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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2020

Göran Svensson and Carmen Padin

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of spinoffs and tradeoffs in business-driven sustainable development in the marketplace based on environmental, economic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of spinoffs and tradeoffs in business-driven sustainable development in the marketplace based on environmental, economic and social constituents. It is based on the insights gathered from a company’s business-driven sustainable development. It can therefore be used as a teaching case.

Design/methodology/approach

An inductive approach based on case study methodology is applied to describe a company’s spinoffs and tradeoffs of business-driven sustainable development in the marketplace.

Findings

The study reports how raw material residuals can be recycled and reused in spinoff processes, and tradeoffs done, to optimize the outcome of business-driven sustainable development in the marketplace.

Research limitations/implications

The study reveals that spinoffs and tradeoffs between constituents and related sub-constituents enable to improve the ultimate outcome of business-driven sustainable development in the marketplace. The study also illustrates how environmental, social and economic constituents and related sub-constituents connect and reconnect to each other as a whole through spinoffs and tradeoffs, to optimize business-driven sustainable development in marketplace.

Practical implications

Business-driven sustainable development requires corporate considerations to connect and reconnect the economic, social and environmental constituents and related sub-constituents. It illustrates the pioneering actions of combining existing solutions of business sustainability in conjunction and gaining synergy effects to optimize business-driven sustainable development.

Originality/value

Contribution is based on the actions of combining existing solutions of business sustainability in conjunction and gaining synergy effects to optimize business-driven sustainable development. This study also makes a contribution illustrating a framework based on a company’s business-driven sustainable development fostering CO2 neutrality and fossil-free fuel in the food and agricultural industries. In addition, it makes a contribution illustrating how raw material residuals are recycled and reused in spinoff processes, so as to optimize the business-driven sustainable development. Furthermore, it makes a contribution illustrating that business-driven sustainable development in the marketplace is neither simplistic nor straightforward, but requires that tradeoffs between constituents and related sub-constituents be made to optimize the ultimate outcome.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2009

Syed H. Akhter

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the perception of price‐value tradeoff is related to overall satisfaction, purchase intention, word‐of‐mouth advertising, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the perception of price‐value tradeoff is related to overall satisfaction, purchase intention, word‐of‐mouth advertising, and actual repurchase behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on subscribers and single ticket buyers of a major symphony orchestra in the Midwest are used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The ANOVA results show significant differences across the three levels of price‐value tradeoff in each of the response variables. Additional analyses of cross‐tabulated data show that some of the bivariate relations conform to, as well as depart from, the rational consumer behavior model.

Research limitations/implications

Although the hypotheses are supported, bivariate relations examined in this study can mask or overstate true relations due to the omitted variables bias. Future research can explore reasons for favorable behaviors of consumers whose perception is that the value they receive is overpriced, and also for unfavorable behaviors of consumers whose perception is that the value they received is under‐priced.

Practical implications

The different niches at the edges provide opportunities for marketers to fine‐tune segmentation and marketing mix strategies. The use of standardized strategies for these niches with different perception and behavior linkages will yield suboptimal results.

Originality/value

While previous research has mostly focused on price‐quality linkages, this study extends the body of research by examining the perception of price‐value tradeoff and its relation to overall satisfaction, purchase intention, word‐of‐mouth advertising, and actual repurchase behavior. This adds to our understanding of post consumption behavior, showing how consumers respond to the perception of price‐value tradeoff.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2007

Rongrong Zhang and Yoshio Kanazaki

The purpose of this paper is to test static tradeoff against pecking order models of capital structure in Japanese firms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test static tradeoff against pecking order models of capital structure in Japanese firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The static tradeoff and pecking order models are tested on a sample of 1,325 non‐financial Japanese firms between 2002 and 2006.

Findings

Empirical results prove that both models can explain some part of the capital structure. The static tradeoff model shows that firm leverage is affected by several determinants, and the pecking order model displays similar movements between net debt retired and financial surplus. However, both models have shortcomings. The static tradeoff model fails to explain the negative correlation between profitability and firm leverage, and the pecking order model fails to explain the low deficit coefficient.

Originality/value

The paper, because of the inconsistent results in prior studies, tests static tradeoff against pecking order models, with the data of Japanese firms.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Alex Mintz and Randolph T. Stevenson

The literature on defense-welfare tradeoffs has not been characterized by an emphasis on theory development. Indeed, most work has concentrated on using increasingly…

Abstract

The literature on defense-welfare tradeoffs has not been characterized by an emphasis on theory development. Indeed, most work has concentrated on using increasingly sophisticated statistical techniques to isolate empirical relationships in spending data on various countries. Unfortunately, however, this empirical enterprise has proven inconclusive, with some studies finding trade-offs and others not. In this paper, we suggest that a greater focus on theory development may help to resolve some of the empirical conflicts in this literature. In particular, we argue that there are at least two substantial bodies of theoretical work available that, while relevant to guns-butter questions, have remained to a large extent unexploited. One conclusion that we draw from this exercise is that the discussion of tradeoffs should probably move away form its current focus on primarily direct exchanges between spending on guns and butter, and instead begin to explore more indirect links which are acting through the economy.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Gabriella Gatenholm, Árni Halldórsson and Jenny Bäckstrand

The purpose of this paper is to identify requirements and tradeoffs on logistics services for enhanced circularity of materials and resources.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify requirements and tradeoffs on logistics services for enhanced circularity of materials and resources.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on multiple case study design and abductive reasoning, the study investigates 13 different product categories. The data were analyzed based on theoretical, a priori codes from the literature review. Inductive, emerging codes were added to the coding scheme during the analysis.

Findings

Requirements of logistics services to support slowing of resource flows are categorized with respect to initiator, location of the service, single or multiple actors, and transportation of parts, products and people. Moreover, the study identifies new logistics tradeoffs: material and people, knowledge and people, and information and knowledge. Transportation of product, people and parts can be reduced by increasing local knowledge and improve information sharing.

Research limitations/implications

This review contributes to the understanding of the relationship between logistics services and enhancement of circularity by highlighting requirements on logistics services in the aftermarket supply chain that support slowing of resource flows. To enhance circularity, logistics services must extend the traditional material information flow with the flow of people and knowledge, respectively.

Practical implications

The categorization provides practitioners and researchers with an overview of requirements and tradeoffs on logistics services to enhance circularity of a particular circular cycle. The implications will provide an opportunity to address environmental impact of transportation and improve the utilization of scarce materials.

Social implications

Variety of tradeoffs in logistics services can enhance slowing and hence circularity of scarce materials.

Originality/value

First, the authors illustrate how traditional tradeoffs in logistics such as flow of materials, resources and people need to be addressed to enhance circularity through slowing. Second, the authors identify two new tradeoffs in logistics services: knowledge flow and degree of customer involvement.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Daniel T. Hall

Purpose – We investigate the outcomes of public sector charity provision, which relies on income redistribution. Increasing the level of redistribution can result in an…

Abstract

Purpose – We investigate the outcomes of public sector charity provision, which relies on income redistribution. Increasing the level of redistribution can result in an efficiency-equality tradeoff. We investigate whether the efficiency-equality tradeoff can be explained by lowered work incentives.

Methodology – The chapter uses the methodology of laboratory experiments. We remove the administration costs of redistribution to see if a significant source of the tradeoff can be explained by lower work incentives.

Findings – We find a significant efficiency-equality tradeoff between low- and high-tax groups explained by lowered work incentives. Labor supply decisions are motivated by strategic and cooperative preferences which vary the size of the tradeoff.

Limitations – Our analysis is limited to measuring the size and distribution of labor income. We discuss avenues such as allowing for crowding out and volunteerism, to further explore the impact of public sector charity provision.

Practical and social implications – Charity can be provided by the public, private, and independent sector. The public sector must redistribute income to provide charity, which leads to an efficiency-equality tradeoff. This calls for a reconsideration of increasing dependence on public sector charity provision.

Originality – The efficiency-equality tradeoff traditionally focuses on the labor supply response to taxation. We allow subjects to respond to how their taxes are being used as well. Subjects are also given feedback on whether they are net taxpayers into redistribution or net recipients from it.

Details

Charity with Choice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-768-4

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Michael T. Dugan, Simon K. Medcalfe and Sang Hyun Park

This paper aims to attempt to perform a test of the operating leverage-financial leverage tradeoff hypothesis that is more methodologically consistent with the logical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to attempt to perform a test of the operating leverage-financial leverage tradeoff hypothesis that is more methodologically consistent with the logical framing of the hypothesis appearing in the Mandelker and Rhee (1984) paper.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a sample of firms from the manufacturing industry to estimate their degree of operating leverage and degree of financial leverage coefficients. The switching regression methodology is then used to perform the empirical test of the tradeoff hypothesis.

Findings

The results suggest that firms tradeoff their operating and financial leverage during good economic times, but do not engage in the tradeoff behavior during recessionary times.

Originality/value

This paper refines the empirical testing of the tradeoff hypothesis using the innovative switching regression methodology. The paper also has important implications for the impact of firms’ risk on the capital markets as well as the economy as a whole, and for academic researchers in financial economics examining the relationships between operating and financial leverage and various firm-specific variables.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Eric P. Jack, Tom A. Bedics and Charles E. McCary

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to examine key operational tradeoffs and challenges that call center managers face.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to examine key operational tradeoffs and challenges that call center managers face.

Design/methodology/approach

To support the concepts advanced in this paper, an embedded case study is used from an inbound call center for a regional wireless phone company that operates in the USA. The research involved: a review of available service quality and call center management literature; development of a resource‐based framework to understand key operational tradeoffs; use of a case study approach with structured interviews of key managers and employees; and synthesis of this data in order to understand why and how these managers made key operational tradeoff decisions. The case study was done on an inbound customer service call center for a regional wireless phone company that operates in the Southeastern USA.

Findings

This research suggests that there are four key resource management decisions that must be addressed in order to improve service quality and effectively manage call center operations: the efficient deployment and use of labor, effective leveraging of technology, capacity management, and demand management.

Research limitations/implications

The use of a single case approach limits the generalizability of results; however, this methodology is effective in providing rich data and a research framework to both build theory and advance future research in this arena.

Practical implications

It is noteworthy that while technology, capacity management, and demand management systems are essential, labor remains a key differentiator in achieving high service quality. A call center must provide dependable service with knowledgeable, honest, polite and empathetic employees who can efficiently answer customers' questions while also promoting more products and services to improve profitability.

Originality/value

While this research is primarily conceptual, it also uses a case study to explain why and how managers make key tradeoffs in order to compete effectively on service quality in the call center industry.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2015

Menggen Chen

The purpose of this paper is to pay more attention to four different research questions at least. One is that this study intends to explore the changes of the risk-return…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to pay more attention to four different research questions at least. One is that this study intends to explore the changes of the risk-return relationship over time, because the institutions and environment have changed a lot and might tend to influence the risk-return regime in the Chinese stock markets. The second question is whether there is any difference for the risk-return relationship between Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets. The third question is to compare the similarities and dissimilarities of the risk-return tradeoff for different frequency data. The fourth question is to compare the explanation power of different GARCH-M type models which are all widely used in exploring the risk-return tradeoff.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates the risk-return tradeoff in the Chinese emerging stock markets with a sample including daily, weekly and monthly market return series. A group of variant specifications of GARCH-M type models are used to test the risk-return tradeoff. Additionally, some diagnostic checks proposed by Engle and Ng (1993) are used in this paper, and this will help to assess the robustness of different models.

Findings

The empirical results show that the dynamic risk-return relationship is quite different between Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets. A positive and statistically significant risk-return relationship is found for the daily returns in Shenzhen Stock Exchange, while the conditional mean of the stock returns is negatively related to the conditional variance in Shanghai Stock Exchange. The risk-return relationship usually becomes much weaker for the lower frequency returns in both markets. A further study with the sub-samples finds a positive and significant risk-return trade-off for both markets in the second stage after July 1, 1999.

Originality/value

This paper extends the existing related researches about the Chinese stock markets in several ways. First, this study uses a longer sample to investigate the relationship between stock returns and volatility. Second, this study estimates the returns and volatility relationship with different frequency sample data together. Third, a group of variant specifications of GARCH-M type models are used to test the risk-return tradeoff. In particular, the author employs the Component GARCH-M model which is relatively new in this line of research. Fourth, this study investigates if there is any structural break affecting the risk-return relationship in the Chinese stock markets over time.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2007

K. Sivakumar

This paper aims to offer an alternative explanation for asymmetric quality‐tier competition.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to offer an alternative explanation for asymmetric quality‐tier competition.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework based on quality‐price tradeoff is used in the study to derive research hypotheses and scanner panel data are used for empirical validation.

Findings

The paper finds that the concept of tradeoffs offers a simple explanation for asymmetric competition in favor of high quality brands; as the quality differential increases, asymmetry increases; as the price differential increases, the asymmetry decreases.

Practical implications

The framework and findings can inform pricing strategies for brands in different quality tiers.

Originality/value

The paper offers an alternative explanation for asymmetric competition.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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