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Local shopping is a topic that has been neglected for many years by both retail researchers and policy makers. However, in recent years it has come on to the agenda again…
Local shopping is a topic that has been neglected for many years by both retail researchers and policy makers. However, in recent years it has come on to the agenda again, mainly because a number of government policy areas – including social exclusion, regeneration and sector competitiveness – have recognised the vital community role played by small shops, and the problems of maintaining their vitality and viability. Within that context, introduces the special issue of IJRDM which presents a number of papers on the general theme of retailing for communities that were given at the CIRM Conference held in Manchester on 13 September 2002. They fall into three main groups: local shopping areas; business strategy and operations; and, learning, training and support for small retailers. The papers illustrate the diversity of research that needs to be undertaken in this area, and there are close parallels with work being undertaken in other management and social science disciplines.
Reports on a qualitative approach to conducting research in small firms. Two cases are reported that fall within the EU definition of small firms (with fewer than 99…
Reports on a qualitative approach to conducting research in small firms. Two cases are reported that fall within the EU definition of small firms (with fewer than 99 employees). One case is drawn from the clothing industry and one other from the publishing industry. The clothing company had fewer than 50 employees and the publishing company had fewer than ten employees, the latter being regarded as a micro‐firm. The purpose of the research was to investigate decisions taken by owner‐managers in relation to their future strategies. Consideration is given to alternative methodological approaches before justifying the selection of a combination of focus group interviews and cognitive mapping in each of the cases. Comparisons are drawn that demonstrate the utility of the research methods chosen. The work then identifies issues and considers implications for the conduct of future research into SMEs using these methods. The purpose of the paper is to explain and to evaluate the usefulness of the methods rather than to explain the particular cases in detail.
This paper provides a statistical summary of trends and competitive structures within the European Union (EU), concerning employment, trade policy, production, imports…
This paper provides a statistical summary of trends and competitive structures within the European Union (EU), concerning employment, trade policy, production, imports, exports, retail structures, consumer expenditure and labour costs aross the Member States.
The UK regime for financial reporting and auditing was radically altered in 1990 and 1991 by two separate developments. When removing sole responsibility for setting…
The UK regime for financial reporting and auditing was radically altered in 1990 and 1991 by two separate developments. When removing sole responsibility for setting accounting standards from the accounting profession, the opportunity was taken to establish a monitoring body, the Financial Reporting Review Panel (FRRP), to oversee compliance with company law and accounting standards, and with powers to apply to the courts for rectification. In addition, a new regulatory system for auditors was set up. This paper considers the problems arising between the regulatory responsibilities of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW) and FRRP. In 50 cases (up to September 1999) FRRP found defects in accounts, 49 of which were audited by firms regulated by ICAEW, but no disciplinary action was taken by ICAEW until 1999. The way in which the new audit regulations were grafted onto the existing ICAEW disciplinary regime is considered, and the anomalies arising from that explored. The cases resulting in ICAEW's disciplinary action are compared with the other cases together with some evidence from finance directors and audit partners with experience of dealing both with FRRP and an ICAEW disciplinary investigation. The relevant theories relating to professional bodies and regulation are also reviewed. Finally, the authors review the problems identified in this study and make suggestions as to how they may be addressed.
As part of a deregulation initiative for small businesses, the audit exemption limit was raised to £1m by the Audit Exemption (Amendment) Regulations 2000 in May 2000…
As part of a deregulation initiative for small businesses, the audit exemption limit was raised to £1m by the Audit Exemption (Amendment) Regulations 2000 in May 2000. This paper examines the possible consequences of this change on the supply of registered auditors' services and the subsequent impact this may have on a range of business entities, other than small private companies, which use registered auditors for various purposes.
The Financial Reporting Review Panel (‘the Panel’) was set up in 1991 as part of the new regime under the Financial Reporting Council, with the objective of improving the…
The Financial Reporting Review Panel (‘the Panel’) was set up in 1991 as part of the new regime under the Financial Reporting Council, with the objective of improving the quality of financial reporting in the UK. Arguably, the Panel was the most radical innovation since it was concerned with the previously not addressed issue of the enforcement of financial reporting regulations. However, it has no direct powers of enforcement and is funded at a level at which it can only react to complaints about company accounts rather than seek out problems. While the Panel has been granted powers to take companies to court with a view to compelling them to revise their accounts, these powers have not been exercised. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that its existence encourages companies to be more scrupulous about compliance with accounting standards and relevant company law before publishing their annual reports. Explanations for compliance include the possibility that adverse findings by the Panel result in economic damage or loss of reputation to the company or its management. This paper investigates a key aspect of possible economic damage: that press notices issued by the Panel about individual cases have an adverse effect on the share price of the company concerned. A share price event study was carried out on 33 companies that, since the inception of the Panel, had been the subject of press notices. We have found no evidence of an adverse share price reactions following the publication of press notices. Improvements in compliance may be attributable to other reasons, one possibility being the belief by management that an adverse finding will affect the share price.
The paper seeks to examine the role of corporate identity in UK clothing retail organisations, focusing on the “fast fashion” sector. The aim is to analyse the “gap”…
The paper seeks to examine the role of corporate identity in UK clothing retail organisations, focusing on the “fast fashion” sector. The aim is to analyse the “gap” between desired identity and perceived identity within the sector.
An instrumental case study approach was adopted for this research. Companies' web sites and press releases were reviewed to find out the desired identity of organisations, while semi‐structured interviews were carried out with customers to elicit the perceived corporate identity. Themes developed from the cases will form the basis of further research.
This study has shown that although there are similarities, considerable “gaps” are present between the desired and perceived corporate identity of organisations, the latter being more important in understanding the research questions addressed which relate to corporate identity and the gap between desired and perceived identities. A number of propositions have emerged from the findings, which when investigated empirically will be useful for forming corporate identity constructs in the fashion retail sector.
This research provides some useful insights into the role of corporate identity within the fast fashion retail sector; however, it is not sufficient to make generalisable claims outside the cases examined. Further research is required to test some of the conceptual issues and propositions raised by this work.
The paper gives practitioners better insights into the gap between desired and perceived identity with a view to improving strategic interventions to close the gap.
The research makes a contribution to retail identity literature by emphasising the importance of perceived identity. The work is unique in being the first research to explore further the relationship between desired and perceived identity from a fashion retailing perspective. As a consequence the strategic implications from this work for desired identity are highlighted.
The purpose is: first to review the marketing segmentation literature and its antecedents; second, to evaluate the organizational practice of marketing segmentation in a…
The purpose is: first to review the marketing segmentation literature and its antecedents; second, to evaluate the organizational practice of marketing segmentation in a specific commercial context noted for its dynamism and complexity, fashion retailing; third, to assess theoretical and practical implications; and finally to identify an agenda for future research.
Through the analysis of an instrumental case study examining practice in fashion retailing this paper makes a contribution to current market segmentation debates. Sensemaking properties are used as a disciplined structure in which to report the case and make sense of segmentation.
This research demonstrates that the definition and scope of market segmentation is broader than the current marketing literature suggests. In practice, based on evidence from this research, contemporary segmentation solutions include implicit assumptions, judgement and compressed experience, which are latent within the modelling processes.
Further research needs to be extended to different organizational settings in order to develop further our understanding of the tacit and intuitive aspects of segmentation decisions.
Intuitive decision‐making processes and tacit knowledge employed in them are difficult to replicate and make explicit. However, a better understanding of these intuitive processes would offer practitioners an opportunity to systematically improve the quality of decision‐making.
This research broadens normative theoretical perspectives on market segmentation by highlighting intuitive and tacit dimensions. Combining sensemaking within the case study analysis has helped structure thought trials to provide a rare qualitative insight into the managerial construction of segmentation.
The Financial Reporting Review Panel (FRRP) was an innovation in the UK as it was responsible for the previously little considered issue of ensuring compliance with…
The Financial Reporting Review Panel (FRRP) was an innovation in the UK as it was responsible for the previously little considered issue of ensuring compliance with financial reporting regulations. This paper draws on institutional theory to compare the stated aims, objectives and operating procedures of the FRRP with the practical experiences of those who have had discussions with them, and evidence of the wider impact of their work. The aim is to provide a richer understanding of the way in which this relatively new institution achieves its objectives, and to determine whether it has engaged in “myth making” in order to establish and maintain its legitimacy. The original objectives of the FRRP are explored in this paper, as well as subsequent public pronouncements on its aims, procedures, and achievements. Discussions with key members of the FRRP have enabled further clarification of some of the issues. The perceptions of those with experience of dealing with the FRRP were gained by a series of semi‐structured interviews. Interviews were carried out with company directors and audit firm partners who had direct experience of the FRRP. The analysis draws out themes related to the investigation process and final outcomes of this process. The paper concludes that there is some evidence that the FRRP has engaged in “myth building”. For example, it was considered that cases the FRRP chose to pursue tended to involve rather less serious issues than their public statements might suggest. Also they have considerable operational discretion and this appears to be exercised in a rather unpredictable way without explanation. Overall, however, the evidence suggests that the FRRP is an effective regulator.