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This chapter proposes a methodology to determine tourism policies that are effective in addressing the challenges of tourism as an instrument for development. A three-step…
This chapter proposes a methodology to determine tourism policies that are effective in addressing the challenges of tourism as an instrument for development. A three-step process is proposed, including the preparation of a Green Paper that defines the different actors in the tourism system, as well as their functions vis-à-vis policy options; a White Paper that determines strategic positioning and a roadmap for action based on the diagnosis and analysis of the destination; and a Tourism Policy Plan that delineates the different governance actions. The model is examined from the perspective of the use of tourism as an instrument for development, with a consideration of the destination’s human, social capital, and participative governance systems.
The concept of development has gone through several paradigm shifts in the last six decades, from the post World War II idea of “modernization” to sustainability and…
The concept of development has gone through several paradigm shifts in the last six decades, from the post World War II idea of “modernization” to sustainability and gradualist institutions-concerned strategies, although the neoliberal laissez-faire approaches still hold considerable influence, even in international organizations. Development is a complex concept. Definitions have changed throughout time and it is crucial to understand the concept vis-à-vis tourism. It is no longer possible to defend that tourism investments will automatically create development. Understanding the nuances of the concept has become essential if one is to sustain that tourism does play a role in development.
This chapter examines tourism policy processes in Chile in reference to sustainability, and the role of the government and governance in the delivery of sustainable…
This chapter examines tourism policy processes in Chile in reference to sustainability, and the role of the government and governance in the delivery of sustainable practices in this country. There is a gap in the research examining national governance structures in the development and implementation of sustainable tourism policies, despite the importance and the high policy priority given to this task by the United Nations Environment Program and United Nations World Tourism Organization. Study data was collected in three stages: document and website analysis, interviews, and a semi-structured online questionnaire with key industry stakeholders. The findings indicate that the concept of sustainability appears to be at an embryonic stage in Chile, and that emerging policies seem to be leading the way in terms of sustainable development. Government policy and governance structures are still at the formulation stage and threats to this process are also highlighted.
This chapter focuses on the Pueblos Mágicos (Magic Towns) Program to determine the social and economic benefits of a public tourism intervention with governance…
This chapter focuses on the Pueblos Mágicos (Magic Towns) Program to determine the social and economic benefits of a public tourism intervention with governance characteristics in small towns with cultural and natural resources. The chapter examines the evolution of social development through indicators that measures the lack of this development, and also analyzes information collected from the residents about their perceptions. At first glance, there are elements to affirm with the insights from final beneficiaries, that the governance action really improves their living conditions.
The first part of the book is dedicated to the complex issue of development and the role tourism can play in its achievement. In the first chapter, Fayos-Solà, Fuentes, and Muñoz Mazón set the stage by examining various development theories and approaches from the last 50 years. It becomes evident that the intensely pro-development policies following the end of World War II and the emergence of the United Nations group of organizations were replaced, beginning in the 1970s, with a surge of institutional theory and practice advocating the market as the almost sole purveyor of prosperity, or, supposedly, development. In this context, it was argued, all tourism needs is a free-market environment to create employment, income, modernization, and economic growth, and these all were equated with development.
A broad agreement exists that tourism is an effective instrument for social and economic development. However, there is no specific theoretical or practical framework of…
A broad agreement exists that tourism is an effective instrument for social and economic development. However, there is no specific theoretical or practical framework of tourism for development to be found. Even the key issues have remained unformulated: concept of development, tourism's contributions to development, and tourism policy and governance for development. This chapter first summarizes the development paradigms held in the last decades (modernization, neoliberalism, dependency, and sustainability) vis-à-vis tourism, and then goes on to consider proposals emanating from New Institutional Economics and the Theory of Social Capital. It concludes with the results of a 2011 enquiry, involving some 60 international experts.
Destination management is in urgent need of analytical and policy tools, and even more so in the context of tourism for development programs. Understanding both structural…
Destination management is in urgent need of analytical and policy tools, and even more so in the context of tourism for development programs. Understanding both structural elements and dynamic processes are essential. This chapter describes a model of destinations which considers three types of structural components: factors/resources, attractors (of tourism demand), and support systems. It analyzes as well the optimizing behavior of destination stakeholders, both endogenous and exogenous, as a way to understand destination dynamics. The model can be applied in the strategic positioning of destinations as well as in achieving competitiveness and sustainability—ultimately contributing to development—through tourism policy plans and governance processes. The model was born in the context of a European Eureka–ComTur research project, and has been tested in a variety of destinations.
In the context of a changing global environment, governance is understood as one of the main strategic pillars of the shifting paradigm. Governance is an evolved model of…
In the context of a changing global environment, governance is understood as one of the main strategic pillars of the shifting paradigm. Governance is an evolved model of governing which is conceptualized as a system to define and implement strategies, in which decisions are the result of interaction between public and private institutions and society. They need to work together within a set of values and principles: openness, participation, consultation, dialogue, innovation, coordination, strong leadership, effectiveness, accountability, and more. In tourism, governance is increasingly becoming a consolidated system to create and implement inclusive management processes. Thus, governance becomes the cornerstone for the success of destinations to achieve sustainable development.