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Article

Canzhi Guo, Chunguang Xu, Dingguo Xiao, Hanming Zhang and Juan Hao

With the development of materials science and technology, composite workpieces are increasingly used. This paper aims to discuss a non-destructive testing (NDT) solution…

Abstract

Purpose

With the development of materials science and technology, composite workpieces are increasingly used. This paper aims to discuss a non-destructive testing (NDT) solution for semi-enclosed composite workpieces. A dual-robot system with one robot that grips an irregular-shaped ultrasonic probe (tool) is established.

Design/methodology/approach

According to robotics, this paper defines the orientations of the discrete points coordinate frames in trajectory and proposes an orientation constraint rule between the tool coordinate frame and the scanning trajectory. A four-posture calibration method for calibrating the transformation relationship of the irregular-shaped tool frame relative to the robot flange frame is presented in detail.

Findings

Calibration and verification experiments were performed, and good-quality C-scan images were obtained by applying the constraint rule and the calibration method. Experimental results show that the calibration method used to determine the tool centre point (TCP) position is correct, effective and efficient; the TCP orientation constraint rule can ensure the extension pole of the irregular-shaped ultrasonic probe is parallel to the axis of the semi-enclosed cylindrical workpieces; and the ultrasonic transducer axis is perpendicular to the surface of the workpiece.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a constraint method for the posture of an irregular-shaped tool in this scheme. Theoretical foundations for the four-posture calibration method of the irregular-shaped tool for dual-robot-assisted ultrasonic NDT are presented in detail. This strategy has been successfully applied in the NDT experiment of semi-enclosed composite workpieces.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article

Mustafa Cakir and Cengiz Deniz

The purpose of this study is to present a novel method for industrial robot TCP (tool center point) calibration. The proposed method offers fully automated robot TCP…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a novel method for industrial robot TCP (tool center point) calibration. The proposed method offers fully automated robot TCP calibration within a defined cycle time. The method is applicable for large-scale installations due to its zero cost for each robot.

Design/methodology/approach

Precise and expensive measuring equipment or specially designed reference devices are required for robot calibration. The calibration can be performed by using only one plane plate in this method, and the calibration procedure is defined step by step: the robot moves to the target plane position. Then, the TCP touches the plane and the actual robot configuration is recorded. Then robot moves back into position and the same step is repeated for a new sample. Alternatively, the robot can be stationary and the plane can be moved towards the robot TCP. TCP is calculated by processing the difference of the contact points recorded at different positions. The process is fully automated. No special equipment is used. The calculations are very simple, and the robot controller can easily be realized.

Findings

The conventional manual robot TCP calibration process takes about 15 min and takes more time in case of the high accuracy. The proposed method reduces this time to less than 3 min without operator support. Practical tests have shown that TCP calibration can be performed with 0.1-0.6 mm of accuracy. This solution is an automated process and does not require special installation and it also has approximately zero cost. For this reason, this study recommends using the proposed solution widely in areas where even one or hundreds of robots are located.

Research limitations/implications

In this study, the data were directly taken from the robot controller without using any special measuring equipment. The industrial robot used in the tests has no absolute calibration. The classical “four-point method” was used for reference TCP data. It is the initial acceptance that this process conducted with extreme care and by using a needle-tipped tool will not produce exact values. It was observed that deviation of the TCP from a fixed point in reorient motions was not more than 0.5 mm. This method has been validated for different bits. The pilot works for different robot applications in Ford Otosan Gölcük Plant have been completed and dissemination has started.

Originality/value

Although the approach uses is clear and simple, it is surprising that the calculation of TCP using plane equations has so far not been mentioned in the literature. The disadvantage of using either fixed point or sphere as a reference is that the TCP cannot automatically guide to the target. This problem was overcome with the use of a larger target plane plate and the process was fully automated. The proposed method can be widely used in practical applications.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Content available
Article

Jack Hollingum

Abstract

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article

Rajkumar Gothandaraman and Sreekumar Muthuswamy

This paper aims to propose a system to acquire images automatically for digital reconstruction of heritage artifacts using a six-degree of freedom industrial manipulator.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a system to acquire images automatically for digital reconstruction of heritage artifacts using a six-degree of freedom industrial manipulator.

Design/methodology/approach

A virtual environment is created using Robot Studio® software to integrate the trajectory and differential motion of the robot manipulator and the motion of camera while acquiring images. A new area similarity matrix method is proposed to reduce the number of images required for digital reconstruction using Autodesk Recap® software. Real-time experiments have been performed using objects such as minion, ultimaker robot and cube. Evaluation of the digital reconstruction is conducted using the contour area matching method.

Findings

The number of images required for reconstruction based on area similarity matrix method is reduced to 63 per cent when compared with the random selection method. Quality parameters such as surface area, volume, number of defect holes, vertices and faces are enhanced for the proposed method.

Research limitations/implications

Digital reconstruction of large-sized heritage artifacts cannot be performed in this setup. But this can be overcome by fixing the manipulator on a mobile platform or overhead crane. This paper does not discuss the reconstruction of partially damaged heritage artifacts, which could be accomplished based on deep learning techniques.

Practical implications

Using this approach, off-the-shelf heritage artifacts and large-scale objects can be reconstructed digitally with a minimum number of images and without compromising the quality of original models.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, area similarity-based approach in 3D digital reconstruction by coupling the kinematics of an industrial manipulator and camera is proposed for the first time. A fully automated digital reconstruction technology to preserve valuable heritage artifacts has been developed. It also highlights the space constraints of the industrial manipulator in digital reconstruction.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article

Patrick A. Finlay and Paul Morgan

This paper discusses the benefits that arise from the use of a robot arm for guiding neurosurgical operations. The design and operation of the PathFinder, safety issues…

Abstract

This paper discusses the benefits that arise from the use of a robot arm for guiding neurosurgical operations. The design and operation of the PathFinder, safety issues and the accuracies that can be obtained and the use of a robot held camera for system calibration are described.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article

Gianmauro Fontana, Serena Ruggeri, Irene Fassi and Giovanni Legnani

The purpose of this paper was the design, development, and test of a flexible and reconfigurable experimental setup for the automatic manipulation of microcomponents…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was the design, development, and test of a flexible and reconfigurable experimental setup for the automatic manipulation of microcomponents, enhanced by an accurately developed vision-based control.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve a flexible and reconfigurable system, an experimental setup based on 4 degrees of freedom robot and a two-camera vision system was designed. Vision-based strategies were adopted to suitably support the motion system in easily performing precise manipulation operations. A portable and flexible program, incorporating the machine vision module and the control module of the task operation, was developed. Non-conventional calibration strategies were also conceived for the complete calibration of the work-cell. The developed setup was tested and exploited in the execution of repetitive tests of the grasping and releasing of microcomponents, testing also different grasping and releasing strategies.

Findings

The system showed its ability in automatically manipulating microcomponents with two different types of vacuum grippers. The performed tests evaluated the success and precision of the part grasping and release, which is a crucial aspect of micromanipulation. The results confirm reliability in grasping and that the release is precluded by adhesive effects. Thus, different strategies were adopted to improve the efficiency in the release of stuck components without negatively affecting the accuracy nor the repeatability of the positioning.

Originality/value

This work provided a flexible and reconfigurable architecture devoted to the automatic manipulation of microcomponents, methodologies for the characterization of different vacuum microgrippers, and quantitative information about their performance, to date missing in literature.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article

John Owens and Kevin Piatkowski

Describes how a robot simulation software package was used to performthe simulation, calibration and Off‐line programming of awaterjet‐cutting workcell, used for cutting…

Abstract

Describes how a robot simulation software package was used to perform the simulation, calibration and Off‐line programming of a waterjet‐cutting workcell, used for cutting pelts. The workcell consisting of a robot using an RJ controller and the TP robot language had to cut four parts from one pelt. Describes the difficulties encountered using manual programming and how the robot simulation package solved the problems of accuracy and repeatability. Concludes that parts were cut to a higher accuracy and programming time was drastically reduced using the simulation software.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article

Oren Masory

Describes the work undertaken at the Florida Atlantic University Robotics Center. Outlines the Center’s mission and infrastructure and looks in detail at the teaching…

Abstract

Describes the work undertaken at the Florida Atlantic University Robotics Center. Outlines the Center’s mission and infrastructure and looks in detail at the teaching activities – aimed at graduate students. Also describes a number of the research activities currently in progress.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article

Chaminda Wijethilake, Rahat Munir and Ranjith Appuhami

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of management control systems (MCS) in strategically responding to institutional pressures for sustainability (IPS)…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of management control systems (MCS) in strategically responding to institutional pressures for sustainability (IPS). Drawing on institutional theory (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983) and strategic responses to institutional pressures framework (Oliver, 1991), the study argues that organisations strategically respond to IPS using MCS.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected by interviewing sustainability managers of a large-scale multinational apparel manufacturing organisation with its headquarters in Sri Lanka.

Findings

The study finds that organisations actively respond to IPS using acquiescence, compromise, avoidance, defiance, and manipulation strategies. The results not only reveal that formal MCS play a critical role in complying with IPS, but also in more active responses, including compromise, avoidance, defiance, and manipulation. The findings highlight that organisations use MCS as a medium to respond strategically to IPS, and in turn, the use of MCS has important implications for organisational change and improvement.

Practical implications

The study has implications for Western organisations, finding that suppliers committed to sustainability in Asia strategically respond to IPS as a means of strengthening outsourcing contracts, instead of blindly accepting. Findings indicate that organisational changes and success seem to be a function of strategically responding to IPS rather than operating an organisation by neglecting sustainability challenges. The organisational ability to use MCS in strategically responding to IPS has the potential for long-term value creation.

Originality/value

This study provides novel insights into the MCS, strategy and sustainability literatures by exploring different uses of MCS tools in strategically responding to IPS. More specifically, it shows how the use of MCS tools varies in supporting strategic responses, and with respective IPS. In doing so, it enhances our understanding of the importance of the use of MCS in dynamics of institutional change and practical variances in strategically responding to IPS.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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