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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Jing Ma and Shuo Liu

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the institutions play a role in tourism development and international recognition, specifically the influence of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the institutions play a role in tourism development and international recognition, specifically the influence of marketization on the international tourists’ inbound arrivals in different Chinese provinces.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper constructs a demand model of tourism and empirically analyzes the relationship between marketization and inbound tourism demand with the panel data of the provinces of China and NERI Index of Marketization.

Findings

Marketization does have an influence on inbound tourism demand of China. Specially, the relationship between government and market, the development of product market, the market intermediary organizations and the legal system environment can increase the demand of the foreign tourists to visit China, although the magnitudes are different.

Practical implications

This paper argues that the qualities of marketization intuitions are important in increasing inbound tourism, given that it can bring better tourism experience and improve the international recognition. Strengthening the legislation and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of consumers can attract more international travelers to China. Market distribution of competitive economic resources, reducing political intervention into corporate activities and relieving tax burdens of enterprises can improve the competitiveness and the service qualities of Chinese domestic tourism firms.

Originality/value

This paper leads the discussions of institutions and tourism. It combines the consumer theory and uses static and dynamic panel data models to analyze the influencing factors of Chinese tourism. It argues that Chinese inbound tourism shall develop with the systemic marketization progress in China.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Tanja Mihalic

The purpose of this paper is to provide details of the communist and socialist past to inform the debate on redesigning tourism in Central and Eastern European (CEE…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide details of the communist and socialist past to inform the debate on redesigning tourism in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries as impacted by the transition and accelerated by European Union (EU) membership.

Design/methodology/approach

The issues from two sides are addressed: academic and practical. Based on a literature review, the authors propose a model of five main research topics that represent the main areas of change and conceptualise the general EU accession research debate on tourism. Content analysis is conducted on each of the revealed main research topics that are presented and discussed from the standpoint of tourism-relevant socialist and communist stature and image. On the other hand, this paper engages with reality as it surveys real-life practices in tourism development and business operation based on the personal experience of the researcher regarding the social situation under consideration.

Findings

The findings concerning the revealed main areas of tourism change in CEE countries following EU accession refer to the: change from communism towards a new image (Europeanisation and re-imaging), change from communism to capitalism (transformation and marketisation), change from old communist tourism products to new products (rejuvenation, diversification), change from communist towards sustainability values (sustainability) and change from tourism inside the communist block to international tourism (re-internationalisation) The discussion indicates how each area of change relates to socialist and communist content and its tourism relevance and the potential for tourism development, policy and business.

Research limitations/implications

The list of relevant works is not exhaustive as only tourism-focussed quality journals are surveyed in order to define the main areas of change.

Practical implications

A very relevant source of information and impartial advice for tourism developers and policymakers in ex-socialist and communist countries is provided regarding tourism development at the strategic and managerial levels.

Originality/value

This paper fills an identified information/resource gap concerning the potential and contribution of communist and socialist heritage to tourism development and business, and places this in the context of the changes CEE countries have made in order to stay and/or become tourism destinations. It introduces a new term “tourism redesign” which explains the transition in tourism development, policy and management through different areas of change.

Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Cong Peng and Peng Yuan

China intends to enhance its environmental regulations, which will affect many industries, because of the serious environmental pollution that the country faces. This…

Abstract

Purpose

China intends to enhance its environmental regulations, which will affect many industries, because of the serious environmental pollution that the country faces. This study aims to investigate the influence of environmental regulations on China’s provincial tourism competitiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

A vertical-and-horizontal scatter degree method is used to construct provincial-level tourism competitiveness and environmental regulation indices in China. Thereafter, a spatial econometric model is established to empirically assess the influence of environmental regulations on China’s provincial tourism competitiveness and investigate the spatial spillover effects of environmental regulations.

Findings

Environmental regulations and China’s provincial tourism competitiveness exhibit a “U”-shaped relationship, mainly because of the indirect effects of environmental regulations (spatial spillover effects). The environmental regulation indices of the majority of the provinces have crossed the turning point. Thus, improving environmental regulations has a positive effect on tourism competitiveness. This effect mainly originates from the positive spatial spillover effects.

Social implications

Tourism development plays an important role in promoting economic growth. However, increasing environmental pollution may constrain the development of tourism. Therefore, the possible influence of environmental regulations on tourism development should be understood.

Originality/value

At present, no research has explored the influence of environmental regulations on China’s tourism competitiveness. The current study considers the nonlinear effects of environmental regulations and investigates their spatial spillover effects.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Dianne Dredge

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mindset shift, systems change and boundary spanning practices needed to transition to a regenerative approach in tourism. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mindset shift, systems change and boundary spanning practices needed to transition to a regenerative approach in tourism. The paper seeks to deliver concrete ways to shift thinking and transition to a regenerative paradigm.

Design/methodology/approach

This viewpoint paper defines regenerative tourism, explores its principles and the levers for driving transformational change in tourism. It outlines what a conscious approach to regenerative tourism entails and outlines working principles for regenerative tourism. The paper concludes by identifying five key areas for reflection that seek to challenge established thinking and practice.

Findings

The reinvention of tourism requires work in three key areas: systems change, mindset shift and practice. Three findings are summarised as: (1) Regenerative tourism requires a shift in social-ecological consciousness and depends on our capacity to evolve our thinking from “me” to “we” and to develop compassion, empathy and collaborative action. (2) Scientific management is inconsistent with the transition to regeneration. Tourism must be managed as a complex adaptive system and overcome the challenges of individualism, reductionism, separation and marketisation associated with scientific thinking. (3) Regenerative tourism requires a deeply engaged bottom-up approach that is place-based, community-centred and environment-focused.

Originality/value

This paper shares the reflections, working principles and recommendations of The Tourism CoLab and is based on 30 years of experience as a consultant, policy analyst, educator, researcher, professor and now as founder of two tourism social enterprises. With the luxury of reflection and the distance from higher education that many do not have, the author shares her approach to shifting mindsets and driving transformative change.

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Philip Stone

Commonly referred to as dark tourism or thanatourism, the act of touristic travel to sites of or sites associated with death and disaster has gained significant attention…

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Abstract

Purpose

Commonly referred to as dark tourism or thanatourism, the act of touristic travel to sites of or sites associated with death and disaster has gained significant attention with media imaginations and academic scholarship. However, despite a growing body of literature on the representation and tourist experience of deathscapes within the visitor economy, dark tourism as a field of study is still very much in its infancy. Moreover, questions remain of the academic origins of the dark tourism concept, as well as its contribution to the broader social scientific study of tourism and death education. Thus, the purpose of this invited review for this Special Issue on dark tourism, is to offer some critical insights into thanatourism scholarship.

Design/methodology/approach

This review paper critiques the emergence and current direction of dark tourism scholarship.

Findings

The author suggests that dark tourism as an academic field of study is where death education and tourism studies collide and, as such, can offer potentially fruitful research avenues within the broad realms of thanatology. Secondly, the author outlines how dark tourism as a conceptual typology has been subject to a sustained marketization process within academia over the past decade or so. Consequently, dark tourism is now a research brand in which scholars can locate a diverse range of death‐related and tourist experience studies. Finally, the author argues that the study of dark tourism is not simply a fascination with death or the macabre, but a multi‐disciplinary academic lens through which to scrutinise fundamental interrelationships of the contemporary commodification of death with the cultural condition of society.

Originality/value

This review paper scrutinises dark tourism scholarship and, subsequently, offers original insights into the potential role dark tourism may play in the public representation of death, as well as highlighting broader interrelationships dark tourism has with research into the social reality of death and the significant Other dead.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Zafeirenia Brokalaki and Georgios Patsiaouras

The purpose of this paper is to show and critically discuss the motivations, conflicting narratives, practices and effects around the marketisation of cultural heritage…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show and critically discuss the motivations, conflicting narratives, practices and effects around the marketisation of cultural heritage. The work focusses on the exemplar case study of the ancient temple of the Athenian Parthenon, as a proto-brand, to explore ancient, medieval and modern marketing forces and practices through which various stakeholders have promoted, gifted, commercially traded, exchanged, acquired and illegally removed national cultural artefacts and historical monuments.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a structured historical periodisation that covers three main eras – classical age, late antiquity and modern period – that triggered the marketisation of the ancient temple in diverse ways. First, historical research was conducted through the use of a range of secondary sources and archives. Second, observation techniques were used to study heritage marketisation practices at the New Acropolis Museum and the Parthenon in Athens and the British Museum in London. Third, visual material further facilitated the analysis.

Findings

This paper identifies multifarious institutional forces, political interests, technologies and sociocultural events that shape the commodification of history and marketisation of heritage offering a broader discussion on the evolution of early marketing practices and brands used to promote particular values, cultures and places, as well as the emergence and growth of illicit arts and antiquities markets.

Originality/value

Considering the lack of marketing research on the commercialisation of heritage, the work discloses novel insights around the use of cultural proto-brands and the formation of illegal markets and questionable arts trade practices. It, therefore, questions the ethical, socio-political, economic and aesthetic implications of the extensive marketisation of history and raises issues around the legitimate ownership, promotion and consumption of heritage.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Terrance Weatherbee and Donna Sears

This paper aims to examine how wineries used history in their marketing communications to overcome the liability of newness in a settled field that valorizes duration and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how wineries used history in their marketing communications to overcome the liability of newness in a settled field that valorizes duration and longevity.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple-case study investigated the treatment of history in marketing by young wineries in a new wine region. Data included interviews, site visits and marketing communications.

Findings

Wineries worked to communicate stakeholder legitimacy and authenticity by constructing organizational histories through bricolage, communicating history in symbolic, material and practice forms.

Research limitations/implications

Young organizations can communicate field legitimacy and projections of organizational and product authenticity through constructed histories. Results may not be generalizable to other jurisdictions as wine marketing is normatively subject to government regulation. The importance of history in marketing communications also varies across sectors.

Practical implications

Young businesses in sectors where tradition, place and longevity are venerated can establish authenticity and legitimacy through the marketization of history by following practices that demonstrate adherence to tradition and making thoughtful choices in the construction of the symbolic and material aspects of their organizations.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates that new/young organizations can use bricolage to create their own marketized histories as proxies for age.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

C. Michael Hall

Depending on the research approach one uses, the development of particular bodies of knowledge over time is the result of a combination of agency, chance, opportunity…

Abstract

Depending on the research approach one uses, the development of particular bodies of knowledge over time is the result of a combination of agency, chance, opportunity, patronage, power, or structure. This particular account of the development of geographies of tourism stresses its place as understood within the context of different approaches, different research behaviors and foci, and its location within the wider research community and society. The chapter charts the development of different epistemological, methodological, and theoretical traditions over time, their rise and fall, and, in some cases, rediscovery. The chapter concludes that the marketization of academic production will have an increasingly important influence on the nature and direction of tourism geographies.

Details

Geographies of Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-212-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Hanqin Qiu Zhang

China's travel agent industry started becoming a service industry after China opened its doors to the outside world in 1978. During the process of economic reform and…

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Abstract

China's travel agent industry started becoming a service industry after China opened its doors to the outside world in 1978. During the process of economic reform and marketization, the industry has become much more mature than 25 years ago. With China's accession to World Tourism Organization, the travel service industry will open its market for competition between foreign travel agents and the ones in China. Through studying and investigating the developing history and the current operating condition of the travel agents, this paper analyzes opportunities and challenges facing China's travel agents upon China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Jayne Krisjanous and Christine Hallett

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how a historical event packaged as an iconic heritage cultural brand can be marketized and modified over time to ensure brand…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how a historical event packaged as an iconic heritage cultural brand can be marketized and modified over time to ensure brand longevity and continued emotional commitment and loyalty through the leverage of stories and associations more closely aligned with modern-day audiences. The authors do this through examining the marketization of the New Zealand World War 1 (WWI) nurse to today’s audiences. The periods of study are WWI (1914–1918) and then the modern day. The New Zealand Army Nursing Service (NZANS) during WWI has previously had little attention as a key actor in the Australia and New Zealand Army Corp (ANZAC), Today ANZAC is held as pivotal in the birth of New Zealand’s perception of nationhood and as an iconic heritage cultural brand. The history and legend of the ANZAC plays an important role in New Zealand culture and is fundamental to the “Anzac Spirit”, a signifier of what it means to be a New Zealander.

Design/methodology/approach

A historical case study method is used. The primary source of data is 1914–1918, and includes contemporaneous articles, and personal writings: diaries, letters and published memoirs. More contemporary works form the basis for discussion of marketization as it relates to the NZANS. The article first presents conceptual framing, then the development of the Anzac brand and the history of the NZANS and its role in WWI before turning to discussion on the marketization of this nursing service to today’s audiences and as part of the ANZAC/Anzac brand.

Findings

Today the story of the WWI NZANS nurse, previously seldom heard, has been co-opted and is becoming increasingly merged as an integral part of the Anzac story. The history of the NZANS during WWI has a great deal of agency today as part of that story, serving many functions within it and providing a valuable lever for marketization.

Originality/value

To date, there is a scarcity of marketing analysis that examines the marketization of history. By focusing on New Zealand WWI nursing as a contributor to the Anzac story, the authors contribute to the understanding of how marketers package and contemporize history for appeal to audiences through both sustaining and reworking cultural branding.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

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