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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Yang Guo, Yi Chai and Shengyang Wang

The purpose of this paper is to analyze regional correlation contributions of urbanization rate and tourism revenue, based on the dynamic panel data from 2000 to 2010 of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze regional correlation contributions of urbanization rate and tourism revenue, based on the dynamic panel data from 2000 to 2010 of 31 provinces in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the Modified Cobb-Douglas and fixed effect regression models, the study analyzes the dynamic panel data of 31 provinces in China from 2000 to 2010. The paper conducts tests on the correlation and the economic influence between urbanization rate and tourism revenue in different regions.

Findings

The empirical results show that on the national scale, the urbanization rate has a positive contribution to the increase rate of tourism revenue with 3.1 percent. The influence of urbanization on tourism revenue in different regions has considerable non-equilibrium characteristics. In the central region, the correlation contributing potential is even stronger than in the eastern and western regions. Different regions have significant regional disparities in the tourism growth pattern.

Originality/value

On the national scale, the urbanization rate has a positive correlation contribution to the development of tourism economics. Urbanization has made remarkable achievements, and has played an important role in propelling the development of tourism industry. In the process of deepening the urbanization trend, the urbanization rate has a positive contribution to the increase rate of tourism revenue with 3.1 percent.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2020

Amin Faraji, Masood Khodadadi, Mohammad Nematpour, Shirin Abidizadegan and Hamid Reza Yazdani

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that unsustainable revenues in municipalities are short term and may have an adverse effect on urban systems. Focusing on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that unsustainable revenues in municipalities are short term and may have an adverse effect on urban systems. Focusing on stable financial resources can reduce such adverse effects. According to the legal obligations of municipalities in the creation of sustainable revenue, developing tourism-based activities in municipalities can play a significant role in providing a sustainable income.

Design/methodology/approach

This study aims to assess the positive effects of economic opportunities related to tourism for the municipalities in Iran’s large-scale cities and to identify the hidden opportunities of tourism. Also, from interviews and analysis of themes based on the situation, task, action, result model, tourism opportunities have been extracted and classified.

Findings

As a result of this research, hidden income-generating opportunities of urban tourism have been identified for municipalities, including those depending on situation, tasks, actions and results. For each of these categories, strategies for the realization of tourism opportunities are presented. Tourism’s hidden opportunities include those relating to organizational aspects, tourism planning, tourism diplomacy, handicrafts, health tourism, event tourism and urban tourism marketing.

Originality/value

By taking advantage of these opportunities, income generation, employment and urban management will be improved in the municipalities.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Nihat Doğanalp and Aytuğ Arslan

Introduction: Performance evaluations are a critical tool in evaluating tourism development of countries where the tourism industry provides a significant share of the…

Abstract

Introduction: Performance evaluations are a critical tool in evaluating tourism development of countries where the tourism industry provides a significant share of the GDP. One of the measures used in performance evaluation of the financial decision-making units is economic efficiency. Aim: This study aims at measuring tourism-related technical efficiency performance of six European countries: Spain, Greece, Turkey, France, Italy, and Portugal. Method: Tourism revenue and visitor numbers are referenced as output variables. Within the model, the natural and sociocultural index and substructure index were formed. Data envelopment analysis was applied for these datasets. Results: Considering tourism revenues, Spain, Italy and Greece managed to use their natural and cultural resources efficiently. In contrast to these countries, inefficiency level scores were measured for Turkey, Portugal and France. In the model based upon the number of visitors, all other countries apart from Turkey and Portugal achieved the most efficient score. As for substructure index, the score of decreasing returns to scale for the countries of Italy and Spain in terms of tourist numbers is noteworthy. Conclusion: The implementation of efficient tourism policies and strategies hold great importance in terms of tourism efficiency. Implications: Even though Portugal and Turkey are rich in both natural and cultural assets, low scores seem to stem from failure to realize their potentials. Strategies should be developed to diversify tourist products. Originality of the Paper: This study differs from other studies in the literature with regard to the composition of the wide input components.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Social Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-931-3

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Sérgio Palma Brito

The purpose of this paper is address two questions: “Did the context of economic crisis affect the image of Portugal as a tourist destination? And What were the answers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is address two questions: “Did the context of economic crisis affect the image of Portugal as a tourist destination? And What were the answers and lessons learned?”.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have no information to assess the effect of the crisis on the brand image of Portugal as a tourist destination. The paper limits itself to what is a first step in this assessment and assumes that periods of low demand for destination Portugal are linked in some way to the economic crisis. The paper examines the UK market demand for holiday travel to Portugal from 2009 to 2013 and additionally the revenue contribution from tourism to Portugal’s balance of payments. The data are analyzed in the context of two decisions relating to Portuguese tourism governance: the anti crisis measures of 2009 and the new model for tourism promotion of 2013.

Findings

The paper assumes that during the period 2009-2013 the demand for Portuguese tourism was not affected by the crisis and, if any damage has been done to the international brand image of destination Portugal, its consequences are not dramatic. In fact, the demand for destination Portugal in the UK market remained strong and is higher than the market as a whole. The same applies to destination Greece and the decline in demand for destination Turkey seems to be linked to social and political crisis in the country. Given this context, it is interesting to note that revenue from travel and tourism in Portugal achieved a growth rate that had not occurred before in the recent past.

Research limitations/implications

The scope for analyzing empirical data is limited to the statistical information for Tourism in Portugal. However, it is possible to identify patterns of demand behavior of demand that help provide clues to the variations in tourism flows.

Practical implications

In 2013, the index of overnight stays and income to the Portuguese hospitality industry exceeded that of 2009, but the index of average revenue per overnight stay at current prices was still lower than that of 2009. It would appear that the anti-crisis measures that the government took in 2009 had little or no impact nor do the changes to the tourism promotion Model in 2013 reveal why the Government considered 2013 to be “the best tourist year ever” or in 2014 “an historic year”.

Originality/value

The paper provides a bottom-up perspective, based on observation, measurement and analysis.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Yashobanta Parida, Parul Bhardwaj and Joyita Roy Chowdhury

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the determinants of foreign and domestic tourist arrivals and revenue receipts from tourism using state-level panel…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine the determinants of foreign and domestic tourist arrivals and revenue receipts from tourism using state-level panel data in 25 Indian states for the period 1995 to 2011.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses IV-2SLS method to examine the determinants of foreign and domestic tourist arrivals in Indian states. Economic development (proxied by per capita income, PCI) is an endogenous variable. We have used the state-wise “liable to flood prone area” as an instrument for PCI to control for endogeneity. An inverse relationship exists between state-wise “liable to flood prone area” and real PCI, in a sense that states with greater proportion of area marked as liable to flood experience lower economic development. For robust analysis, the study has also used IV-Tobit model to examine the effects of economic development and crime on revenue receipts from tourism.

Findings

The empirical results based on IV-2SLS method suggest that, in addition to economic development, other factors such as the presence of world-class monuments, natural landscapes and cultural heritage also encourage both international and domestic visitors in Indian states. While crime activities adversely affect the inflow of foreign and domestic tourist arrivals, terror activities do not significantly impact tourist arrivals and tourism receipts. Finally, the estimates of IV-Tobit model show that economic development and government expenditure on tourism sector leads to a significant increase in tourism receipts.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study done in Indian context in which state-level panel data have been used to examine the impact of economic, social and cultural factors on tourist arrivals and revenue earnings from tourism. Hence, the present study not only contributes to existing tourism literature, but also makes an important contribution to structuring suitable tourism management policies for the Indian states.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Glenn McCartney

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of ethics and codes of responsible behaviour in Macao’s casino tourism industry given its global leadership position in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of ethics and codes of responsible behaviour in Macao’s casino tourism industry given its global leadership position in gaming, with suggestions on a way forward toward ethical tourism integration.

Design/methodology/approach

The research examined the corporate mission statements of Macao’s casino concessionaires with regards to social message content as well as social outcomes to date within Macao’s various tourism stakeholders. Relevant literature on cross-sector social partnership was examined as a possible consideration for Macao’s tourism industry.

Findings

Despite generating the world’s largest gaming revenues and tourism revenue contribution to gross domestic product, there are limited codes of ethics and an agreed level of acceptable behaviour and responsibility throughout Macao’s tourism and hospitality industry. This is further amplified by Macao’s small landmass, limited workforce pool, increasing tourism arrivals and a vast dependency on imports, creating a constant battle for resources and added pressure on its community and natural environment.

Social implications

There are possible conflicts between Western casino compliance issues within those of Chinese business cultural practices. It is suggested that greater appreciation of this cultural and community setting is required to realistically adopt ethical codes.

Originality/value

There has been limited discussion within Macao’s tourism industry on establishing a definition and scope for a code of ethics. Given the numbers participating and financial liquidity in Macao’s tourism system, the paper highlights the need for codes of ethics adoption, suggesting a cross-sector social partnership mechanism.

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Elizabeth Agyeiwaah and Raymond Adongo

– The purpose of this paper is to identify the core factors that determine tourism demand in four inbound markets of Hong Kong.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the core factors that determine tourism demand in four inbound markets of Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

The general-to-specific approach was adopted as a step-by-step approach to identify the major determinants of tourism demand in Hong Kong.

Findings

The study revealed word of mouth and income of source market are core determinants of tourism demand in all four inbound markets.

Originality/value

Knowledge of core determinants of tourism demand is useful to destination management organizations and tourism business owners for strategic planning and decision making to increase total revenues.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2021

Hanqin Qiu, Dongzhi Chen, Qinghui Li, Kanglin Peng and Carson Lewis Jenkins

This study aims to explore the impact of the belt and road initiative (BRI) on tourism development in China and to identify the factors contributing to the BRI’s effect on…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the impact of the belt and road initiative (BRI) on tourism development in China and to identify the factors contributing to the BRI’s effect on tourism development.

Design/methodology/approach

This study evaluates the impact of the BRI on tourism development using 2007–2017 panel data from 31 provinces and municipalities in China. The data are analyzed using the difference-in-differences method and the factors contributing to the BRI’s effect on tourism development are identified through an analysis of online reviews by users of a massive open online course offered on the FutureLearn platform.

Findings

The result suggests that the BRI has boosted total tourism revenue and total tourist arrivals in the BRI region comparing with other regions. Four factors contributing to the BRI’s impact on tourism development in China are identified: macro-environmental factors, transit factors, destination factors and tourism policy and promotional factors.

Originality/value

The BRI has had a significant impact on regional tourism development, yet very few empirical studies have systematically examined the impact of BRI on tourism development. Thus, this paper also addresses this research gap by evaluating the extent to which BRI impacts tourism development and contributes to the factors affecting tourism development.

审视丝绸之路对中国旅游发展的影响:来自MOOC学习平台的见解

研究目的

本论文旨在开拓丝绸之路(BRI)对中国旅游发展的影响, 以及指出其影响的各种因素。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用2007年−2017年十年间的来自中国31个省市自治区的平台数据来审视BRI对旅游发展的影响。分析方法为双重差分(DID)模型, 并且对FutureLearn平台的慕课用户在线评论的分析, 来审视BRI对旅游发展的作用。

研究结果

研究结果表明, BRI帮助发展了整个旅游经济以及整个BRI区域的旅游人次, 相较于其他区域。本论文指出了四个BRI影响中国旅游发展的因素:宏观环境因素、过渡因素、目的地因素、和旅游政策和发展因素。

研究原创性/价值

BRI对区域旅游发展起到显著作用, 然而, 非常少实证研究曾系统地检验过BRI对旅游发展的影响。因此, 本论文解决了这个研究缺口, 指出了BRI对旅游发展的影响, 以及影响其发展的各种因素。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Swati Gola

The present paper aims to analyse who actually benefits from the policies to promote international trade in healthcare services through medical tourism in India. It also…

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper aims to analyse who actually benefits from the policies to promote international trade in healthcare services through medical tourism in India. It also assesses the implications of unfettered and unchecked medical tourism for public health policy-making.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology adopted in this paper is inter-disciplinary (socioeconomic and legal) and includes a mix of doctrinal and empirical qualitative research.

Findings

The present paper argues that in the absence of any baseline data in the public domain on inbound traffic of tourists visiting India on medical tourism, it is difficult to assess and evaluate the private sector claims and that the absence of any format for data collection, management and analysis results in questionable accountability and institutional fragmentation and non-coordination. Furthermore, it results in asymmetrical policy-making in areas like international trade, which may have unintended negative effects for public health.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings of the present paper will also assist other developing countries considering to promote medical tourism to learn lessons from India’s experiences.

Originality/value

The present paper uses the qualitative empirical research conducted by the author to analyse the state of affair of medical tourism in India.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2021

Kevser Çınar and Gökhan Şener

Tourism, as a leading source of income for many countries, is one of the world's fastest-growing industries. Tourism demand is strongly influenced by the economic…

Abstract

Tourism, as a leading source of income for many countries, is one of the world's fastest-growing industries. Tourism demand is strongly influenced by the economic situation of the consumer, as well as by the political, environmental, security and health conditions provided by the host country. As tourism is not one of the first steps in Maslow's hierarchy of needs, it is not part of the mandatory spending group. Holiday plans are among the first to be altered or cancelled if there is a threat to the tourist's ‘biological and physiological needs’ or ‘security needs’. Thus, the tourism sector is highly susceptible to crises. Turkey tourism movement has faced several major national and global shocks of different origins recently. This study aims to examine the impact of crucial crises and of the current COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry in terms of their characteristics, social conflicts, political situation and responses. To achieve this objective, the development of the tourism sector in Turkey has been analyzed taking into account the conditions of the world economies. Comparisons were made between overall figures for incoming tourists, tourism revenues and hotel occupancy rates in Turkey for the time periods before, during and after these crises, considering certain other effects. The figures are related to significant incidents, economic, political, health, social or environmental crises that have occurred at the national or global level.

Details

Pandemics and Travel
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-071-9

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