Search results

1 – 10 of over 55000
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Xiuzhi Qu and Brent Stucker

This paper presents an offset‐based tool path generation method for STL format three‐dimensional (3D) models. The created toolpaths can be effectively used to…

1666

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents an offset‐based tool path generation method for STL format three‐dimensional (3D) models. The created toolpaths can be effectively used to near‐net‐shaped parts, in particular those created using rapid prototyping.

Design/methodology/approach

The STL model is first offset by the distance of the selected cutter radius using a unique 3D offset method. The intersections between the top facing triangles of the offset model and toolpath drive planes are calculated. The intersection line segments are sorted, trimmed and linked to generate continuous top envelope curves, which represent interference‐free tool paths.

Findings

The developed offset‐based algorithm can rapidly and successfully generate interference‐free tool paths as continuous lines, instead of a collection of discrete tool location points. The strategy of using adaptive step‐over distances based on local geometrical information can significantly increase machining efficiency.

Research limitations/implications

The current tool path generation method only works for ball‐end mills. The entire surface of the STL model is treated as a single composite surface to be machined using raster milling. To improve machining efficiency, an automatic surface splitting algorithm could be developed to divide the model into several regions based on the characteristics of a group of triangular facets, and then machine these identified regions using different strategies and cutters.

Originality/value

The offset‐based toolpath generation algorithm from STL models is a unique and novel development, which is useful in the rapid prototyping and computer‐aided machining areas.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Heping Chen, Thomas Fuhlbrigge and Xiongzi Li

Paint path planning for industrial robots is critical for uniform paint distribution, process cycle time and material waste, etc. However, paint path planning is still a…

1975

Abstract

Purpose

Paint path planning for industrial robots is critical for uniform paint distribution, process cycle time and material waste, etc. However, paint path planning is still a costly and time‐consuming process. Currently paint path planning has always caused a bottle‐neck for manufacturing automation because typical manual teaching methods are tedious, error‐prone and skill‐dependent. Hence, it is essential to develop automated tool path‐planning methods to replace manual paint path planning. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing automated tool path‐planning methods, and investigate their advantages and disadvantages.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes the form of a review of automated tool path‐planning methods, to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of the current technologies.

Findings

Paint path planning is a very complicated task considering complex parts, paint process requirements and complicated spraying tools. There are some research and development efforts in this area. Based on the review of the methods used for paint path planning and simulation, the paper concludes that: the tessellated CAD model formats have many advantages in paint path planning and paint deposition simulation. However, the tessellated CAD model formats lack edge and connection information. Hence, it may not be suitable for some applications requiring edge following, such as welding. For the spray gun model, more complicated models, such as 2D models, should be used for both path planning and paint distribution simulation. Paint path generation methods should be able to generate a paint path for complex automotive parts without assumptions, such as presupposing a part with a continuous surface.

Practical implications

The paper makes possible automated path generation for spray‐painting process using industrial robots such that the path‐planning time can be reduced, the product quality improved, etc.

Originality/value

The paper provides a useful review of current paint path‐planning methodologies based on the CAD models of parts.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Fusheng Dai, Shuaifeng Zhang, Runsheng Li and Haiou Zhang

This paper aims to present a series of approaches for three-related issues in multiaxis in wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) as follows: how to achieve a stable…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a series of approaches for three-related issues in multiaxis in wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) as follows: how to achieve a stable and robust deposition process and maintain uniform growth of the part; how to maintain consistent formation of a melt pool on the surface of the workpiece; and how to fabricate an overhanging structure without supports.

Design/methodology/approach

The principal component analysis-based path planning approach is proposed to compute the best scanning directions of slicing contours for the generation of filling paths, including zigzag paths and parallel skeleton paths. These printing paths have been experimented with in WAAM. To maintain consistent formation of a melt pool at overhanging regions, the authors introduce definitions for the overhanging point, overhanging distance and overhanging vector, with which the authors can compute and optimize the multiaxis motion. A novel fabricating strategy of depositing the overhanging segments as a support for the deposition of filling paths is presented.

Findings

The second principal component of a planar contour is a reasonable scanning direction to generate zigzag filling paths and parallel skeleton filling paths. The overhanging regions of a printing layer can be supported by pre-deposition of overhanging segments. Large overhangs can be successfully fabricated by the multiaxis WAAM process without supporting structures.

Originality/value

An intelligent approach of generating zigzag printing paths and parallel skeleton printing paths. Optimizations of depositing zigzag paths and parallel skeleton paths. Applications of overhanging point overhanging distance and overhanging vector for multiaxis motion planning. A novel fabricating strategy of depositing the overhanging segments as a support for the deposition of filling paths.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 October 2021

Victor E. Kane

The goal of this work is to clarify seven useful DMAIC Analyze phase options for developing process improvement opportunities required for successful projects.

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this work is to clarify seven useful DMAIC Analyze phase options for developing process improvement opportunities required for successful projects.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a scientific method problem solving structure, IO possibilities are shown to be predicted by rejecting a conceptual testable hypothesis.

Findings

Seven analysis paths are identified that enable learners to develop multiple IO discovery strategies and to narrow tool selection options. Four benefit areas for identifying analysis paths are given: improved training, continuous improvement foundation, leadership support and framework clarification.

Research limitations/implications

Any starting list of analysis paths for developing IOs would be incomplete. The diversity of application experiences and tools will add to the current list.

Practical implications

Learners participating in LSS activities are aware of management's expectation that they will develop IOs to justify the LSS investment. Tool-focused training may leave some learners unclear about the multiple possible sources for IOs. Identifying useful analysis paths with associated tools for IO discovery will address any learner's Analyze phase uncertainty and facilitate expanded opportunities.

Originality/value

Any successful LSS project must discover IOs to develop improvement actions. Clarifying IO discovery alternatives will encourage team brainstorming on Analyze phase investigative options. This framework identifying LSS improvement paths will assist practitioners in training and communicating with leadership and learners the range of approaches for developing improvement actions.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 39 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2003

Zezhong C. Chen, Zuomin Dong and Geoffrey W. Vickers

The objective of CNC machining is to produce mechanical parts with designed quality most efficiently. To generate CNC tool paths for machining a sculptured part using a…

1261

Abstract

The objective of CNC machining is to produce mechanical parts with designed quality most efficiently. To generate CNC tool paths for machining a sculptured part using a three‐axis CNC machine, surface geometry, cutter shape and size, as well as tool path interval and direction need to be considered. In this work, the relation between the direction of a tool motion and cutting efficiency is studied. A new measure of cutting efficiency in three‐axis CNC milling – the length of effective cutting edge (ECE) is introduced. The ECE length is mathematically proven to reach its maximum when the tool cuts a sculptured surface along its steepest tangent direction at the cutter contact point. The steepest tangent direction is thus proven to be the most efficient tool feed direction in three‐axis sculptured part machining. The study identifies tool feed direction as a new control parameter in CNC tool path planning, and forms the foundation for further research on three‐axis tool path generation of sculptured parts.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 14 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

W.M. Zhu and K.M. Yu

Tool path generation is the key procedure to fabricate multi‐material (MM) assemblies in rapid prototyping (RP) machines. In slicing MM assembly, there will be 2D regions…

Abstract

Tool path generation is the key procedure to fabricate multi‐material (MM) assemblies in rapid prototyping (RP) machines. In slicing MM assembly, there will be 2D regions of different materials. The regions need to be filled into 2.5D slabs. In order to complete all regions in a certain slice faster, tool holders should fill the regions simultaneously. In other words, the tool holders will move around in the RP work envelope concurrently. In such case, interference between tool holders may occur. Therefore, collision‐free path plan should be generated. In this paper, a dexel based spatio‐temporal modelling approach is proposed for detecting collision in rapid manufacturing MM assemblies. The approach is based on 2D regions in dexel representation, which needs only simple computation. As a result, tool holders can fill MM regions simultaneously and efficiently.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Marija Đakulovic and Ivan Petrovic

The purpose of this paper is to present a path planning algorithm for a non‐circular shaped mobile robot to autonomously navigate in an unknown area for humanitarian…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a path planning algorithm for a non‐circular shaped mobile robot to autonomously navigate in an unknown area for humanitarian demining. For that purpose the path planning problem comes down to planning a path from some starting location to a final location in an area so that the robot covers all the reachable positions in the area while following the planned path.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed algorithm uses occupancy grid map representation of the area. Every free cell in the grid map represents a node in the graph being searched to find the complete coverage path. The complete coverage path is followed by the dynamic window algorithm, which includes robot's kinematic and dynamic constraints.

Findings

The proposed algorithm finds the complete coverage path in the graph accounting for the dimensions of the mobile robot, where non‐circular shaped robots can be easily included. The algorithms are implemented under the ROS (robot operating system) and tested in the stage 3D simulator for mobile robots with a randomly generated simulation map of an unknown area.

Research limitations/implications

Some parts of the area close to obstacles are hard to cover due to complex non‐circular shaped robot and non‐perfect path following. The future work should include better path following algorithm.

Practical implications

The proposed algorithm has shown itself as effective and could meet the working demands of humanitarian demining.

Originality/value

The algorithm proposed in the paper enables complete coverage path planning of non‐circular shaped robots in unknown areas.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Fusheng Dai, Haiou Zhang and Runsheng Li

The study aims to fabricate large metal components with overhangs built on cylindrical or conical surfaces with a high dimensional precision. It proposes methods to…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to fabricate large metal components with overhangs built on cylindrical or conical surfaces with a high dimensional precision. It proposes methods to address the problems of generating tool-paths on cylindrical or conical surfaces simply and precisely, and planning the welding process on these developable surfaces.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents the algorithm of tool-paths planning on conical surfaces using a parametric slicing equation and a spatial mapping method and deduces the algorithm of five-axis transformation by addressing the rotating question of two sequential points. The welding process is investigated with a regression fitting model on a flat surface, and experimented on a conical surface, which can be flattened onto a flat surface.

Findings

The paper provides slicing and path-mapping expressions for cylindrical and conical surfaces and a curvature-speed-width (CSW) model for wire and arc additive manufacturing to improve the surface appearances. The path-planning method and CSW model can be applied in the five-axis fabrication of the prototype of an underwater thruster. The CSW model has a confidence coefficient of 98.02% and root mean squared error of 0.2777 mm. The reverse measuring of the finished blades shows the residual deformation: an average positive deformation of about 0.5546 mm on one side of the blades and an average negative deformation of about −0.4718 mm on the other side.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability for the fabrication based on arbitrary surfaces.

Originality/value

This paper presented an integrated slicing, tool-path planning and welding process planning method for five-axis wire and arc additive manufacturing.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2010

Joseph E. Petrzelka and Matthew C. Frank

Subtractive rapid prototyping (SRP) uses layer‐based removal from a plurality of orientations in order to create geometry in a highly automated manner. However, unlike…

1129

Abstract

Purpose

Subtractive rapid prototyping (SRP) uses layer‐based removal from a plurality of orientations in order to create geometry in a highly automated manner. However, unlike additive means, the method can be inefficient due to redundant cutting operations on previously machined regions. The purpose of this paper is to present process planning methods for SRP, specifically dealing with stock material management in multiple setup operations.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of remaining stock material was performed by considering slices of respective stereolithography (STL) models. Further, an initial approximation was made of accessibility to enable iterative visibility analysis. The combination of these approaches led to efficient and fast algorithms. After analysis, the slices could be converted back to useful STL models through polyhedral reconstruction.

Findings

This method of approximation yields results similar to exact geometry. Using remaining stock data from this approach leads to a significant reduction in tool path length and processing time in SRP.

Originality/value

This paper presents novel methods of geometric representation and inaccessible volume calculation for four‐axis layer‐based machining and shows a successful implementation in an SRP system.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Oguzhan Yilmaz, Dominic Noble, Nabil N.Z. Gindy and Jian Gao

This paper discusses research on machining and repairing of turbomachinery components which are generally complex geometries and made up of difficult to machine materials…

2736

Abstract

Purpose

This paper discusses research on machining and repairing of turbomachinery components which are generally complex geometries and made up of difficult to machine materials (nickel super alloys or titanium alloys).

Design/methodology/approach

The approaches, methods and methodologies used for machining and repairing of blades are reviewed as well as the comparisons between them are made.

Findings

Particularly, the most recent blade machining and repair techniques using high flexible machine tools and industrial robots, are mentioned.

Practical implications

The limitation of the approaches, methods and methodologies are given and supported by real practical application examples.

Originality/value

This paper presents a state of the art review of research in machining and repairing of turbomachinery components, which have been mainly done in the last decade. The paper act as a reference, gathering the works about turbomachinery components from a manufacturing point of view.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 77 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 55000