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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2022

Andrew W. Evans

This chapter reviews the safety of railway operation in Europe particularly by examining the causes of fatalities over periods of up to three decades ending in 2017

Abstract

This chapter reviews the safety of railway operation in Europe particularly by examining the causes of fatalities over periods of up to three decades ending in 2017. Fatalities are examined to passengers, staff, level crossing users, and trespassers, together with a brief look at suicides. The accidents that attract most attention are fatal train collisions and derailments because they can result in multiple fatalities, and are in most cases wholly the responsibility of the railway operators. However, train accidents are infrequent, and account for only about 1% of all railway fatalities if suicides are included, or 3% if they are not. The fatal train accident rate per train-kilometre fell at a rate of 5.4% per year between 1990 and 2017 and was 77% lower in 2017 than it had been in 1990. This chapter goes on to discuss level crossings, which account for far more fatalities than train accidents, personal accidents, accidents to trespassers, and suicides. This chapter ends with a brief look at the evidence of the effect of rail restructuring on safety.

Details

Sustainable Railway Engineering and Operations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-589-4

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Zhipeng Zhang, Xiang Liu and Hao Hu

At the US passenger stations, train operations approaching terminating tracks rely on the engineer’s compliant behavior to safely stop before the end of the tracks…

Abstract

Purpose

At the US passenger stations, train operations approaching terminating tracks rely on the engineer’s compliant behavior to safely stop before the end of the tracks. Noncompliance actions from the disengaged or inattentive engineers would result in hazards to train passengers, train crewmembers and bystanders at passenger stations. Over the past decade, a series of end-of-track collisions occurred at passenger stations with substantial property damage and casualties. This study’s developed systemic model and discussions present policymakers, railway practitioners and academic researchers with a flexible approach for qualitatively assessing railroad safety.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve a system-based, micro-level analysis of end-of-track accidents and eventually promote the safety level of passenger stations, the systems-theoretic accident modeling and processes (STAMP), as a practical systematic accident model widely used in the complex systems, is developed in view of environmental factors, human errors, organizational factors and mechanical failures in this complex socio-technical system.

Findings

The developed STAMP accident model and analytical results qualitatively provide an explicit understanding of the system hazards, constraints and hierarchical control structure of train operations on terminating tracks in the US passenger stations. Furthermore, the safety recommendations and practical options related to obstructive sleep apnea screening, positive train control-based collision avoidance mechanisms, robust system safety program plans and bumping posts are proposed and evaluated using the STAMP approach.

Originality/value

The findings from STAMP-based analysis can serve as valid references for policymakers, government accident investigators, railway practitioners and academic researchers. Ultimately, they can contribute to establishing effective emergent measures for train operations at passenger stations and promote the level of safety necessary to protect the public. The STAMP approach could be adapted to analyze various other rail safety systems that aim to ultimately improve the safety level of railroad systems.

Details

Smart and Resilient Transportation, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-0487

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Jing Wang, Yinghan Wang, Yichuan Peng and Jian John Lu

The operation safety of the high-speed railway has been widely concerned. Due to the joint influence of the environment, equipment, personnel and other factors, accidents

Abstract

Purpose

The operation safety of the high-speed railway has been widely concerned. Due to the joint influence of the environment, equipment, personnel and other factors, accidents are inevitable in the operation process. However, few studies focused on identifying contributing factors affecting the severity of high-speed railway accidents because of the difficulty in obtaining field data. This study aims to investigate the impact factors affecting the severity of the general high-speed railway.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 14 potential factors were examined from 475 data. The severity level is categorized into four levels by delay time and the number of subsequent trains that are affected by the accident. The partial proportional odds model was constructed to relax the constraint of the parallel line assumption.

Findings

The results show that 10 factors are found to significantly affect accident severity. Moreover, the factors including automation train protection (ATP) system fault, platform screen door and train door fault, traction converter fault and railway clearance intrusion by objects have an effect on reducing the severity level. On the contrary, the accidents caused by objects hanging on the catenary, pantograph fault, passenger misconducting or sudden illness, personnel intrusion of railway clearance, driving on heavy rain or snow and train collision against objects tend to be more severe.

Originality/value

The research results are very useful for mitigating the consequences of high-speed rail accidents.

Details

Smart and Resilient Transportation, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-0487

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 June 2021

Md Nazmus Sakib, Theodora Chaspari and Amir H. Behzadan

As drones are rapidly transforming tasks such as mapping and surveying, safety inspection and progress monitoring, human operators continue to play a critical role in…

Abstract

Purpose

As drones are rapidly transforming tasks such as mapping and surveying, safety inspection and progress monitoring, human operators continue to play a critical role in ensuring safe drone missions in compliance with safety regulations and standard operating procedures. Research shows that operator's stress and fatigue are leading causes of drone accidents. Building upon the authors’ past work, this study presents a systematic approach to predicting impending drone accidents using data that capture the drone operator's physiological state preceding the accident.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collect physiological data from 25 participants in real-world and virtual reality flight experiments to design a feedforward neural network (FNN) with back propagation. Four time series signals, namely electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature (ST), electrocardiogram (ECG) and heart rate (HR), are selected, filtered for noise and used to extract 92 time- and frequency-domain features. The FNN is trained with data from a window of length t = 3…8 s to predict accidents in the next p = 3…8 s.

Findings

Analysis of model performance in all 36 combinations of analysis window (t) and prediction horizon (p) combinations reveals that the FNN trained with 8 s of physiological signal (i.e. t = 8) to predict drone accidents in the next 6 s (i.e. p = 6) achieved the highest F1-score of 0.81 and AP of 0.71 after feature selection and data balancing.

Originality/value

The safety and integrity of collaborative human–machine systems (e.g. remotely operated drones) rely on not only the attributes of the human operator or the machinery but also how one perceives the other and adopts to the evolving nature of the operational environment. This study is a first systematic attempt at objective prediction of potential drone accident events from operator's physiological data in (near-) real time. Findings will lay the foundation for creating automated intervention systems for drone operations, ultimately leading to safer jobsites.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Rhona Flin, Paul O’Connor and Kathryn Mearns

The aviation industry recognised the significance of human error in accidents in the 1970s, and has been instrumental in the development of special training, designed to…

9978

Abstract

The aviation industry recognised the significance of human error in accidents in the 1970s, and has been instrumental in the development of special training, designed to reduce error and increase the effectiveness of flight crews. These crew resource management (CRM) programmes focus on “non‐technical skills” critical for enhanced operational performance, such as leadership, situation awareness, decision making, team work and communication. More recently CRM has been adopted by other “high reliability” team environments including anaesthesiology, air traffic control, the Merchant Navy, the nuclear power industry, aviation maintenance, and the offshore oil industry. This review paper describes the basic principles of crew resource management, then outlines recent developments in aviation and other high reliability work environments.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2007

Thomas J. Walker, Dolruedee Thiengtham, Onem Ozocak and Sergey S. Barabanov

The study aims to examine the stock price performance of publicly owned railroad companies following severe railroad accidents that resulted in the loss of human lives…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to examine the stock price performance of publicly owned railroad companies following severe railroad accidents that resulted in the loss of human lives and/or hazardous material spills. The focus is on legal liability considerations as one of the primary factors that drives a firm's abnormal performance following a given accident.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs a sample of 97 railroad accidents that occurred between January 1967 and December 2006 and involved equipment (tracks and/or locomotives) owned by publicly traded US and Canadian railroad companies. The stock price reaction of the affected firms is examined following these disasters and a series of univariate and multivariate tests is used to investigate whether differences in abnormal returns following a given accident can be related to various factors that characterize the affected firm or the accident it was involved in.

Findings

The results suggest that legal liability considerations are one of the primary factors that determine a company's stock price reaction following a railroad disaster. Specifically, it is observed that firms that are likely to be sued in connection with an accident tend to incur larger stock price losses. On the other hand, it is found that firms that are protected through indemnification agreements suffer only insignificant price declines, even if initial accident reports hold them responsible for causing the accident.

Originality/value

The paper extends the prior literature on the stock market's reaction to firm‐specific catastrophic events. While there are a number of studies that examine the financial consequences of aviation disasters, there is to the authors' knowledge only one prior study that performs a similar analysis for railroad accidents.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Abstract

Details

The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Carlos Noronha, Tiffany Cheng Han Leung and On Ieng Lei

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the corporate response of Chinese railway companies after the deadly Wenzhou train accident in China which happened on July 23…

1244

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the corporate response of Chinese railway companies after the deadly Wenzhou train accident in China which happened on July 23, 2011. Few studies on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries have looked into whether the information disclosed by companies is satisfactory with sufficient response after a major incident has happened.

Design/methodology/approach

Five companies with the largest market value in the Chinese railway industry involved in the production of trains and railway systems connected to the “7.23” incident were taken as the observations in this study. Information published by the companies and the media related to the accident, including CSR and sustainability reports, company Web sites, news and press releases and Internet postings, were investigated in detail in a qualitative manner.

Findings

The findings show that disclosure of information related to the “7.23” incident was very low or almost inexistent in the observed companies. For those that claimed that they had followed CSR reporting standards and guidelines, the disclosed information appeared to be insufficient to reveal practical information and fulfill stakeholders’ requirements. The study also sheds light on the corporate reporting behaviors of Chinese state-owned enterprises by applying legitimacy, stakeholder and institutional theories to the unique social and political environment in the country.

Originality/value

This paper critically reveals the poor corporate response after the “7.23” incident in Chinese railway companies. The case serves as an example for the companies to ponder on what improvements are called for in terms of social reporting and relevant corporate actions after a major accident. Also, the study contributes to the CSR disclosure literature concerning developing countries by examining the case of China and the little studied railway industry run by the state.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

O.E. Charles‐Owaba and K.A. Adebiyi

The manufacturing industry perceives government standards as an attempt to unnecessarily increase production cost. This may be due to lack of acceptable models for…

Abstract

Purpose

The manufacturing industry perceives government standards as an attempt to unnecessarily increase production cost. This may be due to lack of acceptable models for demonstrating the associated benefits to industry. It was the goal of this study to develop a simulation model for predicting the performance of a manufacturing safety programme (SP).

Design/methodology/approach

The principles of system‐dynamics were applied to identify the relevant safety‐related components and their relationships. A simulation model for evaluating periodic performance of a manufacturing SP was then developed. A set a dynamic equations for predicting factory accidents or preventions and the monetary saving were the performance measures. Two set of factory data: non‐SP (1979) and SP (1991‐2004) were collected from a bottling company. The parameters of the model were estimated using the first set while it was validated with the second and associated monetary saving computed.

Findings

Solutions to factory accidents or preventions yielded exponential functions. The means and standard deviations of the predicted and actual accidents were 32 and 5.66; and 30 and 7.46, respectively. The corresponding values for predicted and actual preventions were 55 and 10.47; and 59 and 7.45, respectively. There were no significant differences between the predicted and actual for the accidents and preventions, respectively, at 5 per cent level. The predicted SP saving per annum was 6.96 millions.

Originality/value

The model is a useful tool for setting profitable manufacturing safety standards and effective SP management.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

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