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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Manash Ranjan Gupta and Priya Brata Dutta

International tourism has experienced a substantial growth during the second half of twentieth century. Tourism development can contribute substantially to the reduction…

Abstract

Purpose

International tourism has experienced a substantial growth during the second half of twentieth century. Tourism development can contribute substantially to the reduction of poverty problem by creating new employment opportunities. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of tourism development on unemployment problem using an efficiency wage framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors developed a two-sector two-factor static competitive general equilibrium model of a less-developed open economy called South with an imported traded goods sector and with a non-traded tourism service sector, and with two factors, capital and labour. Labour is measured in efficiency unit; there exists unemployment in the labour market which is explained by the efficiency wage hypothesis. The authors also consider extensions of the basic model by introducing an exportable traded goods sector as well as sector-specific capital in the tourism sector.

Findings

The authors show that, with perfect intersectoral mobility of capital and with only one traded good, tourism development in South lowers unemployment rate and raises national income. However, this tourism development neither affects unemployment rate nor national income in South, in the mobile-capital model when there are two traded goods. When tourism sector uses sector-specific capital but capital is mobile between two traded goods sectors, tourism development keeps the unemployment rate unchanged but raises national income in South.

Originality/value

There exists a lot of debate about economic benefits of tourism development in a less-developed economy. A few works analyse the economic effects of tourism without developing formal models. However, no existing work analyses the effect on unemployment in an efficiency wage model. Although Harris–Todaro model is of relevance to explain unemployment in low-income countries, efficiency wage models are relevant for middle-income countries.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2019

Silja Lassur and Külliki Tafel-Viia

This chapter focuses on clarifying the cooperation and convergence between tourism and audiovisual (AV) sectors in Hamburg and Riga. In light of increasingly easier and…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on clarifying the cooperation and convergence between tourism and audiovisual (AV) sectors in Hamburg and Riga. In light of increasingly easier and more accessible travel, the tourism sector is a growing trend in most countries and regions. To what extent does this affect cooperation with the AV sector? The chapter gives an overview of different types of cooperation in these regions and brings out the main obstacles for innovation. When describing the innovation systems, focus is put on institutional frameworks in these two regions. We end by arguing that raising the demand for innovation in the tourism sector is a real challenge and demonstrating that the public sector plays an important role in driving the cross-innovation processes between the observed sectors.

Details

Emergence of Cross-innovation Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-980-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2022

Phalesta Toussaint and Cristina Jönsson

The purpose of this chapter is to critically evaluate the development of technological infrastructure and the propensity of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to critically evaluate the development of technological infrastructure and the propensity of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) destinations to adopt digitalisation in their hotel sectors. This paper focuses on technological readiness, the types of digitalisation and its influence on the hotel sector in a post-pandemic environment.

Design/Methodology/Approach

The chapter is a critical and conceptual overview of digitalisation in the Latin America and the Caribbean hotel sectors, the contribution of the hotel sector to tourism economies, and digitalisation in LAC post COVID-19. A comprehensive examination of the academic literature is combined with the Network Readiness Index (NRI) and Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) on several LAC countries focusing on different scopes including ICT readiness, ICT environment and business usage from 2010 to 2020. The paper uses empirical data collected from NRI and TTCI on several LAC countries examining changes in development of information and communications technology (ICT) by conducting a longitudinal analysis over a ten-year period.

Findings

The chapter argues that digitalisation in the hotel sector has been given a lot of attention regarding the adoption of digitalisation during the pandemic by a continuation of activities involving check-in and check-out, providing safety for guests and staff and the recovery of the hotel sector by both hoteliers and academics. Yet, LAC have been slow when it comes to the development of ICT. This is shown on the NRI and the TTCI by their position on ICT infrastructure, ICT environment and business usage. Nevertheless, while their positions on the indexes are less than favourable, their scores are improving, but at a very slow rate.

Research Limitation

Limited academic literature is available on digitalisation in LAC countries. There is no consistent data on the NRI and TTCI year to year for some of the countries examined in this study.

Originality/Value

This study provides a comprehensive review of technological infrastructure development of countries of Latin America and Caribbean countries with an emphasis on digitalisation in a hospitality context. The chapter is a critical examination of digitalisation in the hotel sector in a post-pandemic environment.

Details

Tourism Through Troubled Times
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-311-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Manu Sharma, Geetilaxmi Mohapatra and Arun Kumar Giri

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between tourism sector development and poverty reduction in India using annual data from 1970 to 2018. The paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between tourism sector development and poverty reduction in India using annual data from 1970 to 2018. The paper attempts to answer the critical question: Is tourism pro-poor in India?

Design/methodology/approach

Stationarity properties of the series are checked by using the ADF unit root test. The paper uses the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound testing approach to cointegration to examine the existence of long-run relationships; error-correction mechanism for the short-run dynamics, and Granger non-causality test to test the direction of causality.

Findings

The cointegration test confirms a long-run relationship between tourism development and poverty reduction for India. The ARDL test results suggest that tourism development and economic growth reduces poverty in both the long run and the short run. Furthermore, inflation had a negative and significant short-run impact on the poverty reduction variable. The causality test confirms that there is a positive and unidirectional causality running from tourism development to poverty reduction confirming that tourism development is pro-poor in India.

Research limitations/implications

This study implies that poverty in India can be reduced by tourism sector growth and price stability. For a fast-growing economy with respect to economic growth and tourism sector growth, this may have far-reaching implications toward inclusive growth in India.

Originality/value

This paper is the first of its kind to empirically examine the causal relationship between tourism sector development and poverty reduction in India using modern econometric techniques.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Adya Hermawati

This study aims to examine the effect of transglobal leadership on quality of work life (QWL), job involvement, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and human…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of transglobal leadership on quality of work life (QWL), job involvement, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and human resource (HR) performance of tourism sector-engaged micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in East Java; to examine the moderating role of QWL, job involvement and OCB in the effect of transglobal leadership on HR performance of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java; to examine the effect of HR performance of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs on responsible tourism marketing and sustainable tourism competitiveness in East Java; and to examine the mediating role of responsible tourism marketing in the effect of HR performance of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs on sustainable tourism competitiveness in East Java.

Design/methodology/approach

The population of this research was all HR executives of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java and domestic and foreign tourists in East Java. The sampling of the tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java (in 16 tourism potential cities) was performed using a purposive sampling technique. Determination of the sample size was made using the minimum criterion from structural model, ranging from 100 to 200. Thus, it was determined that the number of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs studied in this research was 200 enterprises from 16 tourism potential cities in East Java. From each tourism sector MSME, four employees and three tourists were selected. In total, this research involved 800 employees and 600 tourists (both domestic and foreign).

Findings

This research found that transglobal leadership (X) , QBL (M1), job involvement (M2) and OCB (M3) had an effect on HR performance (Y). The results of this research highlighted that QWL variable (M1) moderated the effect of transglobal leadership (X) on HR performance (Y). It was found that job involvement variable (M2) moderated the effect of transglobal leadership (X) on HR performance (Y). This research also detected that OCB variable (M3) moderated the effect of transglobal leadership (X) on HR performance (Y). This research found that HR performance (Y) had an effect on responsible marketing (Z1). It was obtained in this research that HR performance (Y) also had an effect on sustainable tourism competitiveness (Z2). Finally, this research found that responsible marketing (Z1) had an effect on sustainable tourism competitiveness (Z2).

Originality/value

Regarding the originality of this research, the holistic compilation was integrated from the theoretical concept of the HR and marketing strategies through the implementation of the tourism marketing concept and application that are responsible for tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java. Of course, tourists need to get a good understanding of the marketing strategy to participate in controlling the sustainable tourism competitiveness in East Java.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Wineaster Anderson, Theresia Busagara, Deogratious Mahangila, Maria Minde, Donath Olomi and Victor Bahati

This paper aims to investigate the nature of the public–private dialogue (PPD) initiatives and how PPDs are being used in the tourism and hospitality sector as the tool…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the nature of the public–private dialogue (PPD) initiatives and how PPDs are being used in the tourism and hospitality sector as the tool for reforming the business environment (e.g. set policy priorities, inform policy design, improve legislative proposals and incorporate feedback into regulatory implementation).

Design/methodology/approach

The study adapted a descriptive-qualitative method through desk research and in-depth interviews based on the explorative research design. The respondents included tourism and hospitality stakeholders from the public and private sectors in the Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Dar es Salaam tourist destinations in Tanzania.

Findings

The findings revealed numerous PPD initiatives which various actors in the tourism value chain rely on to address their matters. While some initiatives are not regular forums, few have been institutionalized in the Tourism Act of 2008, while others have been prescribed from the global level (UNWTO). The well-known PPD platforms include the Tourism Facilitation Committee, Technical Advisory Committee to the Minister, Tanzania National Business Council (the Tourism Task Force) and Public–Private Partnership in Tourism under the Ministry. However, most of the existing platforms overlap in terms of subject matter, mandates, participants and timing. The key success stories and factors of the PPD initiatives and the associated challenges have been discussed.

Practical implications

The study provides insight to the conclusion that public policies that are designed through PPD are better conceived and more effectively implemented because they result from mutual understanding between government and the business community. This knowledge is important to the least developed countries (LDCs), like Tanzania, as research has shown that stronger and more constructive dialogue between government and the private sector leads to better business environment, and countries with better business environments grow faster, attract more investment and reduce poverty more than the opposite.

Originality/value

Although several PPD initiatives are taking place in the tourism sector in most developing countries, little about them has been documented in the tourism literature. Hence, this study, which focuses on Tanzania, aims to fill this knowledge gap.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 2 October 2018

Valeria Croce

The purpose of this paper is to retrace the past development of the global tourism sector to identify past drivers of growth and try to understand which factors will shape…

3303

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to retrace the past development of the global tourism sector to identify past drivers of growth and try to understand which factors will shape the sector development in the long term. The paper also intends to initiate a discussion on critical areas the global sector needs to address if it wants to establish as a model for sustainable and inclusive growth.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyses the political, economic, socio-cultural and technological factors that influenced tourism growth.

Findings

The global tourism sector has experienced continuous expansion and diversification to become one of the largest and fastest-growing economic sectors in the world. With increased recognition of tourism contribution to economic growth and development, more opportunities will arise for tourism to take centre stage in the political and economic agendas worldwide. Such opportunities can be successfully realised only once the global tourism sector eventually engages to mitigate negative impacts.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is based on an extensive review of published literature; hence, it reflects the view major organisations dealing with tourism have on the future development of this sector. The factors included in this analysis have been prioritised based on the sector knowledge of the authors and may not be reflect other viewpoints.

Practical implications

Tourism could establish itself as a model that puts aspects such as the conservation, preservation and protection of the cultural and natural heritage at the heart of economic development. For global tourism to become a driver of socio-economic change, stronger guidance is needed to set priorities that would lead the sector to mitigate its negative impacts. The paper critically discusses some of those aspects that could become policy priorities for the next decades.

Originality/value

The main value of this piece of research is the extended, cross-disciplinary literature of the factors that conducted to the rapid and healthy growth of the tourism sector worldwide.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 November 2021

Iordanis Katemliadis and Andreas Papatheodorou

The tourism industry in Greece has come a long way since its beginning as a distinct economic activity to reach the recent impressive results. It is a sector that has…

Abstract

The tourism industry in Greece has come a long way since its beginning as a distinct economic activity to reach the recent impressive results. It is a sector that has grown remarkably and became a major source of growth for the Greek economy. As such this chapter aims to discuss the importance and the potential of the sector, the unique characteristics of the Greek tourism industry and the future challenges ahead. Tables and suitable graphics are provided to visually enhance and inform the discussion. A wide range of articles, journals, books, and electronic sources has been reviewed to present as accurately and up to date information as possible. This chapter can therefore prove useful for academics and non-academics to use it as a reference point for the tourism sector in Greece.

Details

Modeling Economic Growth in Contemporary Greece
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-123-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2021

Christian Viñán-Merecí, Katty Celi-Sánchez, Ronny Correa-Quezada and Amador Durán-Sánchez

The health emergency resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a public health crisis with serious effects on all social dimensions. This chapter has estimated the effects…

Abstract

The health emergency resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a public health crisis with serious effects on all social dimensions. This chapter has estimated the effects that this pandemic could potentially have on tourism activities in Ecuador. The scenario methodology was the method of choice since it allows analyzing the environment and comparing different internal and external factors, placing them in a future context for the tourism sector. The data were obtained using the following: (1) UNWTO estimates anticipate that the pandemic will cause a decrease in tourist arrivals and income between −50% and −78% across the world; and (2) a simulation of the pandemic's possible impacts on employment, production and taxes that would cause drops of 50%, 70% and 78% in the demand for accommodation and food and beverage services that represent economic activities that are directly related to tourism.

The results confirm that in scenario 1, losses will amount to 1.327 million US dollars; in scenario 2, to 1.600 million USD; while for scenario 3, the country will stop receiving more than 1.700 million USD. Eight sectors of the economy will suffer 95% of the impact on job loss: the food and beverage service stands out from the rest, since 77 out of 10 jobs lost will come from those types of activities. The two other sectors that would suffer significant impacts would be trade and accommodation activities, which account for 8% and 5%, respectively, of the total number of jobs lost.

Details

Pandemics and Travel
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-071-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Douglas G. Pearce and Christian Schott

While the need to respond to the wide-ranging challenges posed by climate change has been widely emphasized, there is still a relative lack of attention being given to the…

Abstract

While the need to respond to the wide-ranging challenges posed by climate change has been widely emphasized, there is still a relative lack of attention being given to the type, scale, and nature of responses that are taking place in different economic sectors and parts of the world. This chapter provides a review of the tourism-related responses to the implications of climate change in the context of New Zealand. This is a country where tourism is a very important sector of the economy that depends heavily on the credibility of its green and unspoilt destination image. However, due to its relative isolation in the South Pacific, New Zealand requires most international tourists to travel long distances, which results in considerable greenhouse gas emissions. The chapter outlines the private and public sectors' responses to these challenges with particular attention to their collaboration.

Details

Tourism and the Implications of Climate Change: Issues and Actions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-620-2

Keywords

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