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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2015

Wouter Andringa, Rense Nieuwenhuis and Minna Van Gerven

The purpose of this paper is to show how the interplay between individual women’s gender role attitudes, having young children at home, as well as the country-context…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how the interplay between individual women’s gender role attitudes, having young children at home, as well as the country-context characterized by gender egalitarianism and public childcare support, relates to women’s working hours in 23 European countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents results of multilevel regression analyses of data from the European Social Survey (Round 2). These micro-level data on 23 European countries were combined with country-level measures on gender traditionalism and childcare expenditure.

Findings

The authors found that the negative association between having young children at home and women’s working hours is stronger for women with traditional gender role attitudes compared to women with egalitarian attitudes. The gap in working hours between women with and without young children at home was smaller in countries in which the population holds egalitarian gender role attitudes and in countries with extensive public childcare support. Furthermore, it was found that the gap in employment hours between mothers with traditional or egalitarian attitudes was largest in countries with limited public childcare support.

Social implications

Policy makers should take note that women’s employment decisions are not dependent on human capital and household-composition factors alone, but that gender role attitudes matter as well. The authors could not find evidence of the inequality in employment between women with different gender role attitudes being exacerbated in association with childcare support.

Originality/value

The originality of this study lies in the combined (rather than separate) analysis of how countries’ social policies (childcare services) and countries’ attitudes (gender traditionalism) interact with individual gender role attitudes to shape cross-national variation in women’s working hours.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 35 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Sarla Sharma

Introduction: Recent research studies focusing on the relationship between psychiatric illness and deviant behaviour (Huselid & Cooper, 1992; Holman, Jensen, Capell, and…

Abstract

Introduction: Recent research studies focusing on the relationship between psychiatric illness and deviant behaviour (Huselid & Cooper, 1992; Holman, Jensen, Capell, and Woodard, 1993) suggest that a behaviour that is inconsistent with sex‐role expectations, particularly when it is defined as more appropriate for the opposite sex, is seen as deviant. By implication, women's alcohol misuse falls into this category of ‘deviant deviance’. In their research on gender roles as mediators of sex differences in adolescent alcohol use and abuse, Huselid and Cooper (1992), concluded that the relationships between gender roles and alcohol use were consistent with the hypothesis that individuals with conventional gender identities conform more closely to cultural norms that condone drinking among males but not among females. In addition to heavy and problem drinking of women judged frequently to be a deviation from the traditional feminine role, it is also viewed as a rejection of the traditional feminine sex‐role and adoption of an aspect of the traditional masculine role, or both (Chomak and Collins, 1987). In their research on sex‐role conflicts in alcoholic women, when the factors of age, socio‐economic status (SES), and marital status were controlled, Kroft and Pierre (1987) observed that alcoholic women scored as more depressed and more sex‐role undifferentiated than non‐alcoholic women. Alcoholic women were also found to have a relatively traditional sex‐role ideology, and remitted alcoholics expressed less satisfaction than other groups with some traditional female roles. The presence of conflict between perceived (real) and desired (ideal) genderrole characteristics, rather than the specific pattern or direction of the conflict, may best predict problem drinking. Similarly, the research on genderrole attitudes, job competition and alcohol consumption among women and men, conducted by Parker and Hartford (1992), concluded that among females, the non‐traditional role of employment in non‐traditional genderrole attitudes concerning responsibilities for household labour and child‐care were associated with greater alcohol consumption. Among the employed, traditional females and non‐traditional males had greater alcohol use. The females and males who experience conflict between competition at the work‐place and substantial obligations at home consumed a greater amount of alcohol. The results of these clashes between feminine role pattern at home and traditionally masculine roles of paid employment will be social and psychological conflicts and tensions that could adversely affect women's mental health (McBroom, 1986). In other words, many women may find it stressful to switch between more masculine role expectations in the workplace and more feminine role expectations in the home (Gerson, 1985) and some may increase their alcohol consumption to alleviate distress resulting from mismatched gender‐related role expectations and preferences (Eccles, 1987).

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 14 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Book part
Publication date: 6 February 2013

Kathryn A. Sweeney and Delores P. Aldridge

Purpose – This chapter explores which factors women see as limiting their ability to achieve preferred traditional and egalitarian gender roles.Design/methodology/approach…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter explores which factors women see as limiting their ability to achieve preferred traditional and egalitarian gender roles.Design/methodology/approach – Data from 25 in-depth interviews and questionnaires with Black and White wives in same-race and interracial Black/White marriages are used. Analysis relies on an intersectional framework to illustrate how gendered power, race, and resources create obstacles in realizing gender ideology.Findings – Wives who were unable to fulfill egalitarian ideals faced gendered power issues. Wives who desired “traditionalgender roles encountered structural limitations related to class position and racial discrimination in the workplace.Research limitations – This study is limited to the perspectives of Black and White women living in the Atlanta, GA metropolitan area. Future research should look further at how socialization that gives men greater power than women affects intimate relationships while taking into account how the experiences of gender are influenced by other aspects of status, including class, race, and location.Originality/value – Findings from this study add to sociological knowledge of gender by conveying the intersectional nature of race, class, and gender in the family and by further illustrating the importance of applying theories of intersectionality to empirical research in this area.

Details

Notions of Family: Intersectional Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-535-7

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Ann Hergatt Huffman, Kristine J. Olson, Thomas C. O’Gara Jr and Eden B. King

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the part that gender roles play in fathers’ work-family experiences. The authors compared two models (gender role as a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the part that gender roles play in fathers’ work-family experiences. The authors compared two models (gender role as a correlate and as a moderator) and hypothesized that gender role beliefs play an important factor related to fathers’ experiences of work-family conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants completed an online survey that consisted of questions related to work and family experiences. The final sample consisted of 264 employed, married fathers.

Findings

Results showed a relationship between traditional gender role beliefs and number of hours spent at work and at home. Additionally, number of work hours was related to time-based work-to-family conflict, but not strain-based work-to-family conflict. The results supported the expectation that work hours mediate the relationship between a father's traditional gender role beliefs and time-based work-to-family conflict.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of this study include the use cross-sectional and self-report data. Future research might want to expand the theoretical model to be more inclusive of fathers of more diverse demographic backgrounds, and assess the model with a longitudinal design.

Practical implications

A key theoretical implication gleaned from the study is that work-family researchers should include the socially constructed variable of gender roles in their work-family research. Findings provide support for the contention that organizations need to ensure that mothers’ and fathers’ unique needs are being met through family-friendly programs. The authors provide suggestions for specific workplace strategies.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies that focussed on fathers’ experiences of the work-family interface. The results clarify that traditional gender role beliefs give rise to fathers’ gendered behaviors and ultimately work-family conflict.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Kadri Raid and Kairi Kasearu

This paper aims to explore how couples reflect gender role–related attitudes in their family formation process and whether these processes could be described through the…

Abstract

This paper aims to explore how couples reflect gender role–related attitudes in their family formation process and whether these processes could be described through the lens of ambivalence. Using qualitative methods, semi-structured interviews with Estonian married and cohabiting couples were conducted (all together 24 interviewees). Analysis revealed themes of ambivalence toward gender roles among married and cohabiting couples. The present study could be classified as exploratory in identifying ambivalence, with open-ended and emergent analysis.

It is known that Estonians have adopted Western values and their family behavior resembles that of Nordic countries. However, our interviews showed that on the level of the individual, gender role–related attitudes in relationships have remained traditional. The reason for this might lie in the rapid change of values that occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Western lifestyle was seen as an ideal, and copied in behavior before the actual family or gender role values could undergo the transformation needed to support egalitarian family values.

Our study reveals that the societal context of a rapid change in values and norms might create confusion and ambivalence in attitudes. Therefore, a high proportion of cohabiting couples might not be the product of egalitarian gender role–related attitudes but a product of ambivalent couple relations where the couple has not discussed thoroughly the vision and expectations they have for each other and their relationship.

Details

Intimate Relationships and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-610-5

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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Ujvala Rajadhyaksha

This study asks the following research question: does “city” context interact with gender and gender egalitarianism (GE) to impact the positive (WFPOS – work–family…

Abstract

Purpose

This study asks the following research question: does “city” context interact with gender and gender egalitarianism (GE) to impact the positive (WFPOS – work–family positive spillover) and negative (WFC - work-family conflict) aspects of the work–family (WF) interface of working men and women in India.

Design/methodology/approach

MANCOVA analysis is used to examine data gathered from 250+ working men and women from eight different Indian cities that were ranked based on the 2018 Ease of Living (EOL) Index.

Findings

There was no significant main effect of gender on WF interface variables. Low levels of GE and low EOL were significantly associated with high levels of WFC and WFPOS. There was a significant interaction between gender, GE and city. An examination of within-gender differences indicated that in low-EOL cities, men and women with low values of GE (traditionals) had significantly higher time-based WFC than men and women with high values of GE (egalitarians). Additionally, traditional women reported higher WFPOS than egalitarian women. In high-EOL cities, traditional men reported significantly higher time-based WFC than egalitarian men. There were no significant differences between women.

Research limitations/implications

Gender, along with gender-related attitudinal and contextual variables, does a better job of explaining variance in the WF interface as compared to gender alone. Results support the notion that high WFPOS and high WFC can co-occur in contexts of change and transition such as rapidly growing urban centers.

Practical implications

The results have significance for work–family practitioners as well as urban city planners looking to improve the quality of work–life in India and other similar emerging market economies experiencing rapid urbanization.

Originality/value

The study extends work–family research by bringing aspects of urban planning and gender studies into an understanding of the work–family interface.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2014

Makiko Hori and Yoshinori Kamo

This study explores the interplay between macro- and micro-level predictors of psychological well-being related to work and family. We use nations as the context and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the interplay between macro- and micro-level predictors of psychological well-being related to work and family. We use nations as the context and investigate how country-level gender equalities and gender norms affect individual well-being and its relationship to micro-level predictors.

Design/methodology/approach

Social role explanations suggest that women’s vulnerability in mental health is due to socially assigned gender roles and gendered socialization. We utilize multi-level modeling and data from the International Social Survey Programme 2002, to examine how the societal level gender climate impacts the effects of gender roles on psychological well-being for married and employed men and women in 33 countries.

Findings

Gender differences in mental health remain, but larger differences are observed in less egalitarian countries regarding gender. Also, caring roles are negatively associated with women’s psychological well-being to a greater degree than men’s, and the negative impacts are stronger in more egalitarian countries. Furthermore, men show lower well-being regarding work responsibility, but the gender effects are weaker in more egalitarian countries.

Social implications

Our psychological well-being is affected not only by the actual role behaviors but also by how we each perceive these roles.

Originality/value

This study provides a broader picture of the relationship between gender and psychological well-being related to work and family. It also illustrates complex relationships between macro-level gender climate and individual-level psychological well-being and how structural differences may impact individual outcomes.

Details

Family and Health: Evolving Needs, Responsibilities, and Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-126-8

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2007

Hans‐Joachim Wolfram, Gisela Mohr and Birgit Schyns

The paper aims to test the impact of gender‐relevant factors on professional respect for leaders.

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5302

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to test the impact of gender‐relevant factors on professional respect for leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

Three determinants were analysed: gender constellation (gender match) between leaders and followers, gender‐stereotypic leadership behaviour, and followers' gender role attitudes. A field study with N1=121 followers and their N2=81 direct leaders from 34 German organisations was conducted. Leaders were on the lowest level of hierarchy.

Findings

The data showed that female leaders are at risk of receiving less professional respect from their followers than male leaders: male followers of female leaders had less professional respect than female followers of male leaders. Moreover, gender role discrepant female leaders (i.e. autocratic) got less respect than gender role discrepant male leaders (i.e. democratic). But no difference was found with regard to gender role congruent female (i.e. democratic) and male (i.e. autocratic) leaders. Finally, followers with traditional gender role attitudes were prone to have comparatively little professional respect for female leaders.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should analyse gender‐relevant factors that influence the granting of professional respect and systematically compare these effects across branches. Furthermore, it would be interesting to see whether followers evaluate leaders from higher levels of hierarchy in the same way as our respondents did.

Practical implications

In order to promote women in leadership positions, followers' prejudices against female leaders should be reduced.

Originality/value

Field studies about the evaluation of female and male leaders explicitly considering their followers' gender role attitudes are rare. The results reflect that sexism is well and alive.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Pamela L. Alreck

Gendering a product or brand means associating its image with a sex rolestereotype in the minds of consumers. Examines, using research, therequirements and prohibitions of…

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Abstract

Gendering a product or brand means associating its image with a sex role stereotype in the minds of consumers. Examines, using research, the requirements and prohibitions of contemporary masculine and feminine sex roles and the kinds of consumers who do and do not adhere to them. Provides ten specific recommendations for choosing a product or brand gendering strategy, based on target market demographics and the tendency for different groups to prefer gendered products or brands over those that are ungendered.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2020

Tuvana Rua, Zeynep Aytug, Nastaran Simarasl and Lianlian Lin

Based on the social role theory, role congruity theory and gender role conflict theory, this paper aims to investigate the mediating role of “relationship conflict” in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the social role theory, role congruity theory and gender role conflict theory, this paper aims to investigate the mediating role of “relationship conflict” in the association between traditional gender role (TGR) endorsement and objective and subjective negotiation outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experimental negotiation studies (n1 = 138, n2 = 128) were conducted at a US university.

Findings

This paper presents three original and noteworthy findings: One, in mixed-gender negotiations, as a dyad’s TGR endorsement increases, final agreements become significantly more likely to favor men than women. Two, in mixed-gender negotiations, TGR endorsement is significantly associated with a decreased ability to establish a pleasant, mutually satisfactory and successful business relationship, resulting in a possible future economic cost due to lost opportunity. Three, the heightened relationship conflict during the negotiation mediates the negative association between TGR endorsement and women’s economic outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Empirical findings support social role theory, role congruity theory and gender role conflict theory. The use of a distributive negotiation case and laboratory research methodology may limit the generalizability of findings.

Practical implications

Findings about the detrimental effects of TGR in mixed-gender negotiations magnify the importance of becoming aware of our TGR orientations and their potential negative consequences on our long-term collaborations. Also, it is necessary to provide negotiation trainings to both genders with regard to gender-driven conflicts and offer tools to prevent or tackle such conflicts.

Social implications

Negotiations are among the most consequential of social interactions as their results have a substantial impact on individuals’ careers and financial outcomes. Understanding the effect of TGRs is paramount to improve female representation, participation and effectiveness in management and leadership. Mixed-gender negotiations such as collective equality bargaining, workplace social interactions, work-life balance discourse are critical to establishing gender equality and fairness in organizations and societies.

Originality/value

Understanding how gender influences negotiation processes and outcomes and using the findings to improve both genders’ negotiation success are crucial to establishing fairness and equity in society and business. This research attempts to close a gap in the literature by focusing on the potential function of gender role orientation in explaining gender differences in negotiation.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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