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Article

Craig L. Pearce, Henry P. Sims, Jonathan F. Cox, Gail Ball, Eugene Schnell, Ken A. Smith and Linda Trevino

Extends the transactional‐transformational model of leadership by deductively developing four theoretical behavioral types of leadership based on a historical analysis of…

Abstract

Extends the transactional‐transformational model of leadership by deductively developing four theoretical behavioral types of leadership based on a historical analysis of leadership literature. Then, in an exploratory empirical phase, uses two data sets to inductively develop alternative models of leadership types. Finally, with a third data set, tests several theoretically plausible typologies using second‐order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of the CFA generally support the existence of four leadership types: directive leadership, transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and empowering leadership.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article

Gennaro F. Vito, George E. Higgins and Andrew S. Denney

The purpose of this paper is to examine three different structural models the Leadership Challenge model to determine if they best capture transactional or…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine three different structural models the Leadership Challenge model to determine if they best capture transactional or transformational leadership. The three models are derived from the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study come from self-report surveys of middle managers that are attending the Administrative Officers Course at the Southern Police Institute. The managers completed the 30-item 360° leadership challenge measure. Because the leadership challenge measure is a 360° evaluation of leadership, up to five observers provided data about their manager. The authors use the data from the observer in this study. Using structural equation modeling, the authors examine the aims.

Findings

The findings show two important advances. First, the leadership challenge model may capture both transformational and transactional leadership. Second, the findings support the view that the really captures transformational leadership.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, no study has performed this type of examination in the policing literature. The value of this type examination is high.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article

Lihua Xu, Zane Wubbena and Trae Stewart

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12 school principals (n=6,317) in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Nine first-order factor models and four second-order factor models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

The results suggested that the nine-factor model provided the best fit for the data. Further examination revealed that most constructs lacked convergent validity and discriminant validity. Second-order factor models were tested and the hierarchical model with two higher order factors (i.e. transformational and transactional leadership) was deemed the best fit and it was then tested for measurement invariance between females and males. The measurement model was found to be invariant across gender. Findings suggested that female school principals demonstrated significantly greater transformational leadership behaviour, while male school principals demonstrated significantly greater transactional leadership behaviour.

Originality/value

This study addressed construct and factor issues previously associated with the MLQ in the measurement of transformational and transactional leadership among a variety of organizations. By using a sample of K-12 school principals across gender, this study has provided support that may ameliorate contextual doubts of transformational leadership behaviour when examining the relational aspects needed to improve schools.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 54 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article

Kent Eriksson and Cecilia Hermansson

Customer interactions with sellers change as social interactions in society change. The old dichotomy between transaction and relation exchange may no longer be valid as…

Abstract

Purpose

Customer interactions with sellers change as social interactions in society change. The old dichotomy between transaction and relation exchange may no longer be valid as customers form relationships with sellers in new ways. It is against this background that the authors study how customers’ subjective perception of relational exchange appears in objectively defined transactional and relational exchange forms. The authors study one bank’s customers, and, based on objective bank records, the authors identify segments that behave as transactional and relational customers. The authors also identify a group of customers who are in between transactional and relational, and the authors call these interimistic relational, since they interact repeatedly with the bank in a short period of time. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors study how subjective attributes of relational exchange differ in objectively defined transactional, interimistic, and relational customer groups. The authors use a large data set, consisting of a combination of survey and objective bank records for 90,528 bank customers.

Findings

Findings are that the old dichotomy between transaction and relation is no longer valid, since customers’ exchange behavior and perception of exchange do not match up when it comes to the transaction-relation dichotomy. The authors find empirical evidence for that the subjective relational attributes can be observed in objectively defined relational, interimistic, and transactional customer groups. Overall, subjective relational attributes are strongest in the objective relational group; they are weaker in the interimistic group. Relational attributes are weakest, but still present, in the transactional group.

Practical implications

The findings presented here suggest strong support for relationship marketing practice, since even customers who behave transactionally perceive that they have an element of relationship with the seller. The authors find that customers may behave in a relational, interimistic, and transactional way, but that they perceive themselves as more or less relational. The practical implication is that customer analysis should focus on exchange forms, and that it is essential to analyze how exchange changes, and how multiple exchange forms may be combined in customer behavior and perception.

Social implications

The social implications of this paper are that marketers should consider the exchange between customer and financial service supplier as more or less of a relationship, and more or less of a service. Financial service firm strategies and regulation of financial services should acknowledge that no financial service transaction is independent of the relationship between the financial service provider and the customer. It may seem so objectively, but subjectively, it is not.

Originality/value

The authors present a unique comparison of objective and subjective customer exchange. There are two contributions that come from this research. The first is that customers perceive themselves as partially relational, even though they behave transactionally. The other contribution is that the authors identified interimistic relational exchange (IRE) as an exchange form in between relational and transactional. IRE can potentially be very important for market research and practice, as it captures modern market behavior. In today’s world, consumers form their perceptions in a multitude of ways, and may therefore have relational attitudes and transactional behaviors. More research is needed into how consumer perceptions and behaviors relate to each other, and how it impacts consumer purchase of financial services.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article

Marc van Essen, Pursey P.M.A.R. Heugens, Patricio Duran, Sabrina F. Saleh, Steve Sauerwald, Hans van Oosterhout and En Xie

The purpose of this study is to investigate how concentrated owners add value to Asian firms. While prior research suggests that relational owners (i.e., business groups…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how concentrated owners add value to Asian firms. While prior research suggests that relational owners (i.e., business groups, top management team, board, government, banks, families, and corporation) may help firms fill institutional voids, this study proposes that it is transactional owners (i.e., foreign and institutional investors) lacking this ability who contribute most to firm performance. As these owners frequently hail from contexts with well-developed corporate governance traditions, they tend to have experience with the design and implementation of such governance practices.

Design/methodology/approach

This study involves a meta-analysis covering 276 studies from 17 Asian countries.

Findings

This study shows that transactional owners impose effective governance practices such as separating the chief executive officer (CEO) and Chair roles and assuring board independence. These practices promote decisions benefiting all shareholders, such as preventing diversification and financial over-leveraging.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the comparative corporate governance literature by showing that implementing internal governance practices helps improve firm performance in Asia. It also contributes to the owner identity literature by opening the black box of how transactional and relational owners differentially affect firms’ strategic behavior. Overall, this study yields a more nuanced understanding of what transactional owners contribute to Asian firms.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article

Katy Mason and Stefanos Mouzas

The aim in this paper is to describe and explain the flexibility offered by different business models adopted by different firms as they strive to achieve higher levels of…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim in this paper is to describe and explain the flexibility offered by different business models adopted by different firms as they strive to achieve higher levels of business performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross‐sectional research is used to investigate a matched pair sample of 20 high‐performing and 20 low‐performing firms in the UK. The relationship between business model architectures and focus are examined and their implications for flexibility are illustrated and discussed.

Findings

The flexibility offered by different business models is explored through the way organisations select and integrate three inter‐related elements to devise flexible business models, i.e. network influence, transactional relationships, and corporate ownership. Affected by situated practices in each business network and the market position or business size, companies select and integrate various configurations of these elements to respond to the constantly evolving demands of end‐customers.

Research limitations/implications

Although based upon a cross‐sectional analysis of a matched pair sample, the concept of “flexible business models” has far wider managerial implications. The efficiency of the proposed approach is achieved through the reduction into three inter‐related elements that allow flexible configuration and re‐adjustment.

Practical implications

Companies can use the flexible business model approach to examine their own selection and integration of network influence, transactional relationships and corporate ownership and scrutinise their flexibility and performance in the marketplace.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is the development of the flexible business models concept, based on an empirical investigation of firms in the UK.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Ra'ed Masa'deh, Bader Yousef Obeidat and Ali Tarhini

Knowledge sharing adoption has been considered as a significant practice for organizations. However, there is a modest empirical confirmation to indicate how these…

Abstract

Purpose

Knowledge sharing adoption has been considered as a significant practice for organizations. However, there is a modest empirical confirmation to indicate how these organizations value the richness of their knowledge capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to investigate both transformational and transactional leadership styles that influence employees’ knowledge sharing practices, and the impact of the latter on job performance, and then on firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collected from 179 employees at the higher council of youth in Jordan were empirically tested using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The findings revealed that both transformational and transactional leadership styles have significant impact on job performance, and the latter on firm performance. Also, it was found that transactional leadership impacted knowledge sharing, whereas transformational leadership did not.

Originality/value

This research proposes a new approach to understand knowledge sharing adoption, and outlines some theoretical and managerial implications of the findings.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article

Joseph Coughlan, Estelle Shale and Robert Dyson

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the effect of including the customer as a resource in efficiency measurement. Variations in counting the customer illustrate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the effect of including the customer as a resource in efficiency measurement. Variations in counting the customer illustrate the different impacts on efficiency between a transactional and a relational approach to bank branch marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses data envelopment analysis to analyse the efficiency of the branch network under consideration. This technique, while well established in the bank branch efficiency literature, is used here to gain insight into how relationship and transactional paradigms are affecting performance.

Findings

Although the average profile of the efficiency scores was similar, the scores of the individual branches differed greatly depending on how customers were counted. Some branches then can be typified as relationship oriented while others as transactions oriented bearing in mind that all branches have both remits.

Practical implications

Future research in efficiency measurement should include customers as a resource of the bank given the importance of them for the activity of co‐production. Careful consideration is required however of the method of accounting for these customers bearing in mind that different conceptualisations may significantly affect the efficiency score of the individual branches.

Originality/value

This paper sheds light on what is happening at branch level in a large network in the UK in terms of how transactions and relationship marketing approaches are affecting efficiency scores and the objectives of the branch. It also answers a call for research into organisations that simultaneously use relationship and transactions marketing.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article

Mario Fernando, Frederick Beale and Gary D. Geroy

The purpose of this paper is first to report an exploratory study intended to capture the elements of a leader's spirituality; and second to examine these elements against…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is first to report an exploratory study intended to capture the elements of a leader's spirituality; and second to examine these elements against the current discussion of spiritual leadership in general, and the transcendental leadership model in particular.

Design/methodology/approach

Within a single case study scenario, the in‐depth interview method captures the elements of the leader's spirituality. Grounded theory is used to analyze the data.

Findings

The findings suggest that a spiritually driven leader's high internal locus, a strong passion for giving and caring for his followers, and spirituality epitomize the concept of transcendental leadership.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation concerns generalizability of the findings. While in‐depth studies of larger samples of spiritually driven business leaders are needed, these leaders could be drawn from different cultural settings. Using different assessment tools to measure various aspects of spirituality might provide helpful perspectives in future research aimed at understanding the relationships between spirituality and leadership styles.

Practical implications

The paper provides an alternative way of characterizing spiritually oriented leaders, as they strive to integrate spirituality to all aspects of their life.

Originality/value

The paper assesses the functionality of a spirituality‐driven business leader as early evidence of the viability of the concept of transcendental leadership. It is of value to academic researchers and practitioners.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article

David William Stoten

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether servant leadership can be applied to college management. The research methodology involved questionnaire and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether servant leadership can be applied to college management. The research methodology involved questionnaire and co‐constructed discussion eliciting the views of teachers on how they interpret leadership in a sixth form college. Three other models of leadership were discussed along with servant leadership. The results suggest that servant leadership is the least recognised form of leadership in colleges.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology involved two phases. The first phase involved a probing questionnaire that elicited teachers’ views on institutional leadership and enquired about the purpose of leadership. This pilot questionnaire was followed up with a series of co‐constructed discussions with teachers.

Findings

The findings suggest that servant leadership is not prevalent within the sixth form college sector. Transactional leadership was the most identified form of organisational leadership, with distributed and transformational models coming ahead of servant leadership. These outcomes highlight the shared instrumentalism that exists within colleges as they confront the developing education market in the UK.

Research limitations/implications

This case study, albeit echoing other larger investigations, was undertaken at a single college and is therefore limited in its generalisability.

Originality/value

There is very little research undertaken into the leadership and management of sixth form colleges, and even less on the relevance of servant leadership to the education sector. This paper offers a tentative view of how teachers view leadership and the dominance of transactional leadership in the college system.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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