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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Kenneth S. Rhee and Tracey H. Sigler

– The purpose of this study is to empirically explore the perceptions of leader effectiveness and preference on gender and leadership style.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically explore the perceptions of leader effectiveness and preference on gender and leadership style.

Design/methodology/approach

The interaction between authoritarian and participative leadership style and gender roles was examined for effectiveness and preference using video samples of dramatized leaders.

Findings

The results showed that although subjects found participatory leaders to be more effective and also preferred such a style over authoritarian leaders, male leaders were rated to be more effective and more preferred over female leaders. Women leaders who go against their gender stereotype were perceived as even less effective and less preferred than male leaders who exhibited the same style that was identified as a more masculine style.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that women leaders continue to face challenges overcoming both sexual bias and stereotypes. Women leaders, regardless of style, face an uphill battle in terms of perceptions of effectiveness and preference regardless of who their followers might be. In addition, women leaders who go against the typical gender stereotype might be penalized even more.

Practical implications

Despite making progress on gender equity, the study demonstrated the continuing existence of sexual stereotyping and bias in people’s perceptions, even with “younger” subjects. Thus, we need to maintain our focus on actively changing the rules of the workplace (e.g. a recent Harvard Business School experiment) and changing the status quo. Until we level the playing field, we need to continue to play an active role in creating an organizational culture and shaping an environment that is fair and equitable.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the current status of gender bias and stereotyping using an innovative methodology of video case studies. The results also highlight the persistence of gender bias and stereotype even in a “neutral” setting with the younger subjects. In addition, the paper empirically demonstrates the double standards women often face in the workplace. Women leaders have often been expected to demonstrate more masculine traits at workplace (as exhibited by the authoritarian style), but when they do, they are penalized for acting out of their gender role.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Kenneth S. Rhee and Tracey Honeycutt Sigler

Motivation theory in the 20th century has evolved to meet the changing social, political, and economic environment. The purpose of this paper is to examine the developmental path…

Abstract

Motivation theory in the 20th century has evolved to meet the changing social, political, and economic environment. The purpose of this paper is to examine the developmental path of modern motivation theory from the perspective of the Tao and the cyclical nature of Yin and Yang. We review motivation theory from the Industrial Revolution to the present. The developmental path during the past 100 years consists of seven distinct stages, each stage representing a significant shift in theory as well as a shift in the social, political, and economic environment in the United States. The dominant theme that emerges from the analysis is the discourse between science and humanity, and the revolving cycle of these fundamental theories throughout the century.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Article
Publication date: 15 April 2020

Kenneth S. Rhee and Tracey Honeycutt Sigler

What would a graduate program look like if its purpose was to create transformational leaders? How and what would we teach? How and what would students learn? How would students…

Abstract

What would a graduate program look like if its purpose was to create transformational leaders? How and what would we teach? How and what would students learn? How would students work together? What would be the role of the faculty? This paper describes the creation and delivery of a graduate program that develops students as transformational leaders. The paper also outlines the paradigmatic shifts in design principles used in the program to achieve our purpose. The outcome assessment of students’ leadership competencies at the conclusion of the program showed marked improvement. In a final reflection paper, students share the impact the program has had on transforming their lives.

Details

Journal of Leadership Education, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1552-9045

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Jane Hurst, Sarah Leberman and Margot Edwards

The purpose of this paper is to examine the expectations women have of their women managers and/or women employees and to suggest personal and organizational strategies to…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the expectations women have of their women managers and/or women employees and to suggest personal and organizational strategies to strengthen those relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on a first phase of research using narrative inquiry into the lived experiences of women managing and/or being managed by women, workshops were held with 13 participants to explore their relationship expectations of women managers and/or employees.

Findings

While the participants initially believed they expected the same things of a manager or employee irrespective of gender, a closer examination revealed gender-based expectations. Women expect a higher degree of emotional understanding and support from a woman manager, than they would from a man. They also expect a woman manager to see them as an equal, take a holistic view of them as people, understand the complexities of their lives and provide flexibility to accommodate those complexities.

Research limitations/implications

This is an exploratory study in an under-researched area. Extensive further research is warranted.

Practical implications

Understanding the expectations women have of their women managers enables the development of both personal and organizational strategies aimed at strengthening those relationships.

Originality/value

These findings begin a dialogue on the often-unspoken and unrecognized gender-based expectations women have of their relationships with women managers and/or women employees. Although considerable research exists on gender stereotypes in the workplace, little research exists on these gender-based relational expectations.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2023

Tracey Bowen, Maureen T.B. Drysdale, Sarah Callaghan, Sally Smith, Kristina Johansson, Colin Smith, Barbara Walsh and Tessa Berg

This study identifies gendered disparities among women students participating in work-integrated learning and explores the effects of the disparities on their perceptions on…

Abstract

Purpose

This study identifies gendered disparities among women students participating in work-integrated learning and explores the effects of the disparities on their perceptions on perceived opportunities, competencies, sense of belonging, and professional identity.

Design/methodology/approach

A series of semi-structured focus groups were run with 59 participants at six higher education institutions in four countries (Australia, Canada, Sweden, United Kingdom). All focus groups were designed with the same questions and formatting.

Findings

Thematic analysis of the transcripts revealed two overarching themes, namely perceptions of self and interactions with others in work placements. Theme categories included awareness of self-presentation, sense of autonomy, perceived Allies, emotional labour, barriers to opportunity, sense of belonging, intersections of identity, and validation value.

Originality/value

This study fills an important gap in the international literature about gendered experiences in WIL and highlights inequalities that women experience while on work placements.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2022

Abhilasha Meena, Sanjay Dhir and Sushil Sushil

This research aims to conduct a systematic review of the literature on coopetition to assess its impact on firm performance in various contexts.

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Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to conduct a systematic review of the literature on coopetition to assess its impact on firm performance in various contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

A bibliometric analysis of 144 papers from 1999 to 2021 and analysis of literature under the premise of theory, context, characteristics and methodology using the Theory–Context–Characteristics–Methodology (TCCM) approach was conducted using Institute for Scientific Information Web of Sciences data on coopetition literature.

Findings

The study enlists the influential journals, evolutions and citations of the articles and particularly identifies six research streams under the domain of coopetition and additionally charts out the future research agenda.

Practical implications

The results highlighted in this study may be helpful for managers and practitioners to understand the dynamics of a strategic alliance with their competitor organizations. Moreover, managers may utilize the coopetition strategy to enhance customer value and leverage this relationship for more excellent firm performance. Furthermore, the results obtained through cluster analysis can be considered as a start point to develop frameworks for a business relationship with competitors. This study utilizes content analysis and bibliometric analysis to assess the diverse view and understand the development of the field that may help the researchers increase the rigor and transparency of reviewing the literature and answer various questions that may arise to assess competitors’ interorganizational relationships.

Originality/value

No systematic literature review has analyzed the literature on coopetition using the TCCM approach and identified various research streams under the perspective of different contextual settings.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Jennifer H. Webster

The current study takes stock of the research on perceived stress among police officers by quantitatively synthesizing the available empirical literature on the subject.

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Abstract

Purpose

The current study takes stock of the research on perceived stress among police officers by quantitatively synthesizing the available empirical literature on the subject.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 103 studies from both published and unpublished sources are meta‐analyzed, producing 338 individual effect size estimates.

Findings

Analysis of predictor domains reveals that most make equally modest contributions to the complex process of stress and coping.

Research limitations/implications

Inconsistency in selection and measurement across studies precludes meaningful comparison and analysis of individual correlates of perceived stress, emphasizing the need for more standardization in the research. Particular attention to theoretically driven selection of variables, reliability of measurement instruments, and a higher degree of rigor in methodological quality, generally, will allow for more confidence in the body of empirical work.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to systematically synthesize over 40 years of empirical research in the area of perceived stress among police officers. The systematic documentation of gaps and inconsistencies in the literature provide direction for future research in this popular field of study.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2011

Koustab Ghosh and Sangeeta Sahney

The industrial organizations all over the world are operating in a highly competitive and challenging business environment. Achieving customer satisfaction on a continual basis…

3743

Abstract

Purpose

The industrial organizations all over the world are operating in a highly competitive and challenging business environment. Achieving customer satisfaction on a continual basis keeping in view of the increasing expectations of the customers has been the key to the growth of business and operations. Customer satisfaction and business development can only be achieved by retaining the competent and capable managers at different hierarchical levels of the organizations. But with the growing career opportunities and better employment prospects available, turnover of managerial personnel has become an increasingly important industrial problem worth studying in the recent years. The purpose of this paper is to examine the industry‐wide problem of managerial turnover.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes a study which is diagnostic in nature and which follows a causal design approach to empirically examine if the impacts of both the organizational social and technical subsystem elements on managerial retention are significant or not. In the first phase, a pilot survey was conducted on a sample of 93 managerial respondents at junior and middle levels in order to test the validity and reliability of the survey instrument. The second phase of the study was conducted on a sample of 444 junior and middle‐level managers from various organizations located in India to determine the causal impacts of the organizational social and technical subsystem factors on managerial retention through developing an integrated model by using the general linear modeling technique.

Findings

The results were in the expected direction and fulfilled the research aim of the current study. The factor analysis had grouped the items into seven constructs with a total of 53 items. Studies indicate that in industrial organizations the design of managerial jobs by balancing both the organizational social and technical subsystem elements does impact managerial retention. The empirical model developed through general linear modeling technique supports the proposed relationships.

Originality/value

Through identifying and empirically establishing the impacts of organizational social and technical subsystem elements on managerial retention in Indian context, this paper helps to understand the managerial expectations from their prospective employers. The top management of the business organizations may use the findings as guiding criteria, while constructing, managing, and evaluating their managerial retention strategies in Indian context.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

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