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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2020

Alisha Stein and B. Ramaseshan

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to examine the effects of different touch points on customer experience, second, effects of customer experience on loyalty…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to examine the effects of different touch points on customer experience, second, effects of customer experience on loyalty intentions, and actual spend, and third, the moderating role of motivation orientation on these effects.

Design/methodology/approach

By recognizing the importance of capturing customer experience assessments at the “time of the experience”, a smartphone technology mobile app was developed for the purpose of this study. Real time customer experience data were collected at individual touch points.

Findings

The results show that the real-time touch point evaluations significantly effect overall customer experience and that these effects significantly differ for utilitarian and hedonic motivation orientations. The effects of technology, atmospherics, employee–customer interaction and service/product interaction touch points on overall customer experience are significantly stronger for hedonic orientation than for utilitarian orientation. In contrast, the effect of process touch point on overall customer experience is significantly stronger for utilitarian than hedonic orientation. Also, favorable overall customer experience evaluations exert significant positive influence on loyalty intentions, and actual spend, and these influences are significantly stronger for consumers with hedonic than utilitarian motivation orientations.

Practical implications

The findings of this study will enable companies to manage customer experience programs effectively by providing an understanding of the distinct touch points that occur along the customer journey and the relative importance of each of these touch points in enhancing customer experience.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study that offers important insights on the effects of different touch points on customer experience, and on the moderating role of consumer motivation orientations on the touch points – customer experience – loyalty link by using real-time data.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Udechukwu Ojiako, Maxwell Chipulu and Andrew Graesser

This paper aims to contribute to extant research which emphasises the need for service suppliers to be able to leverage firm‐customer relationships through an…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to extant research which emphasises the need for service suppliers to be able to leverage firm‐customer relationships through an understanding of the correlation between service touchpoints and engagement parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors utilised multivariate methods (CATPCA and Pro‐fit) to analyse the data. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey of 238 respondents, sampled through the social networking site, “Facebook”.

Findings

It was found from the analysis of data that within the context of customer engagement, four critical parameters (“satisfaction”, “loyalty/advocacy”, “recruitment/retention” and “customer losses”) impact on customer touchpoints.

Research limitations/implications

The study is characterised by two limitations. The first is that the respondents' simultaneous utilisation of multiple touchpoints was not accounted for in the study. Second, the authors acknowledge that the narrow demographic spread of the respondents is a possible limitation of the study.

Originality/value

The study findings are grounded in empirical findings which is a departure from traditional scholarship on customer touchpoints which has been based on case observations and anecdotal evidence.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 112 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Bertil Hultén

The presented research aims to depict shoppers' touching behaviour in relation to the introduction of visual and olfactory sensory cues at point‐of‐purchase in a retail…

Abstract

Purpose

The presented research aims to depict shoppers' touching behaviour in relation to the introduction of visual and olfactory sensory cues at point‐of‐purchase in a retail setting. In the field of retailing research, there is a paucity of knowledge on how visual and olfactory sensory cues impact on consumers' touch behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The author presents a review of theoretically relevant work from retailing and consumer psychology, and an original study examining the impact of visual and olfactory sensory cues on consumer touch behaviour. The study was a field experiment in the glass department of the Swedish retailer IKEA. The design was quasi‐experimental with a convenience sample of shoppers assigned to a control group (n=451) and an experimental group (n=435).

Findings

In the reported study, the author finds significant differences between shoppers' touching behaviour in a manipulated point‐of‐purchase compared to a conventional one. The findings show that visual and olfactory sensory cues have a positive impact on shoppers' touching behaviour, purchase intentions and total sale.

Research limitations/implications

The findings demonstrate that sensory cues exert a positive impact on consumers' desire to touch. Sensory cues frame consumers' affective responses and decision making through involving the sense of touch.

Practical implications

The findings provide guidelines for managers of retail and service outlets, concerning the benefits of sensory cues in enhancing shoppers' touching behaviour at point‐of‐purchase.

Originality/value

The research demonstrates that the introduction of visual and olfactory sensory cues impact consumers' touch behaviour at point‐of‐purchase in a retail setting.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Werner Kurschl, Mirjam Augstein, Thomas Burger and Claudia Pointner

The purpose of this paper is to present an approach where a novel user modeling wizard for people with motor impairments is used to gain a deeper understanding of very…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an approach where a novel user modeling wizard for people with motor impairments is used to gain a deeper understanding of very specific (touch-based and touchless) interaction patterns. The findings are used to set up and fill a user model which allows to automatically derive an application- and user-specific configuration for natural user interfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on expert knowledge in the domain of software/user interfaces for people with special needs, a test-case –based user modeling tool was developed. Task-based user tests were conducted with seven users for the touch-based interaction scenario and with five users for the touchless interaction scenario. The participants are all people with different motor and/or cognitive impairments.

Findings

The paper describes the results of different test cases that were designed to model users’ touch-based and touchless interaction capabilities. To evaluate the tool’s findings, experts additionally judged the participants’ performance (their opinions were compared to the tool’s findings). The results suggest that the user modeling tool could quite well capture users’ capabilities.

Social implications

The paper presents a tool that can be used to model users’ interaction capabilities. The approach aims at taking over some of the (very time-consuming) configuration tasks consultants have to do to configure software according to the needs of people with disabilities. This can lead to a wider accessibility of software, especially in the area of gesture-based user interaction.

Originality/value

Part of the approach has been published in the proceedings of the Interactional Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia 2014. Significant additions have been made since (e.g. all of the touchless interaction part of the approach and the related user study).

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Markella Boudioni

The availability and the use of touch‐screen systems for accessing a range of information in different settings in the UK, in particular from socially excluded groups, are…

Abstract

The availability and the use of touch‐screen systems for accessing a range of information in different settings in the UK, in particular from socially excluded groups, are reviewed. A literature review and consultations with stakeholders are conducted. Touch‐screens are used widely by the Department of Works and Pensions; they are used for community services on a much smaller scale. NHS Direct provides the largest number of kiosks for health information and promotion; InTouch with Health, Wellpoint Health Centres, Patient Information for Consent Systems are some other examples. Some projects that target socially excluded groups are identified. Factors that determine usage and contribute to successful usage are also identified. The majority of stakeholders express the view that kiosks should be available in a variety of locations, irrespective of their specific content and information.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 55 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Simon Clatworthy

This paper aims to describe the development and evaluation of a process model to transform brand strategy into service experiences during the front end of new service…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the development and evaluation of a process model to transform brand strategy into service experiences during the front end of new service development (NSD). This is an important yet poorly understood transformation that occurs early in service development projects. The paper also aims to describe the theoretical basis for this transformation, and introduces a process model that has been developed to understand and assist with this. Further, it seeks to describe early evaluation results and reflections upon its use.

Design/methodology/approach

A research through design approach using participatory co‐design led to the development of the new process. The development was iterative and carried out together with three service providers. The process model was evaluated using a combination of qualitative methods, including interviews, observation and participatory observation.

Findings

This work underlines the importance of aligning the customer experience to the company brand and suggests how this can be achieved. A key element in this is the development of a service personality and consideration of service touchpoint behaviours through a combination of analytical work and experience prototyping. The suggested process model has received positive evaluation when used in commercial projects, in terms of brand congruence, project team cohesiveness and experiential result. The work advocates tighter integration between brand management and NSD, and has identified multiple issues regarding the content of a service brand strategy. These include the ways in which a brand department should communicate its brand strategy, and how it should be involved in NSD projects to ensure brand alignment.

Research limitations/implications

The evaluation of the model has limitations, both in terms of number of cases and downstream/long term effects. This should therefore be considered an initial evaluation of the model, requiring further verification.

Practical implications

The paper describes a structured three‐stage experience‐centric process that improves brand alignment in projects. Further, the work shows that brand specifications for services should increasingly focus upon desired customer experiences, service touchpoints and touchpoint behaviours rather than the current focus upon visual identity.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to suggest a process that transforms a brand strategy into customer experiences during NSD. It also adds original insights into the transition from brand to concept, bridging branding, service design and NSD.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Andrzej Kos, Krzysztof Boron and Ireneusz Brzozowski

This paper aims present a thermal touch screen for the blind – a thermal tablet. A blind person using the device can imagine simple graphics or characters by touching flat…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims present a thermal touch screen for the blind – a thermal tablet. A blind person using the device can imagine simple graphics or characters by touching flat thermal screen, which consists of reversible heat points, either warm or cold in different time. For the purpose, a thermal touch screen has been designed, fabricated and tested with a help of the blind.

Design/methodology/approach

The screen contains 294 Peltier modules working as reversible small heat sources that keep pre-set different temperature. The tablet can easily present thermal images and characters generated directly by an interfaced PC. Design methodology is based on own authors’ patent.

Findings

This paper presents original design and construction stages, as well as tests and usefulness of the device. The tests were carried out with participation of blind students who suggested how to tune the final parameters of the device in such a way that presentation and recognition of thermal information is easy and quick.

Originality/value

The thermal tablet consists of original hardware and software. Both of them collaborate each other and make the tablet useful for the blind. It has been proved by series of tests.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Jane Brown, Anders Wäppling and Helen Woodruffe-Burton

The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to questionnaires as a corporate touch point, and their relationship with corporate identity (CI).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to questionnaires as a corporate touch point, and their relationship with corporate identity (CI).

Design/methodology/approach

Following observational research, the paper presents a review of published works, including journals, textbooks and industry papers that consider qualitative aspects of questionnaire design. Primary data was collected via existential phenomenological interviews to understand the experiences of employees who engage with questionnaires from external companies within the industrial business-to-business (B2B) industry.

Findings

A lack of practical advice around aesthetic appearance of questionnaires in both journal papers and research design textbooks is identified, suggesting limited awareness of visual aspects of questionnaire design, even for those with formal training. Through interviews, it is suggested that poor design is forgiven through the understanding of the practical nature of the document, the idea that CI is a performance that is unnecessary at particular points of the B2B relationship, and that a more powerful company need not spend time on CI if collecting data from a stakeholder that is perhaps perceived as less important than other stakeholders. The findings indicate that organisations should consider questionnaires as a vehicle to promote CI, and as stakeholders to consider the document in terms of their relationship with the issuing company.

Research limitations/implications

This study proposes that qualitative inquiry is required to further determine how questionnaires are understood as a corporate touch point by stakeholders.

Originality/value

This paper considers the relationship between questionnaire appearance and stakeholder perceptions in the context of CI.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Mustafa Cakir and Cengiz Deniz

The purpose of this study is to present a novel method for industrial robot TCP (tool center point) calibration. The proposed method offers fully automated robot TCP…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a novel method for industrial robot TCP (tool center point) calibration. The proposed method offers fully automated robot TCP calibration within a defined cycle time. The method is applicable for large-scale installations due to its zero cost for each robot.

Design/methodology/approach

Precise and expensive measuring equipment or specially designed reference devices are required for robot calibration. The calibration can be performed by using only one plane plate in this method, and the calibration procedure is defined step by step: the robot moves to the target plane position. Then, the TCP touches the plane and the actual robot configuration is recorded. Then robot moves back into position and the same step is repeated for a new sample. Alternatively, the robot can be stationary and the plane can be moved towards the robot TCP. TCP is calculated by processing the difference of the contact points recorded at different positions. The process is fully automated. No special equipment is used. The calculations are very simple, and the robot controller can easily be realized.

Findings

The conventional manual robot TCP calibration process takes about 15 min and takes more time in case of the high accuracy. The proposed method reduces this time to less than 3 min without operator support. Practical tests have shown that TCP calibration can be performed with 0.1-0.6 mm of accuracy. This solution is an automated process and does not require special installation and it also has approximately zero cost. For this reason, this study recommends using the proposed solution widely in areas where even one or hundreds of robots are located.

Research limitations/implications

In this study, the data were directly taken from the robot controller without using any special measuring equipment. The industrial robot used in the tests has no absolute calibration. The classical “four-point method” was used for reference TCP data. It is the initial acceptance that this process conducted with extreme care and by using a needle-tipped tool will not produce exact values. It was observed that deviation of the TCP from a fixed point in reorient motions was not more than 0.5 mm. This method has been validated for different bits. The pilot works for different robot applications in Ford Otosan Gölcük Plant have been completed and dissemination has started.

Originality/value

Although the approach uses is clear and simple, it is surprising that the calculation of TCP using plane equations has so far not been mentioned in the literature. The disadvantage of using either fixed point or sphere as a reference is that the TCP cannot automatically guide to the target. This problem was overcome with the use of a larger target plane plate and the process was fully automated. The proposed method can be widely used in practical applications.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Antti Konttila, Marja Harjumaa, Salla Muuraiskangas, Mikko Jokela and Minna Isomursu

This article aims to explore the possibilities and use of a mobile technology‐supported audio annotation system that can be used for attaching free‐formatted audio…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to explore the possibilities and use of a mobile technology‐supported audio annotation system that can be used for attaching free‐formatted audio annotations to physical objects. The solution can help visually impaired people to identify objects and associate additional information with these objects.

Design/methodology/approach

A human‐centred design approach was adopted in the system's development and potential end‐users were involved in the development process. In order to evaluate the emerging use cases, as well as the usefulness and usability of the application, a qualitative field trial was conducted with ten visually impaired or blind users.

Findings

The findings show that visually impaired users learned to use the application easily and found it easy and robust to use. Most users responded positively towards the idea of tagging items with their own voice messages. Some users found the technology very useful and saw many possibilities for using it in the future. The most common targets for tagging were food items; however, some users had difficulties in integrating the solution with their everyday practices.

Originality/value

This paper presents an innovative mobile phone application with a touch and audio user interface. The actual use cases describe the everyday needs of visually impaired people and this information might be valuable to service providers and technology developers. Also, the experiences gained from these trials can be used when developing software for the visually impaired on other platforms.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

Keywords

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