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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2007

Tony W. Tong and Jeffrey J. Reuer

Real options theory begins by drawing an analogy between real options and financial options. A financial option is a derivative security whose value is derived from the…

Abstract

Real options theory begins by drawing an analogy between real options and financial options. A financial option is a derivative security whose value is derived from the worth and characteristics of another financial security, or the so-called underlying asset. By definition, a financial option gives its holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying asset at a specified price (i.e., the exercise price) on or before a given date (i.e., the expiration date). Financial economists Black and Scholes (1973) and Merton (1973) pioneered a formula for the valuation of a financial option, and their methodology has opened up the subsequent research on the pricing of financial assets and paved the way for the development of real options theory.

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Real Options Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1427-0

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2007

Jeffrey J. Reuer and Tony W. Tong

This paper categorizes and critiques the empirical research strategies that have been employed to test real options theory. Existing research has sought to detect valuable…

Abstract

This paper categorizes and critiques the empirical research strategies that have been employed to test real options theory. Existing research has sought to detect valuable options in firms’ strategic investments as well as to investigate the payoffs from these investments. Our review highlights some of the evidence that has accumulated in recent years for real options theory. We flag some of the most important challenges and tradeoffs associated with the use of different empirical research approaches for testing real options theory in strategic management. The paper concludes by offering a number of research priorities to advance the theory by probing its descriptive validity as well as by addressing its normative aspirations to bridge corporate finance and strategy.

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Real Options Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1427-0

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2007

Ilya R.P. Cuypers and Xavier Martin

We provide a comprehensive synthesis and extension of the real option (RO) literature on joint ventures (JVs), contributing in three main areas. First, we examine major…

Abstract

We provide a comprehensive synthesis and extension of the real option (RO) literature on joint ventures (JVs), contributing in three main areas. First, we examine major alternative theoretical perspectives on JVs – learning, bargaining, transaction cost and agency theory – to elaborate how they complement or contradict RO predictions. Second, we compare arguments and variables used to explain different JV stages – initial RO explicitness and equity shares, JV stability, and performance consequences – and highlight research opportunities. Third, we discuss and extend research about behavioral aspects of making RO (JV) investments. Overall, we offer new predictions and suggestions for a better integration within the RO literature, and between RO and related literatures on JVs.

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Real Options Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1427-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2007

Abstract

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Real Options Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1427-0

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2007

Jing Li

The application of real options theory to international strategy has surged in recent years. However, it is still a relatively new and loosely defined field, and there are…

Abstract

The application of real options theory to international strategy has surged in recent years. However, it is still a relatively new and loosely defined field, and there are several constraints on practical applications of this powerful theory. To move forward this field, the paper first provides a systematic analysis of theoretical and empirical contributions of real options theory to three critical issues in international strategy: (1) valuing multinational networks, (2) assessing market entry modes, and (3) evaluating market entry timing. The paper further suggests that future studies can focus on a refined treatment of uncertainty and the development of a dynamic theory in international strategy. Five testable propositions are developed in these directions.

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Real Options Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1427-0

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2007

Raffaele Oriani

The valuation of innovation investments still poses several unresolved questions. Although some authors have analyzed these problems within a framework based on real…

Abstract

The valuation of innovation investments still poses several unresolved questions. Although some authors have analyzed these problems within a framework based on real options theory, their work has not explicitly tested the value of specific real options. The model of firm market value presented in this paper formally includes a technology switching option, which allows a firm to exchange an existing technology with a new technology. We test the model on a panel of publicly traded British firms operating in different manufacturing industries. The results provide support to the claim that the stock market recognizes and evaluates a technology switching option.

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Real Options Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1427-0

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2007

Yong Li, Barclay E. James, Ravi Madhavan and Joseph T. Mahoney

We discuss recent developments in real options theory and its applications to strategic management research, examine the potential difficulties in implementing real…

Abstract

We discuss recent developments in real options theory and its applications to strategic management research, examine the potential difficulties in implementing real options in theory and practice, and propose several areas for future research. Our review shows that real options theory has provided substantial insights into investment and exit decisions as well as into the choice of investment modes. In addition, extant research studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of whether and how organizations can benefit from real options. Future research that addresses difficulties in applications will further advance both real options theory and practice in strategic management. We call for future generations of research to enhance the impact of real options as an emerging dominant conceptual lens in strategic management.

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Real Options Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1427-0

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2007

Ron Adner

This article considers real options approaches through the lens of firm's resource reallocation processes. It explores some potential drivers and consequences of…

Abstract

This article considers real options approaches through the lens of firm's resource reallocation processes. It explores some potential drivers and consequences of mismatches between initial resource allocation logics and subsequent reallocation realities, highlighting a process of rational escalation in the presence of sunk costs. It also presents a new perspective on the traditional stage-gate process, and considers some recent empirical evidence on the efficiency of resource reallocation processes in organizations.

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Real Options Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1427-0

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2007

Atul Nerkar, Srikanth Paruchuri and Mukti Khaire

This paper proposes that patents are real options that allow holders of patents the right but not the obligation to sue others. We suggest that the likelihood of a patent…

Abstract

This paper proposes that patents are real options that allow holders of patents the right but not the obligation to sue others. We suggest that the likelihood of a patent being litigated is positively associated with value of the patent and the extent of disclosure (prior art cited) in the patent. However, under conditions of greater value, increases in disclosure reduce the likelihood of litigation of the focal patent. Similarly, under conditions of greater disclosure, increases in value reduce the likelihood of litigation of the focal patent. Rare events logit analyses of business method patents that were litigated, compared to patents that were not litigated, offer empirical evidence supporting the hypotheses.

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Real Options Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1427-0

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2007

Todd M. Alessandri, Diane M. Lander and Richard A. Bettis

Strategy is ultimately aimed at creating shareholder value. We examine the relationship among intrinsic (DCF) value, market value, and the value of growth options using a…

Abstract

Strategy is ultimately aimed at creating shareholder value. We examine the relationship among intrinsic (DCF) value, market value, and the value of growth options using a “perfect foresight” model. Our findings suggest that Kester's (1984) initial assessment of growth option values may not hold under alternative valuation models. We highlight important issues in the valuation of growth options related to market expectations, modeling assumptions and estimation methods. The findings suggest that the firm's growth option value depends on three factors, each of which impacts investor expectations: (1) the macroeconomic environment; (2) the industry in which the firm participates; and (3) firm specific factors.

Details

Real Options Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1427-0

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