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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Elzbieta Lesniewska

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the operation of new generation electromagnetic current-to-voltage transducer. The aim of research was analysis of behaviour of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the operation of new generation electromagnetic current-to-voltage transducer. The aim of research was analysis of behaviour of considered current-to-voltage transducers during operation. The main problem was to estimate whether the external fields are able to change the value of the secondary voltage and that the replacement of the casing material by a conductive or ferromagnetic material will increase the immunity of the transducer to external magnetic fields. The immunity of current-to-voltage transducers to the external fields is very important because it influences the proper functioning of the protection system.

Design/methodology/approach

The use of analytical methods to assess the influence of external fields was impossible due to the complexity of the geometry. The 3D computations were necessary because of different cross sections of circuit boards at different heights. Therefore the numerical 3D field-and-circuit method based on finite element method was applied. The wide range of dimensions in computation system, ranging from 0.15 mm (print paths) to 0.22 m, made it necessary to use the mesh of millions of elements. The division of this type of system into elements requires a diverse and extremely dense mesh in the area of printed circuits board (PCBs).

Findings

The 3D analysis of magnetic field distribution was performed for different external field effect upon a current-to-voltage transducer. The magnetic field distributions and the induced secondary voltage for several different cases were presented. As a conclusion it can be said that in this particular case the magnetic shield is most effective. The influence of external magnetic fields caused by currents passing through the other neighbouring phase bars near are insignificant for the transducer with non-magnetic core.

Practical implications

Commonly used in measuring and protection systems of the transmission lines are induction instrument transformers. The instrument transformers are very precise devices and their errors are counted in tenths of a per cent, and phase displacement of signals in minutes. Especially in HV systems they are very big and their cores are heavy. Replacement of instrument transformers by the current to voltage transducers cooperating with electronic measuring systems will reduce the size and cost of devices.

Originality/value

The requirements set for protective current transformers concern the transformation of currents, with high accuracy, especially at transient states. Therefore magnetic characteristics of their cores should be linear. It causes that cores are large and have some air gaps. Current-to-voltage transducers based on Rogowski coil are particularly suitable for the replacement of the protective current transformers because of their linearity. The traditional technologies used for making Rogowski coil consisted in winding a wire on a non-magnetic carcass. The development of technology has enabled the use of new technologies PCB high density interconnect in the production of Rogowski coil.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Zongyu Chen, Jiuzhi Dong and Xingfei Li

Microsyn signal generators have been used in high-precision inertial sensors for their good structural stiffness and high sensitivity. However, as the stator and the rotor…

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Abstract

Purpose

Microsyn signal generators have been used in high-precision inertial sensors for their good structural stiffness and high sensitivity. However, as the stator and the rotor of the microsyn are both constructed of silicon-steel laminations with high permeability, an extremely small non-concentricity between the stator and rotor of microsyn will cause two random reaction torques acting on the output axis. As a result, difficulty arises in compensating for these random reaction torques. This study aims to investigate the electromagnetic fields of a novel angular transducer characterized by high sensitivity.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the operation principles of the new transducer, the output voltage is decided by the time rate of change of the net magnetic flux of each output pole. The transient analysis of the electromagnetic field of the transducer is carried out by ANSYS Maxwell-3D.

Findings

The distributions of the magnetic flux of the transducer’s interior and eddy current on the rotor are consistent with the results of theory analysis. Moreover, the leakage flux mainly distributes nearby the excitation poles. The novel small-angle transducer also possesses a remarkably low reaction torque and power loss.

Practical implications

Study on the electromagnetic fields of the new transducer not only provides a powerful basis to further improve the precision of the new transducer but also expands the scope of applications of the new transducer.

Originality/value

This new transducer is not only characterized by a high sensitivity, high linearity and fast response but also extremely low reaction torque and power losses. Thus, the new transducer is suitable for high-precision inertial sensors.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 1970

R. Hatschek and G. Schofield

EARLY in 1963, a project was initiated in co‐operation with an European airline with a purpose of starting development work for a new transducer for engine vibration…

Abstract

EARLY in 1963, a project was initiated in co‐operation with an European airline with a purpose of starting development work for a new transducer for engine vibration monitoring. The low reliability of former pickups motivated this development work. In the course of the development, modern engine design requirements raised the need for the high temperature stability of these transducers. The development work was, therefore, based on the necessity to produce a vibration transducer with extreme high reliability, good interchangeability tolerance and useable up to approximately 600 deg. C. in practical flight operation. With regard to these requirements, a suitable technical approach seemed to be the use of the piezoelectric transducer technique, because seismic acceleration pickups working on the piezoelectric principle do not use moving parts, whereas displacement and velocity pickups, used so far, have at least one moving part, i.e. the inertial mass. Also the requirement for high temperature stability could be met by using modern crystal technology. The following chapters will expound some mechanical and crystallographic considerations in connection with such transducers, and furthermore describe some devices which are now being used in practical flight operation. Today, the concept of a piezoelectric, high temperature accelerometer with 2‐pole signal output has been commonly adopted in industrial production of transducers for airborne vibration monitoring.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 42 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2018

Seyed Foad Mousavi, Seyed Hassan Hashemabadi and Hossein Azizi Moghaddam

Invasive transit-time ultrasonic flow measurement involves the use of ultrasonic transducers, which sense the flowing fluid and are the most important parts of an…

Abstract

Purpose

Invasive transit-time ultrasonic flow measurement involves the use of ultrasonic transducers, which sense the flowing fluid and are the most important parts of an ultrasonic flowmeter. In this study, two ultrasonic transducers were designed, numerically simulated and fabricated to be used in an ultrasonic gas flowmeter.

Design/methodology/approach

PZT-5H piezoceramic elements with specific dimensions were designed and used as beating heart inside the transducers. Different methods, including impedance-frequency analysis, optical emission spectroscopy and performance tests in pressurized chambers were used to evaluate the piezoelectric elements, ultrasonic transducer housings and the fabricated transducers, respectively. In addition, finite element method results showed its ability for design stages of ultrasonic transducer.

Findings

Experimental results for transit time difference (TTD) and the normalized received voltage were compared with simulation results at the same conditions. There was a quite good agreement between the two method results. Extensive simulation results showed that under the considered range of environmental conditions, the change of acoustic path length has the most impact on TTD, with respect to temperature and pressure. A change of 1 mm in acoustic path length leads to 0.74 per cent change in TTD, approximately. In addition, for normalized received voltage, 1 bar change in pressure has the most impact and its value is as high as 3.76 per cent.

Practical implications

This method is possibly used in ultrasonic gas flowmeter fabrication.

Originality/value

In this work, design, fabrication, experimental tests and numerical simulation of ultrasonic transducers are presented.

Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Y‐J. Lin and Suresh V. Venna

The purpose of this paper is to propose an effective and novel methodology to determine optimal location of piezoelectric transducers for passive vibration control of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an effective and novel methodology to determine optimal location of piezoelectric transducers for passive vibration control of geometrically complicated structures and shells with various curvatures. An industry‐standard aircraft leading‐edge structure is considered for the actuator placement analysis and experimental verification.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method is based on finite element analysis of the underlying structure having a thin layer of piezoelectric elements covering the entire inner surface with pertinent boundary conditions. All the piezoelectric properties are incorporated into the elements. Specifically, modal piezoelectric analysis is performed to provide computed tomography for the evaluations of the electric potential distributions on these piezoelectric elements attributed by the first bending and torsional modes of structural vibration. Then, the outstanding zone(s) yielding highest amount of electric potentials can be identified as the target location for the best actuator placement.

Findings

Six piezoelectric vibration absorbers are determined to be placed alongside both of the fixed edges. An experimental verification of the aluminum leading edge's vibration suppression using the proposed method is conducted exploiting two resistive shunt circuits for the passive damping. A good agreement is obtained between the analytical and experimental results. In particular, vibration suppression around 30 and 25 per cent and Q‐factor reduction up to 15 and 10 per cent are obtained in the designated bending and torsional modes, respectively. In addition, some amount of damping improvement is observed at higher modes of vibration as well.

Research limitations/implications

The frequency in the proposed approach will be increased slowly and gradually from 0 to 500 Hz. When the frequency matches the natural frequency of the structure, owing to the resonant condition the plate will vibrate heavily. The vibrations of the plate can be observed by connecting a sensor to an oscilloscope. Owing to the use of only one sensor, not all the modes can be detected. Only the first few modes can be picked up by the sensor, because of its location.

Practical implications

This method can also be used in optimizing not only the location but also the size and shape of the passive vibration absorber to attain maximum amount of damping. This can be achieved by simply changing the dimensions and shape of the piezoelectric vibration absorber in the finite element model on an iterative basis to find the configuration that gives maximum electric potential.

Originality/value

The determination of optimal location(s) for piezoelectric transducers is very complicated and difficult if the geometry of structures is curved or irregular. Therefore, it has never been reported in the literature. Here an efficient FEA‐based electric potential tomography method is proposed to identify the optimized locations for the PZT transducers for passive vibration control of geometrically complicated structures, with minimal efforts. In addition, this method will facilitate the determination of electric potentials that would be obtained at all the possible locations for piezoelectric transducers and hence makes it possible to optimize the placement and configurations of the candidate transducers on complex shape structures.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Yanqiang Feng, Haijiang Zhu and Ping Yang

This paper aims to characterize the acoustic field radiated by the piston transducer and measure a few parameters through the data visualization method.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to characterize the acoustic field radiated by the piston transducer and measure a few parameters through the data visualization method.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the theoretical model of the ultrasonic transducer, the acoustic field data were acquired by scanning the ultrasound field of the piston transducer. And the visualized graphs of the ultrasonic data were displayed through 3D graphs including slice, iso‐surface and volume rendering, respectively. Furthermore, a few parameters of the transducer including beam width and spread angle were measured using the visualized data.

Findings

The visualized graphs of the acoustic field radiated by the piston transducer show that the data visualization method can expose obviously the space distribution of the ultrasound field and describe directly the cylindrical shape. And this method provides the basis of reliable measurement and assess for the ultrasonic transducer.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents a kind of measured method of the acoustic parameters using the visualized data. The measurement range has limitation.

Practical implications

This method is possible used in Medical ultrasonic.

Originality/value

This paper presents the visualized description of the acoustic field of the piston transducer and a measurement of two acoustic parameters using the visualized data.

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Dorota Stachowiak

– The purpose of this paper is to find the method for determining the displacement of the active element in a giant magnetostrictive transducer.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find the method for determining the displacement of the active element in a giant magnetostrictive transducer.

Design/methodology/approach

The giant magnetostrictive transducer with the active element made of Terfenol-D has been considered. A structure with an axisymmetrical transducer has been proposed. In the proposed model the coupling of magnetic and mechanical field has been taken into account. Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetics and Navier’s equations for mechanical systems are formulated in weak form and coupled using a nonlinear magneto-mechanical constitutive law for Terfenol-D. In order to obtain the distribution of the magnetic and mechanical fields the finite element method was used. The elaborated nonlinear magnetostrictive model has been implemented by using a finite element weak formulation with COMSOL Multiphysics.

Findings

The elaborated model for the giant magnetostrictive transducer allows to take into account the magneto-mechanical coupling as well as the material’s nonlinearity. The calculation results of the strain distributions caused by magnetostrictive forces have been presented. The output displacement of a transducer vs supply current for different compressive preload stresses has been calculated and measured. The simulation and measurements results are in close agreement.

Research limitations/implications

Taking advantage of the geometrical structure of the prototype of the giant magnetostrictive transducer the computations are performed in an axial-symmetric domain with cylindrical coordinates (r, z, ϑ). The axisymmetric formulation describes the giant magnetostrictive transducers (GMT) without significant loss of accuracy. This approach leads to smaller numerical models and reduced computational time.

Practical implications

The elaborated magneto-mechanical model can be used to the design and optimize the structure of GMT.

Originality/value

The paper offers the magneto-mechanical model of the giant magnetostrictive transducer. The elaborated model can predict behavior of the magnetostrictive materials it can be used as a tool for the design process of the giant magnetostrictive transducer.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Rui Zhang, Lei Zhao, Dan Xie, Jinlong Song, Wendong Zhang, Lihu Pan and Yanhua Zhang

This study aims to simulate and test the performance of a transmitting and receiving capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT). Aimed at detecting demand of…

136

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to simulate and test the performance of a transmitting and receiving capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT). Aimed at detecting demand of the CMUT, a matched integrated adjustment circuit was designed through analyzing processing methods of transducer’s weak echo signal.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the analysis of CMUT array structure and work principle, the CMUT units are designed and the dynamic performance analysis of SIMULINK is given according to the demand of underwater detecting. A transceiver isolation circuit is used to make transmission mode and receiving mode separate. A detection circuit is designed based on the transimpedance amplifier to achieve extraction of high-frequency and weak signal.

Findings

Through experimentation, the effectiveness of the CMUT performance simulation and the transceiver integrated adjustment circuit were verified. In addition, the test showed that CMUT with 400 kHz frequency has wider bandwidth and better dynamic characteristics than other similar transducers.

Originality/value

This paper provides a theoretical basis and design reference for the development and application of CMUT technology.

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Zongxing Lu, Chunguang Xu, Qinxue Pan, Dingguo Xiao, Fanwu Meng and Juan Hao

Nondestructive testing based on cooperative twin-robot technology is a significant issue for curved-surface inspection. To achieve this purpose, this paper aims to present…

Abstract

Purpose

Nondestructive testing based on cooperative twin-robot technology is a significant issue for curved-surface inspection. To achieve this purpose, this paper aims to present a kinematic constraint relation method relative to two cooperative robots.

Design/methodology/approach

The transformation relation of the twin-robot base frame can be determined by driving the two robots for a series of handclasp operations on three points that are noncollinear in space. The transformation relation is used to solve the cooperative motion problem of the twin-robot system. Cooperative motions are divided into coupled and combined synchronous motions on the basis of the testing tasks. The position and orientation constraints for the two motion modes are also explored.

Findings

Representative experiments between two industrial robots are conducted to validate the theoretical developments in kinematic constraint analysis. Artificial defects are clearly visible in the C-scan results, thereby verifying the validity and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Originality/value

The transformation relation of the twin-robot base frame is built under a series of handclasp operations. The position and orientation constraints for the coupled and combined synchronous motions are explored. Theoretical foundations of trajectory planning method for the transmitting and receiving transducers of the cooperative twin-robot system are presented.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1985

Sven Günther‐Hanssen

The load cell constitutes the most important part of an electronic scale for industrial weighing. It is basically the quality of this that determines the profit gained.

Abstract

The load cell constitutes the most important part of an electronic scale for industrial weighing. It is basically the quality of this that determines the profit gained.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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