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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Mehmet Mehmetoglu

This theoretical paper provides an analytical review of a number of existing tourist typologies developed from a sociological perspective. Although current approaches to…

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4446

Abstract

This theoretical paper provides an analytical review of a number of existing tourist typologies developed from a sociological perspective. Although current approaches to classification have contributed considerably towards an understanding of the tourist, they are still open to some salient criticisms. First, many of the typologies reviewed are based upon the unsystematic observations and/or a priori theoretical assumptions of their creators. Second, these taxonomies tend to focus on the individual (i.e., tourist), thereby neglecting social and cultural influences. Third, several of these typologies are constructed along just one or very few dimensions, such as number of tourists. In order to overcome these weaknesses, it is suggested that future research should adopt an ernic approach, focus on the home society and culture that the tourist inhabits, and finally, use several dimensions in the attempt to construct a tourist typology that provides explanation in addition to understanding.

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Tourism Review, vol. 59 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2009

Natan Uriely

The purpose of this paper is to provide researchers with an analytical tool for deconstructing well‐established tourist typologies in which motivations and meanings are…

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5731

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide researchers with an analytical tool for deconstructing well‐established tourist typologies in which motivations and meanings are coupled together with practices of travel arrangements.

Design/methodology/approach

In line with the distinction between types and forms of tourism, the analysis examines the motivations and meanings (type‐related attributes) of tourists who comply with conventional travel arrangements and practices (form‐related attributes) of backpacking. The backpackers' motivations and meanings are analyzed in light of a revised version of Cohen's phenomenological typology of tourist experiences.

Findings

The analysis suggests that contemporary backpacking is a form of tourism that can be further segmented into sub‐types by the variety of meanings backpackers assign to their experiences.

Research limitations/implications

The distinction between type and form can be used for deconstruction of tourist categories other than backpackers. However, this distinction cannot be expected to completely cover the complexity and variety of tourists' behaviours and attitudes.

Originality/value

The study presents evidence to suggest that the implicit inclination that tourists who travel in the same manner also share the same motivations and meanings is open to doubt. Accordingly, the paper stresses the need for cautious and sensitive tourist typologies that capture the existing variety in tourism.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Oliver Cruz-Milan

One of the most well-known, seminal models in the tourism marketing field is the one proposed more than 40 years ago by Stanley Plog. His venturesomeness model has been…

Abstract

One of the most well-known, seminal models in the tourism marketing field is the one proposed more than 40 years ago by Stanley Plog. His venturesomeness model has been widely cited in journal articles, textbooks, and has also been used as a reference for planning and designing tourism marketing projects. However, empirical research on Plog’s psychographic model has yielded varied, inconclusive results, and the postulates of his conceptual framework are still subject to academic scrutiny. While some empirical investigations have corroborated the model, others have found partial or no support for it. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to offer an exhaustive review of 26 studies in the literature which have employed Plog´s venturesomeness concept to examine travellers’ personality traits, attitudes, and behaviour, as a way to synthetise empirical findings and draw conclusions from the cumulative results. A discussion of the model’s contribution to the current body of knowledge and managerial implications for tourism marketing practitioners are presented.

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Rachael Raine

The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of dark tourists through an investigation of people's motivations to visit burial grounds. This research extends Stone's…

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8632

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of dark tourists through an investigation of people's motivations to visit burial grounds. This research extends Stone's Dark Tourism Spectrum and Seven Dark Suppliers framework by identifying nine types of dark tourists.

Design/methodology/approach

A comparative case study approach was selected where 23 interviews were conducted at three burial grounds. Interview transcripts were analysed in order to identify emerging themes in motives and experiences of dark tourism consumers. The sites selected were Bunhill Fields Burial Ground, London, St Mary's Graveyard, Whitby, and Weaste Cemetery, Salford.

Findings

From this research a Dark Tourist Spectrum has been formulated which presents a typology of the dark tourist. The spectrum identifies different categories of visitors identified at the burial grounds, ranging from “darkest” to “lightest” tourists.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the research regard time and resource constraints. This affected the sample size of participants for interview and the selection of sites as case studies.

Originality/value

This study begins to fill the gap in research on people's motivations to visit sites that lie within the mid‐shades of Stone's Dark Tourism Spectrum, specifically burial grounds. This research contributes to a deeper understanding of dark tourism consumption with a new model presented in the form of a Dark Tourist Spectrum.

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International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Gurkan Akdag, Ozan Guler, Ali Dalgic, Sercan Benli and A. Celil Cakici

The purpose of this paper is to discover the common and differentiating food factors that affect tourists’ gastronomy satisfaction by comparing tourists’ gastronomic…

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1073

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discover the common and differentiating food factors that affect tourists’ gastronomy satisfaction by comparing tourists’ gastronomic experiences at two culinary destinations in the Mediterranean region.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 396 usable questionnaires were collected using a convenience sampling method from Cordoba (Spain) and Hatay (Turkey). The data were analysed through descriptive and multivariate analysis methods, including frequency analysis, multiple independent samples t-tests, χ2 analysis and multiple regression analyses.

Findings

The results indicate that both of the destinations primarily attract existential type gastronomic tourists; however, they also attract recreational and diversionary types of tourist, particularly in Cordoba. From the perspective of Mediterranean cuisine, food quality and traditional gastronomy were determined to be common crucial factors for tourists’ food consumption satisfaction, which outweighs the effects of price, facilities and atmosphere. In addition, service and hospitality and innovation and new tastes in the dishes are the significant factors; however, factors vary according to the destination.

Originality/value

This study makes a significant contribution to the field food tourism by identifying common significant and insignificant and differentiating food factors that affect tourists’ gastronomic satisfaction in culinary destinations within the same geographical region. The results have the potential to provide a broader perspective for destination marketers and culinary establishments.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Vanessa Quintal, Ben Thomas, Ian Phau and Zorana Soldat

The study aims to introduce a comprehensive segmentation instrument that incorporates the push–pull winescape attributes, providing a new perspective of the wine tourist

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1234

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to introduce a comprehensive segmentation instrument that incorporates the push–pull winescape attributes, providing a new perspective of the wine tourist profile and explaining their behavioural intentions in the Australian winescape.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review, focus groups and expert panels generated an extensive list of push–pull winescape attributes. Pen-and-paper surveys conveniently sampled 739 wine tourists at three wineries across three wine regions in Australia. Adopting push–pull winescape attributes as the segmentation base, cluster analysis identified four segments, namely, inspireds, self-drivens, market-drivens and inerts, and their behavioural intentions were examined.

Findings

Inspireds demonstrate both self- and market-motivation. Self-drivens exhibit self-motivation but limited market-motivation, whereas Market-drivens characterise market-motivation but limited self-motivation. Inerts are limited in both market- and self-motivations. At the Swan Valley, all four segments were identified, with Inspireds being the most willing to revisit and recommend to others and Inerts, the least willing. At the Barossa Valley, only two segments emerged. Again, Inspireds and Inerts were the most and least willing to revisit and recommend to others respectively. Finally, at the Yarra Valley, three segments were identified. Market-drivens were most willing to revisit and recommend to others, followed by self-drivens and lastly, by inerts.

Research limitations/implications

A comprehensive push–pull winescape segmentation base of wine tourists is introduced, which provides a more sophisticated profile of wine tourist segments than otherwise would be attained with conventional measures.

Practical implications

New insights into who the wine tourist is and what it is they seek from the winescape are vital to smaller wine producers whose best access to the domestic retail and export markets is through direct selling at the cellar door.

Originality/value

The empirically tested 18-item push–pull winescape instrument presents a comprehensive segmentation approach, which profiles wine tourists and predicts their behavioural intentions based on an extensive investigation of push–pull winescape attributes.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2011

Antónia Correia, Metin Kozak and João Ferradeira

This chapter aims to demonstrate that different cultures influence tourist decision making. Multi-structural models are used to assess to what extend the cultural traits…

Abstract

This chapter aims to demonstrate that different cultures influence tourist decision making. Multi-structural models are used to assess to what extend the cultural traits may influence decision-making styles of tourists. Cultural traits and decision-making styles were conceptualized as multidimensional constructs. The empirical study is supported through data from a sample of individuals visiting Lisbon during the New Year events. The analysis shows significant differences within the country of birth. Furthermore, the study concludes that the most important cultural dimensions in each of the countries lead to different decision-making styles. Although there are geographical and temporal limitations, the present study's findings suggest substantial effects of culture in tourist decision making, and these effects are heterogeneous along different countries. This chapter provides insights into how tourism destinations should position themselves in different cultural contexts. This study contributes to the overall understanding of culture as a driving influence in the way tourists decide to travel. Specifically, this chapter provides empirical evidence of how tourists' behavior varies according to the cultural heterogeneity of countries.

Details

Tourism Sensemaking: Strategies to Give Meaning to Experience
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-853-4

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Louis Rice

The purpose of this paper is to examine how nature-based solutions (NBS) are being used in city areas to improve environmental conditions and increase tourism. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how nature-based solutions (NBS) are being used in city areas to improve environmental conditions and increase tourism. This research examines the drivers behind, and impacts of, the application of NBS in city redevelopment projects for tourism. NBS is a term that refers to the use of flora and fauna ecosystems as an approach to resolve problems faced by society.

Design/methodology/approach

An interdisciplinary research methodology has been developed to examine the relationship between city NBS and tourism; the methods include a literature review of contemporary practice, field observations and thematic textual analysis from digital archives. The research methodology uses a combined empirical and desk-based analysis of five case studies cites.

Findings

NBS, as part of city redevelopment projects, is now a strategic aim of many cities globally to re-brand, re-vision and re-orientate themselves to be more hospitable, liveable and attractive to tourists and visitors.

Practical implications

City redevelopment projects are incorporating NBS to address climate change as well as local environmental issues such as disaster resilience whilst simultaneously delivering social and economic benefits.

Social implications

The research reveals that NBS can deliver benefits to human wellbeing, tourism, economic vitality as well as more sustainable models of urban development.

Originality/value

The research reveals for the first time how NBS is being used as a driver for increasing tourism globally. The research is highly original as it examines a new topic in tourism studies, the role of NBS in relation to city tourism.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Book part
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Ila Maltese, Luca Zamparini and Clarissa Amico

While tourism is mostly considered a crucial driver for local development, its impact in terms of sustainability and attractiveness of local destinations must also be

Abstract

While tourism is mostly considered a crucial driver for local development, its impact in terms of sustainability and attractiveness of local destinations must also be taken into account. This is especially true for small islands, where tourism may determine detrimental effects in the long term to the limited space and resources. The “sustainable tourism” approach considers this phenomenon and proposes possible solutions to problems such as the loss of public space, waste management, energy and water over-consumption, traffic congestion, air, water, and visual pollution. This chapter presents and discusses the results of a survey that has been carried out in Ischia, a small Mediterranean island located in the Gulf of Naples in order to explore the propensity toward sustainable mobility of both tourists and residents. In particular, the mobility patterns of the respondents have been deeply investigated both at home (domestic behavior) and on holiday (tourist behavior). The results suggest that the promotion of a higher level of cooperation among different stakeholders and local governments is of paramount importance in order to achieve sustainable tourism on islands. This may also generate important effects in terms of destination attractiveness.

Details

Sustainable Transport and Tourism Destinations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-128-5

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Omar Moufakkir and Yvette Reisinger

This study aims to further an understanding of hospitality employees’ perceptions of their customers in the context of service encounter by utilizing the concepts of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to further an understanding of hospitality employees’ perceptions of their customers in the context of service encounter by utilizing the concepts of contact hypothesis and cultural distance in a multi-ethnic environment. The study compares perceptions of Chinese immigrants working in restaurants of their British patrons (from a remote culture) and Chinese patrons (from a proximate culture). The service encounter takes place in the London Chinatown. The dynamics of Chinatown as a “third space” adds complexity to service encounter and employee perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 118 Chinese restaurant employees in the Soho area of the London Chinatown. Perception questions were based on interviews undertaken in an earlier phase of the research. A paired t-test was run to identify significant differences in the Chinese restaurant employees’ perceptions of the Chinese and British patrons. Discriminant analysis was performed to determine which perception variables discriminated the most between the two patron groups.

Findings

Despite cultural proximity, the perceptions held by Chinese restaurant employees of their nationals were negative compared to the perceptions of British patrons. Out of 16, in 15 areas of measurement, there were significant differences in the Chinese restaurant employees’ perceptions’ of their Chinese and British guests. Six variables that discriminated the most between the two groups of guests were no tips, not polite, loud, no compliment, messy and demanding.

Research limitations/implications

Research in ethnic and minority quarters, such as Chinatown in London, may suffer from “recall bias”, or in this case from making the difference between customer groups. Also, the Chinese are not a homogeneous group. For example, despite cultural similarity with mainstream culture, cultural and behavioral characteristics may exist between residents from the South, North and Hong Kong.

Practical implications

The cultural diversity of the industry’s employees necessitates managing cultural diversity effectively, especially in the sectors that rely heavily on guest–employee interaction. Perceptions affect attitudes and behavior. Training programs about perception and its roots may bridge the service gap in high-contact service encounters.

Originality/value

This study provides a ground for future empirical research into understanding the immigrant employees’ perceptions of their guests, nationals versus non-nationals and the ways for improving these perceptions. Taking the example of Chinatown as a dynamic “third space” is another approach to understanding the effects of “ethnoscape” on encounters in a more globalized village.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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