality/value

This is the first ever effort, according to the author, to assess the direct impact of learning transfer activities on performance improvement.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Albert Galway

An examination of the philosophy and methodologyof transfer pricing is provided. The concept oftransfer pricing is that, within a manufacturingcompany, one department, on…

1904

Abstract

An examination of the philosophy and methodology of transfer pricing is provided. The concept of transfer pricing is that, within a manufacturing company, one department, on transferring its output to another department, should regard this transfer as a sale and that there should be a definite policy on setting the selling price. The most usual methods of transfer pricing – cost, cost plus, market price and dual pricing, are evaluated and worked examples of transfer pricing implications in practice, included.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 122000