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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Torsten Schmitz

This paper seeks to analyse the different characteristics a bill of lading holds as a document of title, including the proprietary effects a transfer of goods in transit…

3078

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to analyse the different characteristics a bill of lading holds as a document of title, including the proprietary effects a transfer of goods in transit can have and the bill's use as a means of security as well as its limitations in mo6dern international commerce.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the document's nature and the evolution of its traditional legal functions. The analysis includes, among other things, the implications different types of bills have as an instrument in commercial trade. Special attention is given to the attributes that are likely to limit the bill's application in modern international trade, concerning both its scope and value. Finally, the paper offers a set of conclusions and suggests reform measures.

Findings

The paper shows how technological innovations in recent years have resulted in the emergence of new forms of transport documentation that might challenge the bill's role in the future. The paper provides a clear understanding of the problems associated with the bill's current form and outlines the main approaches proposed to meet its need for reform.

Practical implications

The paper offers a conceptual analysis of the bill's weak points and discusses how simplification and standardisation, a central registry system and electronic transmission of information may be able to increase efficiency.

Originality/value

Critical assessment undertaken may pave the way for an open discussion on the subject. Legal culture and mercantile customs should be taken into consideration if a successful and sustainable reform is to be achieved.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Henry X. Shi, Deborah M. Shepherd and Torsten Schmidts

The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical insights to understanding trust as a relational form of social capital, and its effects on entrepreneurial processes, in…

3295

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical insights to understanding trust as a relational form of social capital, and its effects on entrepreneurial processes, in small- and medium-sized family businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a qualitative case-study approach, with data from fieldwork interviews, observations, and secondary sources analysed by using interpretative methods.

Findings

Although multiple types of trust exist concurrently in small- and medium-sized Chinese family businesses, it is interpersonal trust on the basis of goodwill and competence that prevails, while contractual trust is weak and marginal. Three patterns of trusting relationships are identified, each of which has both positive and negative effects on entrepreneurship and innovation in family businesses. There is a potential “dark side” of trust, which incurs extra cost and commitment to small- and medium-sized family businesses in their entrepreneurial processes.

Research limitations/implications

Future research with larger sample sizes is suggested to generalise the insights, by using both qualitative and quantitative methods. More empirical work is needed to further clarify the antecedents of trust as a social capital and the potential “dark side” of trust in small- and medium-sized family businesses, particularly across generations.

Practical implications

Family business owner-managers should try to avoid relying on a single type of trust, which may incur extra costs to the entrepreneurial processes. They need to better understand why they trust certain actors in their business and social networks before assigning resources to specific business activities. Policy makers are suggested to recognise the “benefits” of the traditionally family-oriented values and that kinship-based trust is also a relational form of social capital and can produce entrepreneurial outcomes.

Originality/value

The paper critically reviews existing literature on social capital, trust, entrepreneurship, and family business at their point of intersection and identifies gaps and oversights. Drawing on case studies from China, the paper explores different patterns in which trust develops in second-generation small- and medium-sized Chinese family businesses and their varying effects on entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Peter Ehnold, Eric Faß, Dirk Steinbach and Torsten Schlesinger

The intention of this paper is to identify the scope and purpose of the use of digital tools in voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) and to identify club-specific factors that…

Abstract

Purpose

The intention of this paper is to identify the scope and purpose of the use of digital tools in voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) and to identify club-specific factors that influence their usage behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted among VSCs in Austria and in Germany (n = 787). To answer the key questions, patterns of digital use in VSCs were analyzed in relation to the overall organizational goals and organizational capacity. In addition to the description of the clubs' usage behavior patterns, a multiple linear regression model (blockwise) and quantile regression models were estimated.

Findings

The descriptive results show that digital instruments are most used in the areas of “internal/external communication” (93.7%) and “to report membership data to federations” (82.1%). The OLS and quantile regression models indicate that user behavior is primarily influenced by the following factors: the goals of “commitment/success in competitive sports” and “cooperation with other institutions”; the organizational factors “digital processes do not fit with our club culture”, “proportion of volunteers with administrative tasks”, “we do not yet have a clear digitalization strategy for our club” and “lack of financial resources for necessary IT investments”.

Originality/value

Digital technologies appear to be promising for organizational development in VSCs. However, what the usage behavior of digital instruments in VSCs currently is, and by which factors this usage is influenced, has not been the focus of empirical analysis yet. The study provides initial insights into the understanding of digitalization in VSCs that can be used for consulting and ongoing research.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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