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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Ivett Szalma and Judit Takács

We chose to analyse Hungarian childlessness in order to map whether there is any voluntary childlessness at all in a society which is characterised by strong traditional

Abstract

We chose to analyse Hungarian childlessness in order to map whether there is any voluntary childlessness at all in a society which is characterised by strong traditional family values and the widely accepted social norm that everyone should become a parent.

To answer to this question, we applied both quantitative and qualitative methods. First, we analysed the first three waves of the Hungarian panel survey ‘Turning Points of the Life Course’ conducted in 2001, 2004 and 2008. The focus is on men and women who were childless in 2001 and were still childless in 2008. To have a better understanding of the background of the quantitative results, we have also analysed 55 life-history interviews conducted with heterosexual men and women, who were recruited by using chain-referral sampling.

According to the qualitative findings the categorisation of childless people is quite fluid. For example, postponers became definitely childless while some originally voluntarily childless respondents became parents. However, the qualitative analysis allowed us to understand the mechanism behind this. In addition, using mixed methods also highlighted some inconsistencies between the qualitative and quantitative results.

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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2003

Sampson Lee Blair, Marilou C. Legazpi Blair and Anna B Madamba

Adolescents in their late teenage years are commonly faced with the difficulties of making important life decisions, such as whether to marry, whether to have children…

Abstract

Adolescents in their late teenage years are commonly faced with the difficulties of making important life decisions, such as whether to marry, whether to have children, and in particular, what type of occupation they wish to pursue. Researchers have often posited that such decisions are best understood as the end product of socialization within the individual’s specific learning environment (see Bronfenbrenner, 1994). Aspirations, particularly occupational goals, do not occur within a vacuum; rather, they will be affected by a variety of factors, such as gender (e.g. Davey, 1993; Mau & Bikos, 2000), race/ethnicity (Arbona & Novy, 1991; Marjoribanks, 1985), and social class (Weinger, 2000). In particular, there exists a need to better recognize and understand the familial context in which these decisions are made (see Marjoribanks, 1997). Researchers have addressed many of the potential predictors of adolescents’ aspirations, yet typically have focused on only one set of factors. This study will attempt to provide a more comprehensive understanding of adolescents’ occupational aspirations by focusing on how they are affected by the familial context, and how such effects vary by race/ethnicity and gender.

Details

Sociological Studies of Children and Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-180-4

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Book part
Publication date: 6 February 2013

Rashawn Ray and Pamela Braboy Jackson

Purpose – Utilizing the intersectionality framework, this study examines how a racially diverse group of adults aim to balance work–family life.Methodology/approach – This…

Abstract

Purpose – Utilizing the intersectionality framework, this study examines how a racially diverse group of adults aim to balance work–family life.Methodology/approach – This chapter uses qualitative data from the Intersections of Family, Work, and Health Study consisting of 132 black, white, and Mexican-American adults.Findings – We find that socioeconomic status and marriage provide social and economic capital to more easily fulfill role obligations. Individuals with more capital have more choices and are offered a chess board and a variety of pieces to facilitate the goal of creating work–family harmony. Individuals with less capital end up with less job flexibility and play checkers through rigid concrete roles because work decisions are in the hands of their employers instead of their own.Social implications – This chapter sheds light on the influence of high social status and the ability some individuals have to maximize both job flexibility and autonomy in managing work–family life. As we show here, married middle-class whites are able to manage work–family life better than professional black single mothers and working class Mexican Americans by having the ability to choose to play checkers or chess.Originality/value of chapter – We argue that the concept of “balancing” does little to express the ways individuals negotiate the constraints of work and family. By using an intersectionality perspective, we show that conceptualizing work–family life as “checkers or chess” games allow for the cognitive process of decision making (in terms of, for example, time pressures and perceived role demands) to be assessed more efficiently across work–family domains.

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Notions of Family: Intersectional Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-535-7

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Abstract

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Voluntary and Involuntary Childlessness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-362-1

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Charlotte M. Karam and Fida Afiouni

The purpose of this paper is to explore how public (i.e. culture, state, paid work) and private (i.e. household) patriarchal structures work to shape a woman’s own…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how public (i.e. culture, state, paid work) and private (i.e. household) patriarchal structures work to shape a woman’s own legitimacy judgments concerning not engaging in paid work. The authors trace the intersection and interaction of legitimacy logics at both the collective (i.e. validity) and individual (i.e. propriety) levels, thereby gaining a better contextual understanding of each woman’s perception of career opportunities and limitations.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative methodology drawing from 35 semi-structured interviews with Lebanese women. A multilevel analytic framework combining the institutional structures of private and public patriarchy with the micro-processes of institutional logics is used.

Findings

Legitimization of (not) engaging in paid work is often tied to patriarchal logics that favor private sphere responsibilities for women, particularly related to the relational and instrumental logics of childrearing and husband-oriented responsibilities. Women’s legitimacy judgment formation seems to be based on multilevel cues and on differential instances of evaluative vs passive judgment formation. Some appear to passively assume the legitimacy of the logics; while others more actively question these logics. The findings suggest that active questioning is often overwhelmed by the negative and harsh realities making the woman succumb to passivity and choosing not to engage in paid work.

Originality/value

This study provides: a better mapping of the individual woman’s daily cognitions concerning the legitimacy of (not) engaging in paid work; and a unique multilevel analytic framework that can serve as a useful example of contextualizing career research.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Abstract

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 6 May 2016

The Orthodox Church and Russian politics.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB210954

ISSN: 2633-304X

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Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Martina Mysíková

The purpose of this paper is to focus on earnings inequality within dual-earner couples in four Central-East European (CEE) countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on earnings inequality within dual-earner couples in four Central-East European (CEE) countries: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia. It aims to analyse the factors that influence earnings distribution within couples.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis uses OLS regression applied on the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions 2011 survey to reveal the various influence of relevant factors, especially relative education and the presence of children, on relative earnings.

Findings

Women, on average, contribute less to a couple’s income than men. While considerably higher in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, such disparity is relatively low in Hungary and Poland. These countries have the highest share of dual-earner couples where the woman outearns her partner. The factor that substantially reduces the within-couple earnings inequality in all the analysed countries is a higher relative education of women. On the contrary, the presence of children, especially those of younger age, increases this disparity in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Originality/value

The research on within-couple earning inequality in CEE countries lags behind the relatively rich evidence from western Europe. This is the first study which systematically describes the situation in CEE countries from a comparative perspective.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Qurat Ul Ain, Xianghui Yuan and Hafiz Mustansar Javaid

This study investigates the impact of board gender diversity and foreign ownership on innovation in Chinese firms.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the impact of board gender diversity and foreign ownership on innovation in Chinese firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use data for Chinese manufacturing firms listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges, for a sample over the period 2008–2017. Ordinary least square (OLS) is used as the baseline methodology, with cluster OLS, two-stage Heckman test, Blau index and Shannon index used to address endogeneity issues.

Findings

The results show that gender diversity on the board has a positive effect on corporate innovation as measured by the total number of patent applications, invention patent applications, utility model patent applications and design patent applications. Our findings also provide support for the critical mass participation of female directors on the board being associated with more innovation. They also reveal that innovation output does not vary across state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non-SOEs. These outcomes reveal that SOEs' advantages, such as easy access to funding and more support of government, are likely offset by their disadvantages, such as different goals and having more agency issues. Because of intense political power and networks in Chinese firms, qualified foreign institutional investors (QFIIs) are less motivated to enhance innovation activities.

Practical implications

This study highlights the role of board gender diversity in enhancing innovation among Chinese manufacturing firms. Our findings provide support for regulatory bodies' role regarding women's participation on the board.

Originality/value

This research adds to literature by addressing the largely ignored questions of whether providing a gender-diverse board enhances innovation, whether critical mass participation has a greater effect on improving firm innovation and whether the influence of women directors varies with ownership structure.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Deirdre O'Shea and Melrona Kirrane

The purpose of the paper is to focus on personal and social background factors as potential channels for the transmission of work related attitudes in young adults. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to focus on personal and social background factors as potential channels for the transmission of work related attitudes in young adults. The paper aims to examine the extent to which gender, parental job type, job status, and education, as well as school experience, influence the development of attitudes towards work and family life.

Design/methodology/approach

The study comprised a quantitative (questionnaire based) survey with a sample of 782 final year undergraduate students attending various third level institutions in Ireland and the USA.

Findings

The results indicated that individuals who had grown up in traditional mixed families had more positive attitudes towards balancing work and home roles than did those who had grown up in traditional single earner families. Father's educational level also emerged as a significant factor in the career‐family attitudes of the participants.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this research indicate that young people have developed attitudes towards managing the work/family interface on entering the workforce, which they acquire through a social learning process. Limitations included the cross‐sectional nature of the design and future longitudinal research is needed.

Practical implications

Organizations and managers need to be aware of the well‐developed attitudes of new entrants in order to address early issues of psychological contract and person‐organizational fit, which have an impact on career success and career management.

Originality/value

The findings of the paper break new ground on the role of social learning on the formation of attitudes towards managing the work‐family interface. Such attitudes proceed to inform behavioral patterns and decisions in the harmonious management of the two domains.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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