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Publication date: 19 June 2019

Muhammad Mohsin Hakeem and Ken-ichi Suzuki

The trade agreements among major trading countries can open new prospects of development and growth for global economy. The policy changes by a major trading country can…

Abstract

The trade agreements among major trading countries can open new prospects of development and growth for global economy. The policy changes by a major trading country can alter the global trade and connection patterns. The trade agreement known as Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) was between 12 “Pacific-rim” countries signed earlier in 2016 indicates an upcoming and major policy change for global economy (presidential memorandum to withdraw the United States from TPP was signed in January 2017). The agreement would influence the issues related to “economic growth, employment, innovation, productivity, and competitiveness” of every partner and linked economy. This study illustrates how Asia Pacific’s major countries are interlinked with each other, the important sectors and the strength of connections. The level of interconnectedness might have been transformed within regional trade network because of varying global economic patterns and demand trends. The study focuses on the aspects related to agreement and reduction in tariffs that may change the global trading scenarios and appropriate position for region’s prominent and developing economies after implementation of the agreement.

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Prema‐chandra Athukorala and Shahbaz Nasir

The purpose of this paper is to examine patterns and determinants of trade among developing countries (South‐South trade), with emphasis on the role of production sharing…

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1359

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine patterns and determinants of trade among developing countries (South‐South trade), with emphasis on the role of production sharing in global economic integration of the Southern economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins with an analytical narrative of the emerging trends and patterns of South‐South trade using a classification system that helps delineating trade based on global production sharing (network trade) from total recorded trade. Then it undertakes a comparative econometric analysis of the determinants of South‐South and South‐North trade using the standard gravity model.

Findings

The share of South‐South trade in world trade has shown a significant increase over the past two decades. This increase has predominantly come from the dynamic East Asian countries, reflecting their growing engagement in global production sharing. The growth dynamism of East‐Asia centered production networks depends heavily on demand for final (assembled) goods in the Northern markets; South‐South trade is largely complementary to, rather than competing with, South‐North trade. While regional trading agreements (RTAs) could play a role at the margin, natural economic forces associated with growth and structural change in the economy and the overall macroeconomic climate as reflected in the real exchange rate, and the quality of trade related logistics are far more important in the expansion of South‐South network trade.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine patterns and determinants of South‐South trade paying attention to the role of global production sharing. The findings are valuable for informing the contemporary policy debate on promoting South‐South trade. The trade data classification system developed here is expected to help further research on this subject.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

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53627

Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2015

Nadège Measson and Colin Campbell-Hunt

By examining SMEs’ participation in trade fairs as a way to establish network relationships within a global value chain (GVC), the purpose of this paper is to offer one…

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1594

Abstract

Purpose

By examining SMEs’ participation in trade fairs as a way to establish network relationships within a global value chain (GVC), the purpose of this paper is to offer one example of the steps used to reach this goal.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a priori deductions derived from prior literature and case analysis of a purposive sample of six New Zealand SMEs to develop propositions on the use of trade fairs to enter a GVC network. The authors use the typology of GVC governance developed by Gereffi et al. (2005) to investigate how the use of trade fairs varies for each governance type.

Findings

The study concludes that international trade fairs offer great network-building possibilities for SMEs, as well as selling, promotion and information gathering benefits. Both theoretical argument and experiential evidence suggest that these benefits are contingent on the GVC’s governance type.

Originality/value

Although there is extensive work on the importance of networks to SME internationalisation, less has been done on the detailed steps used to build these networks.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2021

Pedro Mendonça Silva, Victor Ferreira Moutinho and Vera Teixeira Vale

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between product innovation and network and their export performance, particularly in trade fair context. Moreover…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between product innovation and network and their export performance, particularly in trade fair context. Moreover, this paper conducts a comparative study among services/industrial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and considers the home-country context. Innovation and internationalization are stagnant themes in the recent literature on trade fairs, so they require to be renewed.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical study includes a survey with 341 SMEs’ respondents separated into both industrial/producer and service/other. A conceptual model was developed and examined from three different perspectives: Model A encompasses all surveyed SMEs, Model B includes only industrial/producer SMEs and Model C comprises service/other SMEs. Data analysis happened in two steps. The first step included the structural equation model (SEM) and the assessment of hypotheses (from three different perspectives). Thus, it was possible to make a comparative analysis between the models. In the second step, the ordered logit model (OLM) is used to study relationships between control variables and the criteria variable export performance.

Findings

The SEM’s results confirm a conceptual model about a dynamic trajectory that SMEs, mainly industrial/producer, can take advantage of: innovate to networking and networking to export. The results allowed to verify when comparing services/industrial SMEs that the tangibility which characterizes the innovation of industrial SMEs' products contributed significantly to the performance of business networks and exports. The study also reveals, through the OLM, two catalysts for the success of the SME’s export performance: export experience and continued participation in trade fairs. The OLM results also reveal that the size of the companies is not relevant, so trade fairs are marketing tools accessible to any company, regardless of their size. Finally, the study considered home-country context of the surveyed SMEs, which allowed additional interpretations to be drawn.

Research limitations/implications

The study does not reflect the individual's personality in his network capacity and the export performance was measured based on the level of satisfaction and not on real sales results. However, the study provides relevant practical implications and can support future studies.

Practical implications

The study offers important implications for SME. The results reveal that presenting product innovations at trade fairs is a useful tool for SMEs to create networks, which facilitates their export performance, especially for industrial SMEs residing in small economies such as Portugal. This study is also relevant for business associations of industrial SMEs and/or public or semi-public SME promotion agencies.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature on trade fairs, suggesting a new innovation, networking, export (INE) framework to reflect on the participation in international trade fairs. So, this research especially combines product INE performance in a particular context – international trade fairs for SME. It also considers the home-country context of the SMEs, which adds depth to the study. Finally, the comparative study also provides insightful implications for industrial SMEs on how to improve the export performance from trade fairs by leveraging innovation and networking.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Andrew Alexander and Alex Nicholls

The paper aims to investigate the value of a network perspective in enhancing the understanding of the business to consumer marketing of high‐involvement product…

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8537

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the value of a network perspective in enhancing the understanding of the business to consumer marketing of high‐involvement product categories. This is achieved through the analysis of the development of fair trade marketing in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper addresses the research question through an analysis of relevant literatures from both marketing and other disciplinary areas. The paper is thus multidisciplinary in nature. Findings from a series of in depth, semi‐structured interviews with senior representatives of a fair trade wholesaler, of a specialist fair trade brand, of supermarket retailers involved with fair trade and of other fair trade labelling and support organisations are reported and discussed.

Findings

The relevance of an actor network theory (ANT) informed interpretation of the development of the fair trade marketing network is revealed. Its emphases on the processes of exchange and the role of human and non‐human actants in enabling interactions within the network are shown to be important. fair trade marketing is shown as occurring within an unfolding network of information exchanges. Analysis of this emerging network highlights a shift of emphasis in fair trade marketing from the fair trade process to fair trade products and, latterly, fair trade places.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the requirement for further conceptualisation of the business to consumer marketing of high‐involvement product categories, and reveals the potential of ANT as one approach to meet this need. The paper also provides a detailed insight into the development of fair trade marketing in the UK.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 40 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Sandra Seno-Alday

The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of regional macroeconomic risk by examining the trade networks formed by regional multinational enterprise (MNE…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of regional macroeconomic risk by examining the trade networks formed by regional multinational enterprise (MNE) activity at the aggregate level, and exploring the subsequent implications on the vulnerability of those networks to economic shocks.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws on contemporary developments in graph theory to revisit the nature and dynamics of complex trade networks in the Southeast Asian region from 1990 to 2012.

Findings

Findings indicate that the topology of the regional trade network has changed significantly in the period examined, in that it has become denser, more connected and more clustered. Analysis further indicates that disruptions to the trade network during periods of shock have exhibited decreasing levels of magnitude, pointing to greater robustness over time.

Research limitations/implications

The results show that intra-regional MNE activity has the effect of reducing risk in the region. If MNEs aim to reduce their risk exposure, they must first deepen their commitment to the regional market.

Originality/value

This paper enriches current understanding of the changing nature of regional risk, and represents one of the first efforts to examine international trade networks in light of recent developments in the understanding of networks beyond the conventional random graph.

Details

The Multinational Business Review, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Harriette Bettis-Outland, Roberto Mora Cortez and Wesley J. Johnston

This paper aims to evaluate the behavior of micro and macro business networks in a trade show context. The following questions are addressed: How do business networks

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the behavior of micro and macro business networks in a trade show context. The following questions are addressed: How do business networks impact organizational learning at trade shows? Can relational ties between networks influence organizational learning? Does trust play a role between different network types and organizational learning?

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework for this research is based on the broad spectrum of social exchange theory (Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005; Foa and Foa, 1974, 1980; Kelley and Thibault, 1978; Kelley, 1997). Social exchange theory has several different interpretations; one common view of this theory involves a series of interactions that result in obligations for the participating members (Emerson, 1976; Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005). This model extends the Levin and Cross (2004) model presented in their article, “strength of weak ties you can trust: the mediating role of trust in effective knowledge transfer”.

Findings

This paper is a review and synthesis of trade show, trust, organizational learning and business network literature. This conceptual paper concludes with eight propositions, which delve into connections between micro and macro networks, strong and weak ties in these networks and the effect on organizational learning. Trust is the mediating variable between networks and organizational learning. High levels of trust could change the learning approach (adaptive, generative or transformative) of the different networks.

Research limitations/implications

The propositions integrate extant research on trade shows and will guide future research regarding the relationship between types of business networks, trust and organizational learning.

Practical implications

This conceptual paper looks at trade shows from a network perspective; specifically, how do trade show networks impact organizational learning. Trade show participation results in different approaches to organizational learning, which can be modified based on the level of trust that exists between network members. Trade show participation enables both adaptive and generative learning. However, atypical interactions between business networks occasionally produce transformative learning.

Originality/value

This conceptual paper offers an innovative approach to trade show research by analyzing the relationship between trade shows and organizational learning from a network perspective, using trust as the mediating variable.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Andreja Zivkovic and John Hogan

This paper aims to examine the significance of information communication technology (ICT) for Balkan labour. Drawing on the heuristic of “distributed discourse”, this…

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1004

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the significance of information communication technology (ICT) for Balkan labour. Drawing on the heuristic of “distributed discourse”, this paper aims to explore virtual forms of communication and interaction. The paper aims to examine the privileged role of ICT in the: formation of autonomous trade union structures and channels of communication; evasion of the territorial structures of the nation‐state and the construction of virtual communities of international labour solidarity; and authoritative transmission of models of industrial relations practice and of capitalist modernity in virtual space.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted in‐depth interviews, followed up by further discussions, with officials and researchers from unions in the Balkan region. IR academics in Serbia and Montenegro were also consulted, as were union web sites and those of the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Serbia, Association of Free and Independent Trade Unions of Serbia. The purpose of the dialogue was to build an empirically grounded framework for understanding the limits and possibilities presented by the new distributed communications technologies of the internet for labour in the era of globalisation. This article provides qualitative data to allow reflection on the possibilities inherent in ICT for the reinvigoration of trade unionism and labour mobilisation in this era of rampant neoliberalism, particularly in the area of trade union democratisation and accountability.

Findings

The article finds that key figures within the Balkan labour movement are conversant with the potential of ICTs. It is also apparent that the construction of cyber‐unionism at the official level is subject to the authoritative force of neo‐liberal imperial governance. However, this is a regime of policing that is indexed and auditable through the very distributed communication technologies which can affect forms of meta‐governance beyond the control of institutions.

Research limitations/implications

The findings, based on the interrogation of qualitative data are provisional hypotheses and an invitation to further research on the space‐time dimensions of trade unionism in the age of globalisation.

Practical implications

This paper highlights the situated character of ICT utilisation. While ICTs can be implicated in the reproduction of extant organisational forms and politics, this article provides the international labour movement with a viewpoint from which to build ICT strategies and appropriate organisational structures that recognise the limitations of centralised representation and control.

Originality/value

This paper represents fresh and contemporary data on the use of the internet by Balkan labour. By interrogating the qualitative data an invitation to further research on the space‐time dimensions of trade unionism in the age of globalisation is presented.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 1 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Miguel Martínez Lucio and Steve Walker

The article aims to look at the development of the internet in terms of its implications for the labour movement and its international activities.

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3144

Abstract

Purpose

The article aims to look at the development of the internet in terms of its implications for the labour movement and its international activities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper brings together conclusions and findings based on the previous work of the two individual authors who have studied the role of the internet from a national and international perspective, using a range of methodologies.

Findings

The impact of the internet in terms of facilitating communication and renewal strategies has been highly significant. However, the authors argue that such developments are also mediated by trade union structures and organisational traditions/ideologies at the national level where there is still a considerable degree of variety. It also looks and focuses on some of the challenges of international labour co‐ordination through the use of the internet, noting some of the difficulties faced by trade unionists. The paper therefore brings together insights into the way organisations such as trade unions interact with such developments both at the national and international level.

Originality/value

The article emphasises the need to develop a political and sociological understanding of the internet within industrial relations and in terms of future research.

Details

Critical perspectives on international business, vol. 1 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

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