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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Tony Manning and Bob Robertson

The purpose of this three-part paper is to point out that while there is an extensive body of theory and research on leadership, less attention has been given to other…

1020

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this three-part paper is to point out that while there is an extensive body of theory and research on leadership, less attention has been given to other roles, particularly follower roles. The authors outlined a three factor model of leadership and suggested it could be applied to followership. In the second part of the paper, the authors present empirical evidence on the three factor model of leadership and its application to the full range of team roles, including follower, co-worker and leader roles. In the third part of the paper the authors present and discuss further evidence specifically on follower behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

In this part of the paper, the authors present evidence on the internal reliability and external validity of three self-assessment instruments, two on leadership behaviour and one on team role behaviours. Evidence is provided from a diverse group of managers, mainly in the UK public sector. Individuals completed a variety of self-assessment instruments and, in some cases, had 360 degree assessments completed on them, and provided evidence on contextual variables. The methodology involves looking at the degree of correlation, and its statistical significance, between variables.

Findings

The three self-assessment instruments, two on leadership and one on team roles, were found to possess satisfactory levels of both internal reliability and external validity, consistent with the three factor model. These findings lent support to the three factor model of leadership, to its extension and application to followership, and to the reliability and validity of the three self-assessment instruments.

Research limitations/implications

Effective organisations need effective followers and effective leaders. Moreover, the skills of the effective leader develop out of and build on those of the effective follower. The research was based mainly on individuals in the public sector in the UK. It would be useful to extend such research to other contexts.

Practical implications

Given that the skills of the effective leader develop out of and build on those of the effective follower, the training of effective followers is seen to underpin that of effective leaders.

Social implications

The finding that the skills of the effective leader develop out of build on those of the effective follower challenges the widely held pre-occupation with leadership, the idea that leadership is qualitatively different from and superior to followership. Thus it challenges the cult of leadership.

Originality/value

This paper is the first published attempt to successfully apply the three factor model of leadership to team roles in general, including follower, co-worker and leader roles. In the third part of this paper, the three factor model is applied specifically to follower roles. Ways of measuring leader and follower roles are developed and used to identify follower behaviours, as well as to make possible the identification of behaviours valued when used by followers, based on 360 degree assessments.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Tony Manning and Bob Robertson

The first part of this paper pointed out that theory and research on followership is less extensive and less well known than that on leadership. It then described a three…

2029

Abstract

Purpose

The first part of this paper pointed out that theory and research on followership is less extensive and less well known than that on leadership. It then described a three factor model of leadership and suggested it could be applied to and was consistent with other work on followership. The second part of the paper presented empirical evidence supporting the three factor model of leadership and justifying its extension and application to the full range of team roles, including follower and co-worker roles, as well as leader roles. This part of the paper looks specifically at follower roles and followership. Research findings are used to develop and describe a three factor model of follower behaviour. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed group of managers, mainly from the UK public sector, completed a variety of self-assessment questionnaires, had 360 degree assessments completed on them, and provided information on their work role and situation. Research looked at the degree of correlation between variables and its statistical significance. This was used to assess the internal reliability and external validity of three factor measures of leader behaviours and team role behaviours. Information on contextual variables was used to measure leader and follower situations and develop leader-follower scales that were used to identify behaviours used by followers. In total, 360 degree assessments were also used to identify behaviours that are most and least valued when used by followers.

Findings

The findings presented in the second part of this paper provided empirical support for the three factor model of leadership and its extension to the full range of team roles. The findings presented in this part of the paper identify behaviours used by individuals in follower roles and behaviours valued when used by individuals in such roles. By combining these two sets of findings, it was possible to produce a three factor model of effective follower behaviour, with each metacategory consisting of five behaviour sets and each set made up of four specific behaviours.

Research limitations/implications

Effective organisations need effective followers and effective leaders. Moreover, the skills of the effective leader develop out of and build on those of the effective follower. Effective leaders and followers use essentially the same skills but use them in different situations, playing different roles. The research was carried out on a diverse sample of managers, drawn mainly from the UK public sector. However, it would be useful to extend the research to other populations.

Practical implications

The findings provide evidence-based descriptions of effective follower behaviours. These have practical implications for leaders and for followers, as well those involved in their training and development. They establish the content of developmental activities for effective followers and indicate how the training and development of followers underpins that of leaders.

Social implications

The findings challenge the widely held pre-occupation with leadership and the associated view that it is qualitatively different from and superior to leadership. In so doing, the three factor model of followership offers a challenge to the cult of leadership.

Originality/value

This is the first published research to present empirical evidence supporting the three factor model of followership. In the research process, scales were developed to assess leader and follower roles and used to identify behaviours used by followers. They were also used in further research identifying behaviours most and least valued when used by followers. The instruments and the associated research were original.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 48 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2017

Tony Manning

The purpose of this paper is to explore why objective setting is often found difficult and consider what to do about it. The paper critically assesses the two main…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore why objective setting is often found difficult and consider what to do about it. The paper critically assesses the two main managerial perspectives on objective setting before summarising evidence-based research on what works. Based on this literature review, the paper develops a contingency model of objective setting. It then describes how to use this model in practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a review of the managerial and evidence-based literature on objective setting to develop a contingency model of objective setting. It describes how this model is operationalised by developing a scale to measure the differences between jobs and the situations they operate in. The model is represented diagramatically. Guidance is given on how to use the model in practice.

Findings

Result-centred and process-centred approaches to objective setting are described and critically assessed. Evidence-based research describing the relationship between objective setting and performance is also presented. In general, clear and specific goals that are challenging but realistic have a moderate effect on performance. However, this only holds for straightforward and predictable tasks. When prior knowledge is needed to perform a task or when the task is complex, a general goal, behavioural goal or learning goal is more effective. Parallels between the managerial perspectives and the contrasting situations form the basis of a contingency model of objective setting.

Research limitations/implications

The relevant theory is described and critically examined. This provides useful descriptions of two different ways to go about setting objectives. The conclusions of recent studies and reviews using evidence-based research are described. They establish both what works and when it works. Taken together, these insights provide a foundation on which to develop a contingency model of objective setting.

Practical implications

There is no one right way to set objectives. Different situations require different approaches. It is possible to assess situations and establish the appropriate combination of perspectives. It is then possible to develop an appropriate set of objectives for the situation. Guidance is given on how to use this approach in practice. The overall approach is rooted in theory and evidence-based research.

Social implications

The application of this model in the workplace can help individuals to perform more effectively. It can also help line managers, learning and development specialists, and human resource professionals to help individuals to perform more effectively. In so doing, the model helps organisations to function more effectively. This has wider implications for the economy and society.

Originality/value

The paper is original in that it brings together both management theory and evidence-based research to develop a contingency model of objective setting. This model as a whole and the method of assessing job characteristics are original.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Tony Manning and Bob Robertson

Examines the connection between influencing and negotiation. Using data collected from self‐assessment instruments developed by them, the authors argue that it is useful…

5048

Abstract

Examines the connection between influencing and negotiation. Using data collected from self‐assessment instruments developed by them, the authors argue that it is useful to see negotiation as one type of influencing. The article is in two parts. This first part concentrates on influencing. It looks at the six strategies that people at work actually use in their attempts to influence others. These strategies are used in combination and this makes it possible to identify four types of influencer or styles of influence. It is stressed that styles of influence are context specific. The findings raise questions about training in these areas and have implications for how this is undertaken. They also raise questions about what constitutes managerial effectiveness in these areas.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2013

Tony Manning

Much popular thinking on leadership assumes that there is some “essence” of effective leadership, that there are “universal” leadership traits and/or behaviours associated

3056

Abstract

Purpose

Much popular thinking on leadership assumes that there is some “essence” of effective leadership, that there are “universal” leadership traits and/or behaviours associated with success in all situations. This article aims to challenge such views, providing evidence showing that 360 degree assessments of different leadership behaviours vary according to the context. This article seeks to present evidence that supports a “contingent” view of leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The research described looks at the degree of correlation, and its statistical significance, between self-assessed leadership behaviour and 360 degree assessments of performance. Evidence is presented showing that results vary in different contexts.

Findings

Statistically significant relationships were found between leadership behaviours and 360 degree outcomes. These relationships varied according to the context, including the individual's seniority, control over resources and line management responsibility, as well as the size of the organisation and rate of organisational change.

Research limitations/implications

The research uses one outcome measure, is based on managers in the UK public sector and explores a limited number of contextual variables. Further research using other outcome measures, based on other populations and considering other contextual variables would be useful. Some of the sub-samples are also quite small and there is a need for further research in small organisations, organisations undergoing limited change and with individuals line managing large numbers of staff. Research using more objective measures of organisational size would also be useful.

Practical implications

The research findings highlight the fact that, in order to be effective, leaders need to tailor their behaviour to the specific situation. Inappropriate behaviour reduces personal effectiveness and, in consequence, organisational effectiveness. Providers of leadership training and development need to be more aware of the “contingent” nature of leadership. This means abandoning “universal” leadership models and prescriptions.

Social implications

This paper has implications for individuals in leadership roles, for individuals providing leadership training and development, and for purchasers of leadership training and development solutions. All need to recognise the “contingent” nature of leadership.

Originality/value

This paper provides an evidence-based challenge to the widely held view that there is some “essence” of leadership, that there are “universal” leadership traits and/or behaviours. While there are some published examples of such “contingency” research into leadership, they are limited in number, and little known and seldom used in the world of training and development.

Abstract

Details

Leaders Assemble! Leadership in the MCU
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-673-6

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Tony Manning and Bob Robertson

This is the second part of a three-part paper exploring the intersection between sex, gender and leadership in the UK Civil Service. The first part of this paper outlined…

Abstract

Purpose

This is the second part of a three-part paper exploring the intersection between sex, gender and leadership in the UK Civil Service. The first part of this paper outlined the training and development activities carried out by the authors, provided a literature review and drew conclusions, in the form of conjectures. The purpose of this paper is to present a series of null hypotheses derived from the conjectures. It then outlines the research methodology and research findings. The final part of this paper discusses the implications of the research findings, presents an evidence-based leadership framework and offers prescriptions for its use.

Design/methodology/approach

Information was collected from a wide cross-section of UK Civil Servants between 1993 and 2013. Individuals were participants on training and development activities carried out by the authors. The information collected was a by-product of these activities. Individuals completed a variety of psychometric instruments, including self-assessments and 360-degree assessments, and provided information on their sex, work role and work situation. Statistical analysis was carried out on differences in the behaviour of male and female managers, differences in how such behaviours were assessed, using 360-degree assessments, and differences in behaviour and assessments of behaviour in different contexts.

Findings

Research evidence presented points to the existence of contrasting gender stereotypes and sex differences in behaviour. It also shows that such differences are small and that there are far greater differences amongst men and women managers than between the average man and women manager. Differences in behaviour and assessments of behaviour were also more strongly linked to context than either sex or gender.

Research limitations/implications

The research was a by-product of training activities. It was not a wide ranging, purpose-built research programme to explain the “glass ceiling”. It was carried out on a particular population and may not generalise to other contexts. Nonetheless, findings are broadly consistent with previous research.

Practical implications

The third part of this paper discusses the implications of these findings, particularly for training and development professionals. It also presents and discusses additional research findings on leadership in the UK Civil Service.

Social implications

The findings are relevant to the understanding of sex and gender differences in the work place. They relate to wider considerations of equality of opportunity and diversity.

Originality/value

There is an extensive body of theory and research on sex, gender and leadership, although little is directly relevant to the UK Civil Service. This is new research, relevant to this context, that brings together these three themes.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2009

Tony Manning, Graham Pogson and Zoe Morrison

The paper aims to present and discuss research into the relationship between influencing behaviour and impact, including gender and seniority differences.

4011

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present and discuss research into the relationship between influencing behaviour and impact, including gender and seniority differences.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds on previous articles considering influencing behaviour in the workplace. These articles present a model of interpersonal influence and describe how individual influencing behaviour varies in different contexts. They identified the need for further investigation into the effectiveness of such behaviours in those contexts. This research utilises 360‐degree performance assessments as an indicator of the “effectiveness” or impact of workplace influencing behaviours.

Findings

The findings extend previous work supporting the idea that there are few, if any, influencing behaviours that apply to all situations and highlight the role of expectancies in work place assessments of influencing behaviours.

Research limitations/implications

The research highlights ways in which the relationship between influencing behaviour and impact differ according to both the gender and seniority of those seeking to influence. This indicates that the “expectancies” of the influence or target affect perceptions of influencing behaviour and assessments of impact. This is consistent with the model of interpersonal influence previously developed, which includes explicit reference to feedback loops between behaviour, responses and expectancies. This raises further questions as to the impact of expectancies on 360‐degree assessment, and the nature and fairness of assessment within organisational performance management systems.

Originality/value

This paper challenges the idea that there are influencing strategies and styles that are effective, irrespective of context. It also highlights the role of expectancies within behavioural assessments in the workplace.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 May 2008

Jordan L. LeBel and Nathalie Cooke

The purpose of this research is to examine the nature of consumers' relationships with branded spokescharacters by drawing upon brand personality theory and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to examine the nature of consumers' relationships with branded spokescharacters by drawing upon brand personality theory and reader‐response theory, focusing specifically on food trade characters. We aim to show that the persuasive power of these characters resides not only in their appearance, but also in the complex narratives consumers project (sometimes unwittingly) onto the spokescharacter.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports the results of a survey – blending quantitative and qualitative methodologies – designed to document consumer perceptions, affective responses and spontaneous associations to different characters (i.e. Aunt Jemima, Robin Hood, Betty Crocker, Uncle Ben, Poppin' Fresh the Pillsbury's Doughboy, and M. Felix and Mr Norton, characters created by a Montreal‐based cookie company).

Findings

The results revealed that consumers associate spokescharacters with distinct personality profiles. Also, a connection was found between spokescharacters and narrative: a relationship where the characters become part of a larger narrative paradigm and more importantly, a relationship where the consumer is cast in a specific role vis‐à‐vis the spokescharacter.

Practical implications

These results should invite brand managers to stay current with the variety of associations that consumers form and how these associations influence the perception of their brand's personality. The results further underscore the need to understand the role into which consumers are cast vis‐à‐vis a branded character. Future research should examine cross cultural differences in the perception and narratives of branded characters, especially since many multinational companies use branded characters across cultural divides.

Originality/value

The paper shows how consumers play an active role in rendering a spokescharacter likeable, credible, and even memorable and documents the narratives that engage consumers and are both constructed collaboratively with them and propagated by them.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Tony Manning and Bob Robertson

This is the first of a three-part paper exploring the intersection between sex, gender and leadership in the UK Civil Service. The purpose of this paper is to introduce…

Abstract

Purpose

This is the first of a three-part paper exploring the intersection between sex, gender and leadership in the UK Civil Service. The purpose of this paper is to introduce research by the authors into differences in the behaviour of men and women managers in the UK Civil Service, differences in 360 degree assessments of these behaviours and variations in the behaviours and assessments in different organisational contexts. This part of the paper sets the scene, and provides a literature review and a series of conjectures, derived from this review.

Design/methodology/approach

This part of the paper outlines the training and development activities carried out by the authors and explains the target populations, the context in which managers operated and the part played by psychometric assessments in such activities. It then provides a literature review on the intersection of sex, gender and leadership. This looks at: the glass ceiling; leader preferences; gender stereotypes; gender stereotypes and leaders; attitudes towards women as leaders; leadership theories and gender stereotypes; sex differences in psychological traits; sex differences in leader behaviour and effectiveness. Finally, it presents a series of conjectures, derived from the literature review.

Findings

The literature review shows that the playing field that constitutes managerial ranks continues to be tilted in favour of men and behaviours associated with the male stereotype, despite what leadership theories and field evidence would suggest.

Research limitations/implications

The research was also a by-product of the authors’ training and development work, not a purpose-built research programme to explain the “glass ceiling”. It relates to the UK Civil Service and may not be relevant in other contexts.

Practical implications

Later parts of the paper present prescriptions for minimising the impact of gender stereotypes, along with an evidence-based leadership framework. Training and development implications are presented. Findings are relevant to leaders, would be leaders and human resource professionals, including training and development specialists.

Social implications

The vast majority of top leadership positions across the world are held by males rather than females. This prevents women from moving up the corporate ladder. This literature review describes the “glass ceiling” and explores what lies behind it.

Originality/value

Research on sex differences in behaviour, gender stereotypes and situational differences in both, in the UK Civil Service, are all original. Of particular importance is the new evidence-based framework of leadership competences.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000