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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Muhammad Khalique, Khushbakht Hina, T. Ramayah and Jamal Abdul Nassir bin Shaari

The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of the components of intellectual capital on the organizational performance of SMEs operating in tourism sector at…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of the components of intellectual capital on the organizational performance of SMEs operating in tourism sector at Azad Jammu and Kashmir Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

In this empirical study, survey approach was used and primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. A total of 300 structured questionnaire survey forms were distributed through purposive sampling technique. Two hundred and twenty usable questionnaire survey forms were returned. Six research hypotheses were constructed to achieve the objective of this study. Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) 3 was used to test the proposed research hypotheses.

Findings

The findings showed that two out of six hypotheses were supported. Precisely, customer capital has appeared as one of the most important components of intellectual capital in model. The results showed that the overall intellectual capital has effect on the organizational performance of SMEs. Results shed more light on the effects that the components of intellectual capital have on organizational performance of SMEs, particularly in the context of Pakistan.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited to SMEs in tourism sector in Pakistan and the data were gathered through questionnaire which used mostly subjective measures. Subsequently, findings may not be applicable to other industries. The research contributes to the development of intellectual capital literature focused on the organizational performance in the perspective of SMEs in emerging economies. Future research needs to reach beyond the boundaries and understand the effect of intellectual capital on the performance of organizations.

Originality/value

This study extended the knowledge about the prominence of intellectual capital and its effect on the organizational performance of SMEs. Moreover, this study identified the level of existence and measurement of the six components of intellectual capital in SMEs which enables practitioners to develop adequate strategies to better manage it. To author's best knowledge, this study can be the first empirical study which investigates the impact of intellectual capital on the organizational performance of SMEs operating in tourism sector in Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Victor Middleton

The characteristics of millions of SMEs, the way they operate, the growing employment they sustain, their collective influence over the quality of tourism products and…

Abstract

The characteristics of millions of SMEs, the way they operate, the growing employment they sustain, their collective influence over the quality of tourism products and destinations, and how to influence their development is arguably the most important issue for European tourism as we approach the millennium. This paper is based on a three‐day conference, Agenda 2010, convened by the Wales Tourist Board (WTB) and held at Llandudno in May 1998 during the UK Presidency of the EU. The meeting, supported by DGXXIII and the Welsh Office, was designed to highlight the contribution of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) to European tourism and make recommendations for facilitating and supporting their activities in the future. SMEs are defined by the EC as businesses employing less than 250 employees although the great majority in tourism employ less than 10. Most readers will know that DGXXIII has separate responsibilities within the EC for SMEs and for tourism.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Carley Sutton

Human Sigma is an emerging topic among many academics and practitioners. At present, limited studies have been reported about the successful applications of Human Sigma in…

Abstract

Purpose

Human Sigma is an emerging topic among many academics and practitioners. At present, limited studies have been reported about the successful applications of Human Sigma in small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this paper therefore is to provide an analysis of contemporary business improvement tool implementation in UK tourism SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an exploratory study of the Human Sigma approach to business improvement. Particularly, the research offers an overview of approaches to business improvement, whilst also presenting a framework for the implementation of Human Sigma. Adopting a case study of tourism SMEs, the paper examines attitudes to service quality management in terms of the implementation of business improvement tools.

Findings

The results of the study reveal that many of the SMEs are not aware of the Human Sigma approach to business improvement and while there is a range of tools, techniques and approaches available, they perceive several key barriers to prevent them from fully engaging. The research highlights the critical success factors for successful implementation are often related to customers and not employees. The perceived benefits from the usage of these tools are also displayed.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this research are recognised, in particular the relatively small number of SMEs in a geographically confined area. Nevertheless, the research is intended primarily as an exploratory study designed to identify themes and issues as a basis for further research. Consequently, the study offers a number of significant findings that contribute more broadly to the Human Sigma literature.

Originality/value

This paper presents an initial study on the status of Human Sigma implementation in UK tourism SMEs. The service sector is dominated by a large number of SMEs and despite escalating attention paid within the literature to issues related to quality management, limited research has been undertaken into the utilisation and contribution of contemporary business improvements tools. A framework for the implementation of the Human Sigma approach to business improvement is illustrated. This paper will yield value to academics, consultants, researchers and practitioners.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Le Chi Cong and Dao Anh Thu

This research aims to adopt competitiveness theory to analyse the effects of leadership competencies on the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in…

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to adopt competitiveness theory to analyse the effects of leadership competencies on the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the tourism sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This research collected data from 200 participants, who are in management positions of tourism SMEs in Vietnam. Structural equation modelling was applied.

Findings

The results indicate satisfactory reliability and validity of the constructs and support for two models within a structural equation modelling to evaluate the influence of leadership competencies on the competitiveness of SMEs. The data from both customers and competitors show that the competitiveness and the performance of the enterprise are affected by hands-on experience; relationships building competencies; strategic vision; operations management competencies. Furthermore, customers also value professional knowledge of the enterprises' leaders.

Practical implications

The study suggests that the government agencies and tourism SMEs themselves should focus more on leadership. Training courses, exchange programs, seminars and workshops should be provided for SMEs leaders to improve their leadership competencies.

Originality/value

The research findings provide a more comprehensive view of internal and external factors affecting the competitiveness of SMEs in the tourism sector in Vietnam. This also contributes to competitiveness and leadership research by presenting the positive linkage between leadership competencies and the competitiveness of SMEs.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1859-0020

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2020

Gustavo Dambiski Gomes de Carvalho, June Alisson Westarb Cruz, Hélio Gomes de Carvalho, Luiz Carlos Duclós and Rúbia Oliveira Corrêa

This research aims to analyze the relations between coopetition and innovation, by comparing two coopetitive tourism SMEs networks in Brazil.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to analyze the relations between coopetition and innovation, by comparing two coopetitive tourism SMEs networks in Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

The first network comprises 23 SMEs in Honey Island, a natural reserve, and the second network comprises 21 out of 25 SMEs in the Campos Gerais region, recognized by its strong agribusiness. Innovativeness variables included innovation inputs, capabilities, and outputs; and four types of relations that foster innovation were considered, namely, commercial, informational, knowledge, and partnerships. Social network analysis was employed as well as statistical analyses such as Kolmogorov–Smirnov, Mann–Whitney, Spearman correlation and Fischer's Z transformation.

Findings

Results show that coopetition is related to SMEs innovativeness. Commercial relations centralities correlated with many innovation outputs, information and knowledge centralities with some innovation inputs and outputs, and partnerships also with capabilities.

Research limitations/implications

Besides contributing to the literature of innovation in tourism, this paper also contributes to the literature on coopetition and innovation by investigating how different types of coopetition relationships foster innovation inputs, capabilities, and outputs.

Practical implications

Managers may benefit from these findings by fostering specific innovation inputs, capabilities, or outputs by means of different coopetition relations. Similarly, regional tourism policy planners may also improve the innovativeness of tourism small businesses by fostering coopetition networks.

Originality/value

This paper not only compares the innovativeness of two small business coopetition networks in the tourism industry but also analyses quantitively in detail how different types of coopetition relations are related to different innovativeness variables.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2018

Namhyun Kim and Changsup Shim

This study aims to identify the structural relationship among social capital, knowledge sharing, innovation and performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify the structural relationship among social capital, knowledge sharing, innovation and performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a tourism cluster.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 199 valid questionnaires are collected from SMEs in the Bomun tourism cluster in South Korea. A structural equation modeling approach is used to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The findings suggest that social capital constructs, including network density of structural capital, relational capital and cognitive capital, all positively influence knowledge sharing among SMEs in the cluster. This implies that creating social capital is critical to enhancing the competitiveness of SMEs. This study confirms that knowledge sharing positively affects SME performance through innovation.

Research limitations/implications

This study suggests that social capital, consisting of structural, cognitive and relational capital, facilitates increased knowledge sharing and innovation in a tourism cluster, which in turn enhances SME business performance.

Practical/implications

This study suggests that tourism cluster policies should focus on how to create a friendly operational climate to build social capital and support SME innovation.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on social capital and innovation as well as the discourse on tourism clusters by addressing knowledge sharing among SMEs in a tourism cluster. It also expands the knowledge sharing and innovation literature by focusing on inter-organizational social networking among SMEs.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

Giang Hoang, Elisabeth Wilson-Evered and Leonie Lockstone-Binney

Innovation is ever more critical for sustainable business performance in the contemporary, global economic and social context. Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs

Abstract

Purpose

Innovation is ever more critical for sustainable business performance in the contemporary, global economic and social context. Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are arguably well positioned to innovate through their potential for rapid adjustment. Although leadership and organizational climate have been identified as playing a key role in innovation, little is known about whether such influences play out in SMEs. The aim of this study is to explore how leaders shape the organizational climate of their firms to enhance innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The article presents findings from semi-structured interviews conducted with 20 CEOs of SMEs in the Vietnamese tourism sector.

Findings

The findings indicate that SME leaders in the tourism sector influenced an organizational climate that provided for autonomy and supported innovation through a number of leadership approaches. They also used daily interaction-based practices to drive the innovative behaviors of employees and developed reward systems to encourage innovation in their organizations.

Research limitations/implications

This study explored leaders' approaches toward developing an organizational climate to stimulate innovation in tourism SMEs. Where leaders share frequent communication and knowledge with their subordinates, they perceive a climate for innovation developments, which stimulates innovation in tourism SMEs.

Practical implications

The study provides implications for managers to improve creativity and innovation in firms through the development of reward and incentive systems along with leadership and team development programs.

Originality/value

This study describes how different leader approaches affect innovation through orientating the organizational climate and business processes within their firms toward encouraging staff to initiate and try out new ideas.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

Anita Zehrer

The purpose of this paper is to explore the pertinent issues in the relationship between service experience and service design among small and medium‐sized enterprises …

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the pertinent issues in the relationship between service experience and service design among small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in the tourism industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual paper undertakes a thorough review of the relevant literature before developing propositions regarding service experience and service design for SMEs in the tourism industry.

Findings

Service experience must be appropriately managed by SME operators by collecting and evaluating relevant data on customer experience. Service design must be undertaken in a holistic manner that is embedded in the organisational culture of the service provider using tools such as “blueprinting”. Synergistic cooperation and learning regions among traditionally fragmented tourism providers are essential for achieving long‐term competitiveness.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should undertake empirical studies to validate and/or modify the propositions presented in this conceptual paper.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies to have addressed the relationship between experience management and service design for SMEs in the highly competitive tourism industry.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2009

David H. Brown and Laddawan Kaewkitipong

The research documented in this paper aims to explore e‐business uses in small and medium‐sized tourism enterprises compared with their larger counterparts.

Abstract

Purpose

The research documented in this paper aims to explore e‐business uses in small and medium‐sized tourism enterprises compared with their larger counterparts.

Design/methodology/approach

Five case studies were conducted with Thai tourism SMEs to investigate their technology adoption and use experiences. For large‐sized enterprises, an extensive review of industry's practice was conducted. A comparison was then carried out based on the scope of the technology, namely inter‐organisation, intra‐organisation, and front‐end side linking to customers.

Findings

In terms of e‐business use, it is not surprising that Thai SMEs remain less advanced in utilising e‐business technology. However, size is found to be a significant factor in determining SME behaviour not only in comparison to larger travel agencies or hotels, but also with the SME sector itself. Associated with this is application complexity that is again significant and linked to relative size. Finally, the choices made by small hotels and travel agents are shown to be influenced by the technology providers.

Research limitations/implications

The main research limitation is a limited generalisibility. Future research on SMEs in developing countries would make the comparison more sound and increase generalisability.

Practical implications

SMEs should pay more attention on strategic use of IT in order to compete with their larger competitors. At the policy level, more education on IT development skills and business potentials of IT are needed.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the literature on IT adoption in SMEs particularly with respect to size within the SME sector, the importance of complexity and the role of technology provider.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 22 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Li‐Jen Jessica Hwang and Andrew Lockwood

To provide insight into the barriers to the application of best practices in hospitality and tourism small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK.

Abstract

Purpose

To provide insight into the barriers to the application of best practices in hospitality and tourism small‐ and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

In‐depth interviews were conducted with owners, managers and staff in 89 award‐winning business in the hospitality and tourism industry. Eight areas of best practice that arose from an initial pilot study were investigated in the sample population of SME's. With a holistic and multiple‐cases analysis approach, the case studies are assembled to form a portrait of hospitality and tourism in the UK.

Findings

Results suggest a model identifying seven key capabilities that underlie the adoption of best practices and six barriers to their implementation. The seven key capabilities for hospitality and tourism SMEs are customer focused goals, planning and control, partnering and networking, internal and external communication, achieving consistent standards, strategic workforce management, cash flow and performance management. The six barriers to implementing best practices were identified as changing demand, limited resources, lack of skilled labour, lifestyle, lack of competitive benchmarking and location, all of which could create turbulence in the operational environment.

Research limitations/implications

As hospitality and tourism SMEs appear to inherit characteristics derived both from the small and medium size of the operation and the nature of the industry sector, the implications of the model and the associated barriers may create obstacles to the benefits of competitive benchmarking and lead to a loss of the pride and passion and impede the growth of their business.

Originality/value

Considerable diversity is demonstrated amongst SMEs in relation to their use of strategies while confirming some of the difficulties and challenges inherent to the industry and endemic to smaller organisations.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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