This article describes the development of a measure of role conflict. Role conflict was conceptualized as consisting of four dimensions: intrasender, intersender, interrotle, and person‐role conflict respectively. Study 1 (N = 65), which was conducted to pilot test the 96 item questionnaire (reduced from 224 items after expert rating), resulted in the reduction of the questionnaire to 43 items with three interpretable dimensions. Study 2 (N = 100) was carried out to examine the construct validity of the scale and confirm the factor structure. There was convergence with the findings of Study 1. Cronbach alpha for each subscale was adequate, and evidence of concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validities was found. Study 3 (N = 242) attempted to provide some normative data for the measure, in addition to carrying out a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using LISREL. The findings of Study 2 were almost duplicated, and the CFA results lent greater support to a three‐factor structure of role conflict.
The main aim of this paper is to describe the content, structure and preliminary evaluation of a new Good Lives sexual offender treatment group (SOTG) for male mentally…
The main aim of this paper is to describe the content, structure and preliminary evaluation of a new Good Lives sexual offender treatment group (SOTG) for male mentally disordered offenders.
As evaluation and work on the SOTG is necessarily ongoing, case study descriptions of each patient who attended the SOTG and of their progress throughout SOTG are described.
Overall, the case study progress reports suggest that mentally disordered male patients made some notable progress on SOTG despite their differential and complex needs. In particular, attention to each patient's life goals and motivators appeared to play a key role in promoting treatment engagement. Furthermore, patients with lower intelligence quotient and/or indirect pathways required additional support to understand the links between the Good Lives Model (GLM) and their own risk for sexual offending.
Further evaluations of SOTG groups, that incorporate higher numbers of participants and adequate control groups, are required before solid conclusions and generalisations can be made.
Practitioners should consider providing additional support to clients when implementing any future SOTGs for mentally disordered patients.
This is the first paper to outline and describe implementation of the GLM in the sexual offender treatment of mentally disordered male patients group format. As such, it will be of interest to any professionals involved in the facilitation of sexual offender treatment within this population.
One of the arguments used against British entry to the EEC was the loss of sovereignty; that Parliament would not be able to fully control all the statutory measures which would be applied to the people. EEC regulations apply without implementation by national governments, but since member‐states, through their representatives on Council and Commission, have participated, it is considered that national governments have in effect enacted them. EEC Directives as the name implies requires national governments to apply the provisions of the EEC measure; transitional exemptions up to five years are usually included for individual provisions, where internal adjustment is required. MAFF food regulations, implementing EEC Directives, have been made after this pattern for a number of food additives. The statutory measures are unlikely to present any greater difficulties than usual, but in interpretation, courts in this country have to consider EEC law above that of English and Scottish courts. The Court at Luxemburg exists mainly for interpretation, but courts and litigants have been advised against reference owing to the lengthy delays and the high court or court of sessions should make is interpretation based on EEC law.
The treatment of substance use amongst mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) remains a challenge for secure forensic mental health services. The purpose of this paper is to…
The treatment of substance use amongst mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) remains a challenge for secure forensic mental health services. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrated three-stage substance use treatment programme (SUTP) for male and female MDO’s in medium security.
In total, 45 (72.6 per cent) MDO’s were referred (39 males/6 females). Standardised outcome measures were administered pre-SUTP, post-SUTP and at one year follow-up. Abstinence rates and location was determined via case notes at three year follow-up.
All MDO’s had a past history of substance use, approximately three-quarters reporting problematic use prior to admission. Over half completed all three SUTP stages, less than 5 per cent dropping out during active treatment. The SUTP supported abstinence throughout the one year follow-up period and significantly improved MDO’s adaptive beliefs about substances and craving by one year follow-up amongst attendees. At three years, most MDO’s were in the community and almost three-quarters were abstinent. There was no significant difference in abstinent rates between community and hospital. There was a non-significant trend suggesting SUTP attendance supported abstinence. Both male and female participants appear to have benefited from treatment and satisfaction was high, reflecting the specific aims and objectives of treatment.
The small non-randomised sample from one area limits the generalisability of findings and statistical power.
Findings indicate further support for the limited evidence base that small but clinically meaningful and maintained changes to problematic substance use are possible following integrated substance use treatment for male and female MDO’s.
The central issue in the case is opportunity identification and decision making. While the literature on direct selling is limited, much has been written about ideation…
The central issue in the case is opportunity identification and decision making. While the literature on direct selling is limited, much has been written about ideation, effectuation, causality and opportunity identification and assessment. Scholars of entrepreneurship debate whether entrepreneurial opportunities are identified and assessed primarily through effectuation or causation.
This case is based upon a combination of interviews with the protagonist, her staff and secondary research.
This case explores the opportunity identification, assessment and decision making of an energetic, African American, female founder and CEO in the rarely-researched direct selling channel. Dr Traci Lynn Burton founded her company at 24 with an investment of $200. In 2008, in its second incarnation, Traci Lynn Jewelry became a direct selling company and has taken bold steps. By 2018, the company was a direct selling leader and was preparing to launch a new product line. The case supports undergraduate students in understanding effectuation and causation, opportunity identification and assessment, and direct selling.
Complexity academic level
This case is primarily for upper division undergraduates. It is suitable for courses in entrepreneurial strategy, entrepreneurial marketing, general entrepreneurship emphasizing opportunity identification, opportunity assessment and/or effectuation.
Display rules are formal and informal norms that regulate the expression of workplace emotion. Organizations impose display rules to meet at least three objectives: please…
Display rules are formal and informal norms that regulate the expression of workplace emotion. Organizations impose display rules to meet at least three objectives: please customers, maintain internal harmony, and promote employee well-being. Despite these valid intentions, display rules can engender emotional labor, a potentially deleterious phenomenon. We review three mechanisms by which emotional labor can create worker alienation, burnout, stress, and low performance. Though not as widely discussed, emotional labor sometimes has propitious consequences. We discuss the potential benefits of emotional labor as well.
The aim of this chapter is to define and explore the group of emotions known as self-conscious emotions. The state of the knowledge on guilt, shame, pride, and…
The aim of this chapter is to define and explore the group of emotions known as self-conscious emotions. The state of the knowledge on guilt, shame, pride, and embarrassment is reviewed, with particular attention paid to research on these four self-conscious emotions in work and organizational settings. Surprisingly little research on self-conscious emotions comes from researchers interested in occupational stress and well-being, yet these emotions are commonly experienced and may be a reaction to or even a source of stress. They may also impact behaviors and attitudes that affect stress and well-being. I conclude the review with a call for more research on these emotions as related to stress and well-being, offering some suggestions for areas of focus.
This study aims to investigate how comparing physical aspects of the self to fashion models in mass-mediated images result in body dissatisfaction and what mechanisms…
This study aims to investigate how comparing physical aspects of the self to fashion models in mass-mediated images result in body dissatisfaction and what mechanisms could be used to interrupt the potentially harmful emotional and motivational outcomes of such evaluations.
Two experimental design studies are conducted in which objective self-awareness (OSA; self-focus) is manipulated. In the first study, participants are assigned to control vs relevant vs irrelevant standards of appearance, and in the second study, all participants receive relevant standards of appearance and are randomly primed to experience pride or shame.
Focusing on the physical aspect of the self (i.e. state of OSA) and having access to relevant standards of appearance such as viewing images of beautiful fashion models (vs irrelevant standards of appearance such as images of plants) initiate the process of self-standard evaluation that may lead to body image state dissatisfaction (BISDS). Negative emotions mediate the relationship between BISDS and motivations to pursue cosmetic procedures. Pride and shame are two important self-conscious emotions that differently influence these relationships.
The present research identifies how pride could act as a self-affirming factor to intervene the undesirable outcomes of body image dissatisfaction and discourage unnecessary cosmetic procedures. Pride diminishes the motivation to undergo cosmetic procedures by shifting the focus from pursuing unachievable standards of appearance to pride-inducing achievements and self-affirming positive qualities. Shame, however, keeps individuals focused on discrepancies and lowers their ability to think of substitute goals, resulting in enhanced motivations for cosmetic procedures.
In King Henry VIII, Cardinal Wolsey, in his final speech of expiation, urges Cromwell to act honourably, arguing: ‘corruption wins not more than honesty’. Hopefully, the…
In King Henry VIII, Cardinal Wolsey, in his final speech of expiation, urges Cromwell to act honourably, arguing: ‘corruption wins not more than honesty’. Hopefully, the radical nature of this sentiment did not cause the historic burning of the Globe Theatre during the inaugural performances of the play. Just as Wolsey's recantation of his past sins and practices came a little too late with much too little, so American and, especially, international anti‐corruption efforts have been either nonexistent or, at the least, largely admonitory.